Meditation Mastery Secrets

Meditation Mastery Secrets

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My Meditation Mastery Secrets Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of Meditation Mastery Secrets can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

The Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason, was significant to the history of the conservation of cultural heritage in that it introduced cultural paradigms, and formulated concepts which effectively founded the modern conservation movement. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (1714-62) introduced the discipline and the word 'aesthetics' into German philosophy, and influenced the ideas of Lessing, Kant and Hegel. An even more fundamental issue in this period was the new concept of history, advanced by Vico in Italy and Herder in Germany, as has been noted in the first chapter. Winckelmann was another who contributed to this development by a critical examination of ancient works of art, objects and monuments, whereby he founded modern archaeology, modern art history, and the methods of verification of facts from the original. As a result, he made a distinction between original and copy - which became fundamental to later restoration policies. In the field of painting, a similar approach...

Letting go

Letting go and staying out of the way is the most important thing you can do during the construction process. Meddling, interfering or in any manner getting in the way of the contractor's progress will quite simply cost the community money. The simplest and most difficult part of letting go is staying off the job site. There are obvious reasons to stay off the job site, including safety. But there will be a temptation to make sure the contractor is doing a good job. There will also be a natural desire to watch the progress, or even to help. Control your urges if you can and stay out of the way. Trust your professionals to monitor quality of construction as well as conformance with the approved plans. In the end you are not required to accept your unit unless it is clean, new and built as designed.

Classical Period 17501825

The eighteenth century in Europe was a cosmopolitan time when enlightened despots (often foreign born) were on the throne in many countries, and an intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment held that knowledge should evolve from careful observation and reason. The French philsophes, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Voltaire reacted to the social conditions they saw and sought to establish universal rights of man. In both the visual and performing arts, there was a classic revival, a return to the spirit of ancient Greece and Rome. The paintings of Jacques Louis David, such as the Oath of the Horatii (1770), harkened back to Republican Rome and the virtues of nobility, simplicity, and perfection of form. The excavations of Pompeii and Herculeum had created public interest in the history of this earlier era and, with the American Revolution in 1776 and the French revolution in 1789, the interest took on political overtones.

MoBiLiTy And ArohiteotuRE A BRiEF ouTLiNE

The significantly higher level of mobility that characterizes modernity in comparison with premodern times is the effect of a broad epistemological shift that resulted from a synergy among new technologies, notions of natural space, and political ideas of democracy characteristic of the Enlightenment. Mobility was crucial to the rise and expansion of European hegemony that reversed a world economic system spanning Eurasia, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Africa, and which had peaked during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.8 Nevertheless, the valorization of the notion of mobility-as-progress that was at the core of the Enlightenment narrative was soon transferred to various contexts beyond Europe.

Virtual Reconstruction

The majority of the monastery disappeared after the extinction of the religious orders in the Age of Enlightenment without letting any vestige. A 3D CAD model of the virtual reconstruction of the medieval monastery of Santa Maria de Salzedas was made in order to allow visitors to better understand the monument and to assist the conservation works.

Challenging the paradigm

In each period of history we can discern overarching qualities these are never formulaic and often contradictory. Intellectual, political, economic and social trends are etched with the characteristic spirit of their era. We can say 'modern times' are characterized by an unwavering belief in a particular, progressive view of science on its inexorable journey to the truth, and a faith in technology. Yet the 'rationality' of technology is being called into question and critiques of this approach are escalating in number. (As an example, what is rational about creating global warming and its consequences ) Post-modernism rejects the grand unifying narratives associated with the modern period that try to explain everything. The relative, multiple, culturally determined truths it upholds destabilize the position of the many who want a single answer, so unsurprisingly the truths of the Gods are back. They provide certainty and anchoring. But both the modern and the post-modern exacerbate...

Rediscovery of antiquities

The contrast between the literary memory and artistic remains of the past grandeur of Rome, the state of the fallen walls and the ruined temples and palaces, filled Francesco Petrarch with deep sorrow and moved him to tears during his visit to Rome in 1337. While Christian thinkers before him had seen history as continuous from the Creation to their own time, Petrarch distinguished between the classical world, historiae antiquae, and the recent historiae novae. He felt cut off from the ancient world and could thus see it as a totality, 'an ideal to be longed for, instead of a reality to be both utilized and feared', as it had been in the Middle Ages (Panofsky, 1970 113). Meditating on the glorious history, both pagan and Christian, of Rome, and looking at its remains, the sacrosancta vetustas, induced in him a nostalgia for what had gone. In his writings, he introduced this new concept, the lament for Rome, Deploratio urbis, with sentiments that already pointed towards Romanticism. At...

From On Architecture Book 4 c25 bc

No book reveals the Roman'' character of De architectura better than Book 4, the Preface to which forms this dedication to the Emperor Augustus Caesar. Vitruvius, in his ambition to write a ''complete and orderly form of presentation,'' obviously felt he was setting a historical precedent. Even more enchanting to later generations is his often-repeated discussion of the origin of the three architectural orders the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. These stories are sometimes said to compose the ''mythology'' of architecture, fables that were eventually discredited by the rational forces of the Western Enlightenment, but once again they demonstrate the anthropomorphic basis of Vitruvian theory. One sentence within this passage that should not be overlooked is his admission that the proportions for both the Doric and Ionic columns changed after some ''progress in refinement and delicacy of feeling.'' Renaissance humanists, operating from a very different aesthetic basis, regarded this

The Architectureasan ArtObject Paradigm 14001945

The category fine art played a fundamental role in this process of colonization. While it presumed to transcend social life, it proliferated as a commodity that manifested and augmented social power. By simultaneously masking and perpetuating relationships of power, art has always acted ideologically, paradoxically doing this by repudiating the ideological function itself and laying claim to being a transcendent autonomous practice. Until the Enlightenment, art, science, ethics, and politics had existed as an undifferentiated whole, structured around social traditions. One became what one was born to become. With the Enlightenment, each sphere of the social enterprise was split off and became an autonomous practice. Scientific knowledge (facts) was separated from ethical and aesthetic values, while art became a transcendent practice separated from politics and material-ism-in the process providing the perfect vehicle for the aristocratic class to consolidate its power.i i But the...

