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Figure 10. Injected walls: evolution of the k parameter with regard to the axial stress.

as found out during the dismantling of the wall performed after testing. This resulted in a premature and unexpected local detachment of the external leaves, with direct consequences in the compressive strength.

The crack pattern for a near-collapse condition is showed in Figure 11 (wall 3W3), being composed mainly by vertical cracks, despite some horizontal cracks started to appear, indicating the incipient onset of an out-of-plane mechanism, which in these walls never reached the development achieved by the unstrengthened walls.

The injection technique caused a more diffuse crack distribution when compared with the crack pattern from the previous walls, leading also to the development of important cracks in the inner leaf, detected during dismantling.

Failure of the injected walls was due to localized stone cracking and instability, followed by the detachment of stones. The injection technique prevented

Figure 11. Crack pattern of injected wall 3W3.
Table 5. Summary of the results of the wall subjected to injection and transversal tying.

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