The scientific and technological approach aims at identifying characteristic parameters for flood and flood related hazards, which have an impact on movable and immovable Cultural Heritage depending on their vulnerability (compare Fig. 3 and 4). The understanding of damage processes in materials and structures by using environmental technologies will provide the basis for evaluation and further developing strategies for preventing, mitigating and repairing damages at Cultural Heritage related to the objectives and policies of the European Community. It is planned to implement a project with a clear multidisciplinary approach as an obvious reaction upon the requirements described in task 4 of the above-mentioned call.
The research will be carried out through eight work packages. These work packages and their interaction will provide a clear progress beyond the current state of the art:
• WP1: Identification of typical environmental hazards related to flood and being decisive to Cultural Heritage. Here, flood mechanisms and hydrology will be one important aspect. Movable and immovable Cultural Heritage will be classified according to its sensitivity. This is going to be investigated in the first of the work packages and serves mainly as an input for the measures, strategies and methods, which are worked on in detail in the subsequent
work packages. This part of the project will also provide an overview about existing plans for protection of Cultural Heritage objects and will examine the experiences (historic and recent) made during floods especially in Europe. The threat posed at Cultural Heritage by flooding is quantified in this subtask, based on the analysis of existing literature and archived documents. The selection of the best-suited technical investigation tools is also addressed, with reference to the hydraulic and hydro-logic models available and their interpretation in view of Cultural Heritage vulnerability assessment.
The work of WP 1 will be carried out by the institutions ITAM, CRUIE and IDK1. • WP2: Damage analysis of different materials and movable Cultural Heritage, their properties and their interaction with moisture, salt, pollution and other phenomena related to flooding catastrophes. In this context a survey of possible flood-related damage, a validation of non-destructive and minor-destructive methods for damage detection and quantification, a classification of damage and the definition of damage threshold will be given. The direct contact of water and contaminants occurring during the flood as well as the modified environmental conditions after the flood leads to various damages and/or contaminations of soil, building materials and movable heritage objects. These damages and modifications strongly depend on the flood and environmental parameters (duration of flood, height of water, flow rate, contaminations, temperature, etc), on the type
1 The abbreviation and full names of the involved institutions will be explained in the next section.
of material (brick, stone, metal, wood, paper, textile, etc), on the material parameters (porosity, grain size, density, etc) and the structure and conditions of the objects. Therefore, the damages are manifold and gained knowledge from recent floods and a damage classification is urgently required.
The work of WP 2 will be carried out by the institutions BAM, TUD and ISML. WP3: Classification of damage on historic structures and sites including buildings, infrastructure (e.g. bridges) and cities for understanding the mechanisms of damage. Static and dynamic loading, moisture and salt transport, contamination and erosion problems will be considered as well as the vulnerability of whole structures and sites. Investigations will be based on previous experience, new and existing data recorded from on-site investigations, monitoring and laboratory tests and numerical simulations. Existing databases and past experience will be analysed and damages as they belong to types of buildings or structures and to sites will be summarized related to different materials. A damage catalogue containing exposure data and applicability tips for remedial works will be created. Damage as well as protective measures will be analysed in order to identify the most urgent problems for further more detailed studies. Previously defined vulnerability indicators will be validated (element-at-risk, susceptibility and exposure). A cooperation with the User Group will be mobilised and exploited.
The work of WP 3 will be carried out by the institutions ITAM, POLIMI and IDK. WP4: According to the long term experience the best preventive measure for movable heritage objects is their replacement from endangered localities to safe storage. Such a simple procedure failed in many recent cases and this sub-task is suggested to analyse the reasons and to prepare more robust and reliable approaches. Therefore, its main focus will be not only on administrative measures but it will involve also technical measures as well as critical evaluation of methods and possible needed improvements. Preventive measures for immovable heritage are designed according to the classification of individual objects at risk. Conventionally, both "structural" and "non-structural" interventions are addressed in flood protection related issues; the latter ones include both macro-structural interventions, when involving interventions along the river network, and micro-structural ones, when limited to the passive protection of the resources located on the flood prone territory. The management of objects and sites is usually ensured by different subjects and also the measures and their impacts may differ quite substantially. Therefore, the objects are treated separately from site to site. Temporary emergency measures prepared before the flood and their effectiveness will be studied considering technical measures. This will encompass temporary barriers as well as construction measures for stabilization of the whole building or strengthening of structures based on knowledge of building condition and probable exposure parameters. For restoration and repair, post-flooding short term techniques (drying and dehumidification, reducing temperature, after flood care etc.) as well as long term techniques (pollution removal, salt removal, desalination etc.) for repair of damage of historic building materials, which require a very distinct and careful treatment (paintings, frescoes, original building materials) shall be collected and critically analyzed. To correctly perform a restoration activity after catastrophic events, it is highly recommended to execute a careful diagnosis on the damaged works of art.
The work of WP 4 will be carried out by the institutions ITAM and ZAG.
• WP5: Assessment of running and new case studies on different objects concerning infrastructure, buildings, parks, cities. Two to three cases will be studied in detail concerning a multitude of aspects like a small castle surrounded by a park and containing a museum. Full-scale models in the shape of small buildings will be also used as intermediate case between laboratory and real buildings. It will be studied how historic floods occurred and have geographically spread. Former concepts and methods used to restore the affected case studies are going to be evaluated. An analysis of previous and running case studies carried out in similar projects will be part of this work package in order to get a wider base for the development of recommendations and guidelines.
The work of WP 5 will be carried out by the institutions ECOLA ND, ZAG, ITAM, IDK, CRUIE and POLIMI.
• WP6: Development of guidelines and recommendations for the strategies concerning the assessment of vulnerability of Cultural Heritage against flood, the prevention and mitigation of damage, the emergency and the medium and the establishment of long term post-flooding action plans is the main subject of this work package. The collected damages (damage catalogue) as well as the case studies will be included in existing data bases. A development of strategies for the protection and conservation of buildings, historic areas, movable Cultural Heritage objects which bear the risk of flooding is taking place in close collaboration with the end-users. Meetings during the project will serve as knowledge exchange between consortium members and end-users. Towards the end of the project, an open workshop will be organised.
The work of WP 6 will be carried out by the institutions ITAM, CRUIE and IDK.
• WP7: The work in the project has to be framed within a strict project management. This work package includes the administrative and the technical coordination of the project. The coordinator is supported by the WP-Leaders, who take on the responsibility for the technical supervision in their work packages.
• WP8: The planning of dissemination activities will be carried out during the project under the leadership of the Exploitation Manager with involvement of WP-Leaders and User Group members. This task includes the dissemination of non confidential information about the project objectives and work plan, coming events (seminars), published papers, demonstration actions, training courses, lectures at universities and especially the dissemination of the final practical recommendations.
The work of WP 8 will be carried out by the institutions ITAM, BAM and IDK
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