Find a developer to be your partner

Another way to maintain some control while letting go of some of the risk is to find a developer to be your partner. Partnering with a developer has its positives and negatives. Certainly developers will want some compensation for spending their money and taking a risk, but they will also require some control, which means that the group will have to give up some control. The positive side of the equation is that your group will not have to come up with all the cash required, you won't be taking all the risk, and most importantly you will have a partner who knows what he or she is doing and can therefore get construction financing.

From Philosophic Letters on the English 1733

F France possesses one godfather of the Enlightenment, it is surely the contentious yet prodigious spirit of Voltaire. A virtual lifetime lived in exile - Voltaire was at home in the salons of kings, queens, and princes, against whom he often could not resist turning his satirical pen. He was a strong supporter of Diderot's encyclopedia project, and when things looked darkest he pleaded with Diderot to bring the project to Potsdam, where Voltaire was enjoying the hospitality of Frederick the Great. In addition to his comedies and other literary works, Voltaire was a prolific historian, and in fact deserves to be named among the Enlightenment's major historians.

From Notes for a projected treatise on architecture 1740s

One of the characteristics of the Enlightenment was a rationalist willingness to question authority, and in architecture this would mean questioning of the relevance of the teachings of Vitruvius. One of the first individuals to do so was the Franciscian friar Carlo Lodoli. Born in Venice, Lodoli studied in Dalmatia and Rome before moving to Verona in 1715, where he participated in a society of antiquarians well versed in areas of classical learning. Lodoli was a progressive in the sense that he was an admirer of Voltaire, Montesquieu, and

Not a Home But an Adventure

The question of the multiplicity of languages cannot but be present for someone who has studied so deeply the moment of finis Austriae,89 the end of Austria, of the Habsbourgs' Empire (of which Venice was part until the unification of Italy). In an essay on Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Intransitabili utopie, Cacciari points out that the world and the language of the Austrian writer did not correspond to the cosmopolitan vision of the Enlightenment, nor to a totalizing idea of Europe, but to the multiplicity of languages that turn around the great Habsbourg Reich. 90 Against a conservative reading of Hofmannsthal, Cacciari insists on how important is Hofmannsthal's vision of the poet as a seismograph, recording all the movements of the earth. This image shows that the poet does not invent a language but carefully listens to traditions, to their most imperceptible movements, without trying to fuse them in a mythical unity.

From Discourse on the Sciences and Arts 1750

The Enlightenment in France in the 1750s is often synonymous with two events Rousseau's literary appearance, and the great encyclopedia project of Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond D'Alembert. The events were not unrelated, as all three were close friends. Together, however, their critiques conspired to produce a broad attack on the status quo the king and the aristocracy, the church, education, and art. The political attacks subsequently gathered momentum and ultimately culminated in the French Revolution. learned I have seen these contradictions, and they have not rebuffed me. I am not abusing science, I told myself I am defending virtue before virtuous men. Integrity is even dearer to good men than erudition to the scholarly. What then have I to fear The enlightenment of the assembly that listens to me I admit such a fear but it applies to the construction of the discourse and not to the sentiment of the orator. Equitable sovereigns have never hesitated to condemn themselves in...

From Preliminary Discourse of the Editors 1751

Denis Diderot's encyclopedia project, one of the great intellectual monuments to the Enlightenment, had a speckled and difficult history. Diderot was originally hired in 1743 to prepare a French translation of Ephraim Chambers's two-volume Cyclopaedia, published in London in 1728. In 1745, when Diderot took over as managing editor, he convinced the French publisher to abandon the earlier work and embark on an entirely new and up-to-date project. The Prospectus of 1750 promised at least 10 volumes and 600 illustrative plates, following the spirit of rigorous logical analysis and scientific methods of reason. The royal academician d'Alembert, who was noted for his work in mathematics and physics, was asked by Diderot to write the philosophical discourse introducing the encyclopedia, as well as various articles related to the sciences. The first two volumes appeared in June 1751 and January 1752, but immediately ran afoul of the law. The French government, operating under rigid...

From History of the Art of Antiquity 1764

With regard to the constitution and government of Greece, freedom was the chief reason for their art's superiority. Freedom always had a seat in Greece, even beside the paternal rule of the royal throne, before the enlightenment of reason allowed the people to taste the sweetness of full freedom. Homer calls Agamemnon a shepherd of the people in order to indicate the latter's love and concern for their welfare. Though tyrants later installed themselves, they succeeded only in their own regions and the nation never recognized a lone ruler. Thus one person never had the only right to greatness among his people, or could immortalize himself to the exclusion of others.

