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Figure 12. Axial stress - axial strain curve relative to wall 3W4 (combined strengthened wall).

Figure 13. Combined strengthened wall: evolution of the k parameter with regard to the axial stress.

Figure 14. ened wall)

Crack pattern of wall 3W4 (combined strength-

Figure 14. ened wall)

Crack pattern of wall 3W4 (combined strength-

Figure 12. Axial stress - axial strain curve relative to wall 3W4 (combined strengthened wall).

the full external leaf detachment from happen, but it allowed partial detachments.

4.4 Combined strengthening technique

Aiming at assessing the combined use ofthe two previous techniques, one wall was simultaneously injected and strengthened with transversal GFRP ties. Table 5 summarizes the obtained results. It must be noted that the number of tested specimens is insufficient to validate the comments provided herein.

On average terms, the compressive strength reached is close to the value obtained for the injected walls and slightly higher than the value obtained for the tied walls.

Figure 12 shows the axial stress - axial strain curve of the 3W4 wall. This figure allows to identify smooth and continuous stiffness degradation. This feature is further confirmed by Figure 13, where the evolution of the leaves' opening (k parameter) with stress level is represented. These results seem to indicate that the simultaneous use of both strengthening techniques is beneficial in the sense that a better global structural behaviour was reached, namely in terms of stiffness degradation and control of the out-of-plane movement of the external leaves.

Figure 14 illustrates the crack pattern of wall 3W4 observed near collapse. Visible cracks are mainly vertical, which may go trough some stones, with a diffuse crack pattern distribution. The wall failure was due to localized stone instability located in the edge of the wall, far from the relatively localized effect of the tie bars. During the wall dismounting huge vertical cracks crossing the entire inner leaf were observed.

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