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0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 Displacement [m]

-»-irnstrenglhenecl fully bonded -*-Unstreng(hene<l ring separated — Archtec test 1 —Archtec lesl 2

0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 Displacement [m]

-»-irnstrenglhenecl fully bonded -*-Unstreng(hene<l ring separated — Archtec test 1 —Archtec lesl 2

Figure 9. Comparison of strengthened and unstrengthened test results.

6.2 Observations relating to serviceability

No clear definition of serviceability exists for masonry arches. Deflections and cracking behaviour is normally used to define a serviceability limit state. However, in arches these quantities are generally small and very difficult to detect under expected service loads and they cannot be calculated by conventional structural analysis. However, results from monotonic and cyclic load tests have been used to derive masonry stress limits in terms of a limiting factor of the ultimate capacity below which permanent damage does not occur from repeated loading.

Based on work done by TRL in the 1980's, the Highways Agency assessment standards for arches are based on serviceability being maintained provided applied loads do not exceed half the ultimate capacity.

Cyclic loading on bridge piers has been investigated by British Rail Research and some progress made in linking fatigue of brickwork with a serviceability limit state. It was concluded that, for dry brickwork, if applied loads do not exceed half the ultimate capacity an infinite number of load cycles could be sustained. However, for saturated brickwork lower load levels are required.

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