The Forces of Change Unscrambling Complexity

Some deeper trends and drivers are now easy to see because we have lived with them for a while and their impacts are unfolding with increased force. For example, the nexus of emancipation built around individuality, choice and independence spilling out from the Enlightenment has been with us for some 250 years. Some feel this particular driver of change is at the edge of exhaustion its self-focused energy is causing more negatives than positives. Yet evidently it still has enough energy to shape everything, from how politics appeals to its constituents to how we customize products and services, how we appeal to individual desires, whether housing choice or the types of cheeses on offer. Business creates the increasing wants Who would have thought ten years ago that we deeply needed iPods

Preamble the national planning system

According to Newman and Thornley (1996, pp. 27-76) Switzerland belongs to the Germanic family from both a legal and an administrative perspective. Planning systems in the Germanic family have firm roots in the Enlightenment, implying systematic order and codification. They are not based on the ideology of change, which is associated with the French code. An important characteristic of the Germanic family is its foundation in basic laws (including the constitution). This legal foundation clearly defines the responsibilities and powers that are delegated to various levels of government. The basic design is a federal body. Switzerland has three levels of government the national or confederation, 26 cantons, and over 3000 municipalities (communes). Each level is involved in physical planning, but the main planning activities are at the level of the canton (ISOCARP, 1992, pp. 219-229).

Architectural Design Criteria

What makes a building beautiful Surely we want to resist the idea that beauty is simply in the eye of the beholder, but can we Who is the arbiter of beauty In what some call modernist architecture and then in post-modern historicist architecture, the arbiter has become the architect. But there is a difference between the architect of the 19th century and the architect of the 20th. The Enlightenment architect of the 19thth century believed in the power of reason to reveal the nature of things. In this case, it was the nature of beauty. There was a deep-seated belief that there existed natural laws governing the beautiful and that the architect was best qualified to find those natural laws. In dealing with this ineffable quality of beauty, the modernist 19th century architect, while taking it upon himself to be the arbiter of taste, argued for taste allegedly based on reason. As Bruegmann puts it,

Charter for Conservation with Development

Adam Smith is the obvious luminary to begin with simply because he was of the early industrial era, and was the first to write authoritatively in English on political economy.2 In his lifetime he witnessed the technological advances of canal building, spinning (Hargreaves), weaving (Crompton) and steam engineering (Watt), then followed the technological advances gained from the colonization experience throughout North America - the invention of barbed wire, sawmilling, long-distance railways, the telegraph. In all, a major technological and social changeover took place from an Old World 'Age of Enlightenment' to a New World 'Era of Capitalism'.

Problems of classification

Instead, I wish to concentrate on the importance of other interpretations within the domain of architecture and the city, which constitute the foundations of the thesis that I am advancing. These include the social geography of Jean Tricart, the theory of persistence of Marcel Poete, and Enlightenment theory, particularly that of Milizia. All of these interest me primarily because they are based on a continuous reading of the city and its architecture and have implications for a general theory of urban artifacts.

From New Treatise on Architecture or the Art of Building 1706 1714

Gothic Architraves

Jean-Louis de Cordemoy was the son of a Cartesian philosopher and historian, and a canon at the church of Saint Jean des Vignes in Soissons. He seems to have had no architectural training, which makes his architectural treatise the first one to be written by a layman. He admired Perrault's design for the Louvre, and was very Perraultian in his demand for the reform of church design - for using columns in church interiors instead of piers and arcades. In this first passage of the two passages presented here, Cordemoy criticizes the church of St. Peter's in Rome because of its massive pier supports. The church of Val-de-Grace in Paris is better, he argues, but it too could be improved with the use of interior columns instead of piers. These remarks evoked a sharp response from Amedee Francois Frezier (1682-1773), a young architect and engineer, who in a review of Cordemoy's book in 1709 accused Cordemoy of being naive with respect to structural theory, especially with the suggestion...

San Rocco Monza Aldo Rossi

Terragni Italian Architecture

The Italian Tendenza (Tendency),3 in contrast, emerged from the theoretical discourse of the early 1960s and was later to underpin an international Neorationalism marked by an ambivalent relationship with the Rationalist legacy of the 1920s. While critical of postwar urban planning, the Tendenza architects identified with a variety of sources, from the German Swiss Rationalism of Ludwig Hilberseimer and Hans Schmidt, to the legacy of Enlightenment Rationalism and the collective urbanism of the Soviet bloc. Aldo Rossi stood out as a key protagonist given the central influence and international reputation of his book The Architecture of the City (1966).4 His own well-publicised architecture, however, later became distanced from the initial tenets of a reinvented and objective Rational Architecture (most consistently practised by his one-time colleague Giorgio Grassi). In proposing a 'rigorous argument' for architectural design 'based on a logical foundation',

Why Tomorrow Never Dawns

It seemed to me that the centre of your paper today was the thesis that a transformation of society must be preceded by a transformation of needs. For me this implies that changed needs can only arise if we first abolish the mechanisms that have let the needs come into being as they are. It seems to me that you have shifted the accent toward enlightenment and away from revolution.

From Memoir on Architectural Proportions 1739

The first great architect of the Enlightenment in France was Jacques-Gabriel Soufflot. He was born near Auxerre, educated himself for the most part in Rome, and returned to Lyons to begin practice in 1738. During the 1740s his career prospered with commissions for several important buildings, among them the extension of the city's hospital, the Hotel Dieu (1739-48). As a scholar, he also presented several papers to the Societe Royale des Beaux-Arts in Lyons. In general, Soufflot opposed the prevailing trend of rococo design and was seeking an alternative. This search received an unexpected impetus in 1749 when he was asked by Madame de Pompadour, the mistress to Louis XV, to accompany her brother - the future Marquis de Marigny - on his grand tour of Italy. The lengthy sabbatical allowed Soufflot a chance to revisit classical buildings and undertake new studies, the most important of which were the measurements that he, together with Gabriel-Pierre-Martin Dumont, made of the early...

From The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments 1286

Lattice Work Gothic Architecture

The piers of the church are bishops and doctors who specially sustain the Church of God by their doctrine. These, from the majesty and clearness of their divine message, are called silver, according to that in the Song of Songs. He made silver columns.'' Whence also Moses at the entering in of the tabernacle, placed five columns, and four before the oracle, that is, the holy of holies. Although the piers are more in number than seven, yet they are called seven, according to that saying, Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars'' because bishops ought to be filled with the sevenfold influences of the Holy Ghost and SS. James and John, as the Apostle testifieth, seemed to be pillars.'' The bases of the columns are the apostolic bishops, who support the frame of the whole church. The Capitals of the piers are the opinions of the bishops and doctors. For as the members are directed and moved by the head, so are our words and works governed by their mind. The...

Transition to a new garden prototype

A Upper dry garden B Lower pond garden I Rock waterfall 2 Zazen-seki meditation stone 3 Turtle island 4 Yogo-seki stone marked with a sacred rope, 5 Shonan tea arbour, 6 island of the Evening Sun 7 Island of the Morning Sun, 8 Golden Pond According to contemporary accounts, Zen master Muso Kokushi took over Saiho-ji temple in 1334 and turned it into a Zen monastery. Saiho-ji originally meant westerly temple by modifying its ideogram, although without altering its pronunciation, Muso Kokushi changed westerly temple to terrple of western fragrances. He had a number of new buildings constructed within the complex their own architecture, together with the corridors connecting them, must have superimposed upon the gardens outside a rectangular grid through which the viewer inside saw nature. Sadly, none of the original temple buildings have survived. In the hillier part of the garden, the soft, undulating carpet of moss is interrupted by three extraordinary rock compositions which have...

Karesansui the dry landscape garden

The Japanese Dry Landscape Garden

Its overwhelmingly horizontal composition invites the arriving visitor to sit and contemplate it at leisure. Indeed, the word sit in Japanese is a synonym for meditation. I have found no records to confirm what nevertheless remains my strong suspicion, namely that the composition of the Ryoan-ji rock-and-sand garden has its roots in a Zen meditational technique of staring at a fixed point. Since only in the rarest cases will art and architectural historians have been trained in such meditational techniques, they are inevitably barred access to the secrets of Ryoan-ji. Zen has always adopted a very scientific approach to meditation. It thereby contrasts greatly with our Western philosophy and its mind games, and our Western religion based on blind faith. Zen starts with fact. And the most obvious and immediate fact in the life of every individual is their body. Consciousness lies at the centre of the body, the senses at its boundaries, and other objects...

The early history of bridges The age of timber and stone

Towns continued to sponsor and promote the building of stronger and better bridges and roads. They did not always get the brothers of the bridge to build them, because they were often committed to other projects for many years in advance. Instead, guilds of master masons and carpenters were formed and spread across Europe offering their services. Even government officials were united in this community enterprise and began to grasp the initiative and drive for better road and bridge networks across the country (Figure 3 shows an example of a medieval fortified bridge). Soon the vestiges of the Dark Ages and feudalism were transformed to the age of enlightenment and the Renaissance. The Ponte de Vecchio in Florence, built towards the end of this period, marks the turning-point of the Dark Ages. It was a covered bridge erected in 1345, lined with jewellery shops and galleries, with an upper passageway added later, that was a link between the royal and government palaces, the Uffizi and...

The Sensory Landscape of Cities

People within and between cultures perceive and value the senses in different ways. Places will be loved or hated depending on sensory cues. The sensory environment for an older person might be noisy or unsafe while too quiet or safe for someone young. The same differences can apply to people from different class and income backgrounds. A smell is seen as sweet and comforting in one cultural context and as fear-inducing in the next. A smell can be nice if you associate it with someone you like, horrible if exuded from someone you dislike. The sound of nothingness may feel relaxing to a Finn and like a heavy rumble to someone from Taipei. And for each of the landscapes of sense, there are cultural codes of conduct. The Chinese and Italian speak far more freely about smell in comparison to the English. Italians are encouraged to touch merchandise, especially fruit or vegetables, whereas it is discour

The new garden prototype of the Momoyama era Roji the rustic tea garden

Shoin Style House

Although the wabi-cha tea ritual, and thus the roji garden, are purely Japanese inventions, tea-drinking as a social event and as part of religio-aesthetic ritual has its origins in southern China. Tea was already valued for its medicinal properties in the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD), when it was believed to have beneficial effects upon the mind and body and to impart mysterious powers to the drinker. Tea was used in T'ang and Sung monasteries from the seventh century onwards to help avoid drowsiness during meditation and as part of formal religious ritual. Writing on religious and aesthetic influences in the early history of the Japanese tea ceremony, Theodore M. Ludwig concludes that Japan inherited the following from Chinese tea-drinking practice an association with miraculous powers of healing and Taoist immortals a sense of natural restraint and simplicity associated with the astringent taste of the drink tea gatherings with refined etiquette and...

Gardens in retreats built by former samurai turned scholars priests and tea masters

Hermitage gardens, like the gardens for strolling of the daimyo princes, combine a variety of traditional elements from the garden for strolling, the tea garden, the dry landscape garden and the shakkei garden. Here, however, they are brought down to a domestic scale. This is reflected in the small size of two of the most important gardens of this type Shisen-do, the Poet's Hermitage, was built by Ishikawa Jozan in Kyoto as a retreat in which to pursue his literary interests following his retirement from a samurai career Jiko-in, the Tender Light Temple, was built by Kata-giri Sekishu, a former feudal lord, as a temple cum tea house retreat in Yamato Koriyama. Although their surface area is already limited, both retreats seem to waste half their sites on their approach routes. But it is precisely these approaches which, by means of sophisticated sensory illusions, serve to prepare the visitor for his goal, a place of stillness and meditation. In view of the very different nature of...

Classicism and neostyles

The emphasis on beauty, experiential value and the creation of meaning recurs constantly throughout the history of architecture e.g. in Greek and Roman architecture, Romance architecture, Gothic architecture, Renaissance architecture, classicism, and different neo-styles until the present days (Smith, 1956 Pevsner, 1960 Van Heuvel and Verbrugge, 1996 Barrie, 1996). Although utility value and technology always play some part in design, the main emphasis is on composition. Building is above all an art. Symmetry, dimensional ratios (e.g. the application of the golden mean) and decoration are all used to evoke a sense of beauty. Principles of form are laid down in manuals of 'good' design. Form, more particularly in public sector buildings like churches, theatres, museums, town halls and other government buildings, often also expresses some underlying meaning or, put differently, has a secondary functionality or symbolic function. Thus, church buildings have always been characterised by...

Johann Bernhard Fischer Von Erlach

Fischer von Erlach was the greatest Austrian architect of the baroque period. Born in Graz and trained in Rome in the late-baroque era of Pietro da Cortona and Domenico Fontana, he returned to the Habsburg capital of Vienna in 1687 and almost immediately gained favor with the imperial crown. Among his many monumental commissions for Vienna were his designs for the Schonbrunn Palace (1696-1711) and the Karlskirche (1715-38) -the last a masterpiece of spatial drama and historical acumen. But Fischer von Erlach was also the author of what is perhaps the most stupendous architectural study ever produced. Despite its early publication date, his Entwurf einer historischen Architektur rightfully might be considered the first architectural textbook of the Enlightenment. This colossal study, started in 1705, consists of five books and features his extraordinary reconstructions of world architecture from the Temple of Solomon and the Seven Wonders of the ancient world to the architecture of...

Decoration Lo Mantang

Concerning models, mention must be made of the small votive chorten symbolizing the great Enlightenment' in the middle shrine of the upper lha-khang, God s house ' or temple , at the Tengpoche monastery. The chorten is made of silver and brass studded with precious stones despite the profusely decorative, embossed silver base and dome, it is clearly a copy of the wooden model in the monastery. A similar votive chorten is represented in a wood-engraving at Tengpoche (Fig. 9) in it an explanation is given of the symbolical significance of its various parts, including the ritual flags hanging from the crown of the spire above the dome. The correspondence between the silver and brass votive chorten and the one represented in the wood-engraving is all the more evident in that the frame of the shrine holding the chorten is a repetition of its stylized counterpart surrounding the wood-engraving. Tibetan origin, but rather is derived from the two older stupas at Carumati and Bodhnath in the...

Modern historical consciousness

The period from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century marked a series of fundamental changes that founded the modern world, and together with it the modern concepts of history and cultural heritage. Many of these changes coincided in the second half of the eighteenth century, and had their roots in European cultural, scientific, political, and economic developments. Politically, the period was marked by absolutist rule, only superseded through drastic social and political changes, starting principally from the French Revolution and leading to the nation state. The period was also qualified as the Age of Enlightenment due to an intellectual movement of thought concerned with interrelated

The Arrival of the RF

'This was the first time that my spiritual life and my external life were aligned because I had been meditating by then for 10 years quite intensely. The feeling that I should be doing something else was very powerful, as if something was trying to knock on the door of my consciousness. It was for a year really, but by the end of it, it had got so strong that I thought I'd better stop. I need 3 months. I did not know why I thought that, why 3 months, but I thought I needed 3 months. However, I did not have money to have 3 months off so I took 1 month off. I did not have any money to go anywhere so I just sat there and wandered around the house (and got in Chris's1 way).

The second large wave of Chinese influence on Japan

It was during the Kamakura era (1185-1336) that the second large wave of Chinese influence reached the shores of Japan. Both the shoguns - the new political rulers - and the influential samurai welcomed the arrival of Chinese Zen Buddhism, in part for its emphasis upon meditational discipline, and in part for the magnificent Sung dynasty works of art it brought with it, which they first collected and later imitated as a conscious means of documenting their new power and wealth. Modern art quickly came to mean Chinese art, such as tea utensils, paintings, incense burners and lacquerware. The main vehicles in this process of cultural importation were Japanese Zen monks returning from China, where they had gone in search of purer schools of Buddhist thought owing to their dissatisfaction with the Pure Land Buddhism and smaller esoteric sects patronized by the imperial court. A number of Chinese monks had in turn come to Japan following the invasion of the Mongols. Thus the Rinzai sect of...

Laboratories in research buildings main features and developments

At the turn of the 13th century so-called universitates magistrorum et scholarum where established in Italy, France, and England in cities with a venerable scholar tradition like Bologna, Paris, and Oxford. The replacement of the traditional knowledge of scholasticism with rational thinking (ratio) significantly enhanced intellectual life and encouraged the formation of new intellectual topics and methods. Now, experiments became a crucial aid for those striving for cognition and enlightenment in the field of natural sciences. This gave a substantial impulse to the historical development of research buildings. extend from notions of ascetic solitariness in monasteries (separation) to the development of ideas in a social academic environment and inspiring atmosphere (communication) following the model of classical antiquity. Libavius (1540-1616) even incorporated arcades, baths, and taverns into his laboratory schemes. Giovanni Battista Piranesi's utopian design for an ideal university...

The garden in Meiji Taisho and Showa times

To put it bluntly, Japanese garden architecture was no longer considered an art. Tracking the models skilful masters have left behind, as the Sakutei-ki of Heian times had recommended, was deemed obsolete in a climate of Western-style Civilization and Enlightenment. The gardens built by commercial ueki-ya, tree trimmers or tree growers, had neither underlying concepts, symbolic content nor recognizable themes. They were merely statements of the level of taste and size of purse of the people who paid for them.

The Fleeting Gaze of the Angel

In that Nietzschean meditation on the writing of history that is The Historical Project (the preface to The Sphere and the Labyrinth), Tafuri also faces the question of the multiplicity of languages and warns against the danger of wirkliche Historie (real history) to conceive history as recognition, that is to say on the presupposition that there is a unity of history, based on the unity of the structures on which it rests, on the unity, as well, of its single elements.73 Then Tafuri quotes Foucault and his cruel will to knowledge that does not allow the consolation of universal truth. But Tafuri also warns against the other danger, very strong today, that the awareness of multiplicity becomes again the reconstitution of some unity

US Military Victories in 1898 Confidence Commerce and Construction

Shall we That is, shall we go on conferring our Civilization upon the peoples that sit in darkness, or shall we give those poor things a rest Shall we bang right ahead in our old-time, loud, pious way, and commit the new century to the game or shall we sober up and sit down and think it over first Would it not be prudent to get our Civilization-tools together and see how much stock is left on hand in the way of Glass Beads and Theology, and Maxim Guns and Hymn Books, and Trade-Gin and Torches of Progress and Enlightenment

Politics And Sustainable Development

Computer models were crude, but they will subscribe to the report's conclusion that the days of uncontrolled growth are numbered' (Dobson, 1991). Green ideology also questions the current dominant paradigm with its foundation in The Enlightenment, science, technology and the objective of rational analysis (Capra, 1985). The Green's world view removes man from centre stage

A trajectory of risk consciousness

The pervasiveness of risk consciousness and aversion comes from deeper anxieties about life. They are part of broader historical forces impacting on our sense of self and how we view the world. From the early 1990s onwards a series of books highlighted a profound shift in our view of the modern world and notion of progress embedded in the Enlightenment ethos.9 The increasing disenchantment targets the Enlightenment's limitless optimism, the arrogance and over confidence of science and industrialism, the fear that technology is out of control, the speed and scope of globalization and its unintended effects, or unconstrained pollution. This has coincided with the decline of traditional ties that provided values and models for action and readily understandable identities for individuals, whether through religion, ideology or a fixed community setting. Those value bases anchored people, giving them a purpose and direction allowing them to negotiate life's travails. The erosion of...

Grassroots Globalisation

Now the Pentagon has been repaired and the debris cleared from Ground Zero - a site worth too much money to leave vacant. A new high-rise structure more elegant than the Twin Towers will reassert New York's status as a world city, and will no doubt be engineered to withstand terrorist attacks. The Twin Towers were designed to survive the impact of an aircraft, as it happens, but a 737 not a 757 with full tanks. The financial services industry, too, had arrangements for contingency, and re-connected within hours to its information super-highways using back-up sites. Was 9-11 a watershed, then, or not Noam Chomsky observes that it was the first time since 1812 that the national territory of the United States has been attacked 2 and Susan Buck-Morss writes that September 11th 'ruptured irrevocably' the context in which public intellectuals speak (Buck-Morss, 2002 2). Yet she points out that history does not have clean breaks, that after the end of the Cold War and through the electronic...

What is Chinese medicine

To many Western readers, Chinese medicine may seem strange and unreliable. It is hard for them to understand why the needle and herb can cure the disease. It is the case, even in China, that some Chinese look on TCM as a mysterious thing. But it is a truth as you know, China is a country that has a long long history and magnificent national culture. And TCM emerged at least 3000 years ago (in Chinese history, that is Shang Dynasty - 1000 BC), and has serviced the Chinese people for about 3000 years. Generally, TCM is a unique system of diagnosis and health care approaches. It is based on a profound philosophy and the concept of the universe outlined in the spiritual insights of Daoism (one of the Chinese religions), and it has produced a highly sophisticated set of practices to cure illness and to maintain health and well-being. These practices include acupuncture, herbal remedies, massage, diet, meditation, and both static and moving exer

Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 1997

The main entrance for the public is on the south-east side, the VIP entrance on the north side, and the MPs' entrance to the north-west. It becomes clear that Correa is not slavishly bound to the figure of the Mandala, but plays freely around it. The sub-sections are shaped on the basis of their necessary size in such a way that they break through the inherent square structure and in the case of the lower chamber even penetrate the outer wall of the circle. The rigidity of the scheme is broken down, the severe geometry is set in motion and the composition is enlivened by asymmetry. Here the open courtyards providing centres for the sub-areas remain an important ordering motif, calling the structure to mind. They form sub-centres with their own focus, the various departments grouped around them. This concentric aspect of each area shapes the essential function of the courtyard centre as an open or semi-open zone, thus relating directly to the opening...

Administration on antiquities

These precious remains of Antiquity give to the city of Rome an ornament that distinguishes her among all the most famous cities of Europe. They provide important subjects for the meditation of Scholars as well as most valuable models for Artists to inspire them with ideas of the Beautiful and the Sublime. They attract to this

New York New York USA 200203

Opened to the public on June 5, 2003, this fashion boutique with about 300 square meters of floor space Is located on West 14th Street In Manhattan Intei for a Brazilian clothing designer, the boutique is conceived as an open space with pale coloring meant to highlight the items that are for sale. As Asymptote's descrlj has it, the architectural environment is a spatial narrative, centered primarily on an abstracted reading of what constitutes Brazilian culture, landscape and arch ture, while also being a contemporary Manhattan experience situated In what Is now the quickly transforming meat market district of West 14th Street The envi ment is a deliberate Insertion and provocation of not only the worlds of fashion, art and architecture but also a trans-urban meditation that merges the cultures of York and Sao Paulo. There is,tiigh gloss epoxy floor with embedded neon and halogen lights, while the ceiling Is made of glossy stretched PVC rubber. A floor to ce sculpture form. made of...

Saint Alphonsus Regional Medical Center Patient Tower Boise Idaho

A restful space welcoming to all religions but paying homage to the Catholic faith was created for the chapel. The warm, rich wheat color permeates the upholstered walls, a design feature used to aid in sound absorption. The layout is flexible to accommodate various activities. A terra cotta marble path assists with wayfinding, leading the visitor to the meditation garden. Local art is a signature element in this space, starting with the glass doors, stained glass and holy water fount divider wall, stained glass exterior window, wood cross, and alter. The handcrafted feeling of the art pieces helps the visitor feel welcomed and not alone in the room.

Planetree Model of Healthcare

Delivering personalized, humanistic care in a healing environment that emphasizes the need for aesthetics, art, comfort, and warmth simply defines Planetree. The components of the Planetree model include spaces for solitary and social activities as well as features such as resource centers, libraries, kitchens, lounges, and activity rooms. One of the principles of the Planetree model is to recognize the need for spirituality in healing. A healthcare facility that subscribes to the Planetree model commonly includes elements such as gardens, meditation rooms, and chapels for patients, visitors, and staff. Planetree-centric healthcare facilities make available both complementary therapies massage, music, art, pet, and aroma therapy and conventional therapies.

The Eye And The World Within Speech

Written soon after Billie Holiday's death, 'The Day Lady Died' is one of O'Hara's characteristic 'I do this, I do that' poems, and revolves around a moment of interruption and recognition in which the voice of the poem is confronted by an image of the dead singer. But the poem does not take the form of a lament or a meditation on memory or death instead, it traces the associative itinerary of the poem's perceiving consciousness during a lunchtime stroll. However, the patterning of lyric associations is complicated by their idiosyncratic location within the fragmentary perception of time and place established in the opening stanza perception finds itself snagged on the sharp edges of post-war American racial politics for in such terms, the voice's identification with an image of abused African-American femininity appears as an arrogant gesture of appropriation by a white, gay, middle-class poet. Recent accounts of the poem are not surprisingly wary of making claims about this final...

From Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge 1746

Boffrand's theory of character permitted architectural forms to be considered primarily for their expressive possibilities, rather than for some adherence to a stylistic canon. Another influence that would shortly come into play in this regard was the empiricism of John Locke, which bypassed the classical issue of proportions by giving primacy to the senses (see chapters 92 and 101 below). The translator of Lockean theory in France was Etienne Bonnot de Condillac, a friend of both Diderot and Rousseau, who also composed several articles for the Encyclopedia. Condillac's Essay on the Origins of Human Knowledge is the first great philosophical text of the French Enlightenment and it shares many of the ideas of the encyclopedists. A few years earlier Voltaire had pointed to Locke's ideas as an alternative system to the metaphysics of Rene Descartes and Nicolas Malebranche, which were based on the existence of a few innate ideas. Condillac departs from Descartes by more systematically...

Qualities required by a bridge designer

Before the age of enlightenment engineers architects built many splendid structures, soaring cathedrals, slender stone towers and daring arch bridges without knowledge of modern theory of structures or of analytical soil mechanics. Then in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, despite the primitive state of mathematics and structural theory, engineers built huge numbers of structures associated with the development of the canals, roads and railways, some of which were daring and dramatic, many of which have survived to the present day.

Contrasts between city and wilderness

The city is crowded this is not always a negative situation, given the gregariousness of the human species, but personal space is often limited. The city is also almost completely a human construction. In large metropolises, there may be very little remaining of the natural landscape that once existed. The layout of many cities is based on a giant grid. Landform, old tracks, small streams and former agricultural areas are ignored by this layout, which is relentless in its taming of nature. It is a reflection of the world view dominant since the Age of Enlightenment in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, under which humans consider themselves above nature and destined to tame it and bend it to their will. This view has caused major consequences for the exploitation of the world's resources, and only recently has it had any kind of sustained challenge. Many people now believe that it is important to be able to escape from the city in order to reconnect...

Secular humanism

Secular humanism as a core Enlightenment project has been drained of confidence. It feels exhausted and consequently is mistakenly accused of being 'wishy-washy', with no apparent point of view. Its confidence needs to be restored. The confident secular humanist view proposes a set of civic values and rules of engagement which include providing settings for a continually renewing dialogue across differences, cultures and conflicts allowing strongly held beliefs or faiths expression within this core agreement and acknowledging the 'naturalness' of conflict and establishing means and mediation devices to deal with difference. It seeks to consolidate different ways of living, recognizing arenas in which we must all live together and those where we can live apart. It generates structured opportunities to learn to know 'the other', to explore and discover similarity and difference. It wishes to drive down decision-making on the subsidiarity principle, which implies much greater...

Professional Origins

Theories of design do not exist in isolation but shape and are shaped by the political circumstances in which they evolve.3 Two competing yet paradoxically symbiotic theories of architectural design grew from the emergence of the modern professions in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries during the Enlightenment, at a time of colonial expansion and the development of early capitalism. They were well expressed by T. L. Donaldson, the secretary of the RIBA, in 1841, on his inauguration as professor of architecture at University College London, when he delivered two lectures Architecture as an Art and Architecture as a Science.4 Donaldson articulated an ideological dualism that already existed between two competing cultural groups a culture of taste (representative of the old landed nobility) and a culture of knowledge (representative of the emerging and technolo-gizing bourgeoisie). Taste became the badge of the dominant aristocracy in resistance to the emerging meritocracy, which...

Modern Paradigms

Under its present system of government, the walls of Chinese towns would have come down for ideological reasons even when they were not functionally obsolete. It may have been Rousseau who first insisted that city walls artificially segregate crowds of urbanities from the peasants spread thinly over vast tracts of land. He urged that the territory be peopled evenly. But it was the Communists who gave their own gloss to this injunction of the Enlightenment. Through their Marxist forefathers, they would object to the idea of an urban rural dichotomy city walls artificially severed the mighty proletariat into an urban and a rural contingent, thus eviscerating its strength.

Book I

The Enlightenment hit its stride in the 1750s, but many of its historical premises (and its limitations) are found in this grand historical study of Baron de Montesquieu, a native and long-time resident of Bordeaux. In his early writings he, like Voltaire, was a satirist of the social, political, and ecclesiastical follies of his day, but in this lengthy and mature study of laws and forms of government (numbering 31 books), he - now from a quite moderate position - attempts to analyze the difference between different nations and different cultures. His

Ten The Thing

World, noumena, reality, appearance, and so on. In the period of the Enlightenment, from Descartes to Kant, the thing became that against which we measured ourselves and our limits, the mirror of what we are not. While rare, anomalous readings of the thing emerge in post-Kantian philosophy, it is primarily associated with inert materiality. Much more recently, since the cold war, it has been associated, through this alienation from the subject, with an animated and potentially malevolent materiality, a biological materiality that is or may be the result of our unknowing (usually atomic or nuclear) intervention into nature, the revenge of the blob, of protoplasm, of radiated existence, which imperils man. Nevertheless, through these various permutations, the thing remains identified with immanence, with what we are capable of overcoming, albeit with the input of a technological supersession of the body and its reemergence in virtual form.1 But instead of outlining this history, paying...

Western Europe

The early nineteenth century in Spain was characterized by internal wars and conflicts, including occupation by France from 1804 to 1814. A more stable period began when the so-called moderados came into power (in 1844-54). Although the Jesuits had been expelled (1767), and religious properties had met with a period of suppression and destruction, the traditional Catholic society continued strong, and the ideas of the Enlightenment were considered heretical. The beginning of Romanticism coincided with the 1830s, a period of civil unrest, and was marked by a growing interest in the history of the country, and a gradual concern for the repair and protection of historic buildings. The initiatives in France and Italy were known in Spain, and similar ideas were first expressed in the magazine El Artista, founded in 1835. In 1835, the Academia de San Fernando started active efforts to protect suppressed convents and monasteries, and from the beginning of 1936 there was a series of...

Casa Kalman

The Pompidou project is. in terms of its references, an amalgam of the architectural visions of the Russian Constructivists. Buck-minster Fuller. Yona Friedman. Serge Cher-mayeff and. to a lesser degree. Louis and Albert Kahn. Marshall McLuhan and Archi-gram. It is the first implementation in a long tradition of significant, but previously not fully realized, conceptual inventions on the construction and operation of buildings. A feat of what is called 'architectural syncretism' - the deliberate and conscious bringing together of different elements and styles to create a new type of building - it is the chef d'oeuvreof two young but experienced architects. It can also be seen as a wholehearted act of faith in the Enlightenment ideals of development and progress, technique and emancipation. Its spatial organization can be traced to various planning ideas of Serge Chermayeff the zoning. at least partly, to Louis Kahn and the general space concept to Albert Kahn. Archi-gram's influence...

Recommended Readings

Braham, Allan, The Architecture of the French Enlightenment (Berkeley University of California Press, 1989). Smart, Alastair, Allan Ramsay Painter Essayist and Man of the Enlightenment (New Haven Yale University Press, 1992). Etlin, Richard A., Symbolic Space French Enlightenment Architecture and Its Legacy (Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1994). Watkin, David, Sir John Soane Enlightenment Thought and the Royal Academy Lectures (New York Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Building there

Here, Ando reinterprets it in a radical way one descends concrete stairs through a lotus pond to the abstract meditation space beneath. A typological idea has been abstracted to the point where it is unreadable as 'Japanese' except to the most informed observers. Compare this with the almost pop version of traditional Japanese architecture seen in Emilio Ambasz's Nishinachiyo Station, with its office towers joined in the form of a gigantic temple arch (Plate 35). It is perhaps no surprise that the first was designed by someone inside the culture, and the second by someone outside. The difference poses a difficult question should outsiders, especially those from the West, try to preserve, or even re-create, the tradition of the foreign culture within which they have been commissioned to design, particularly in a First World economy like Japan's

Vastu Shastra

Similar to Feng Shui, a design philosophy and approach known as Vastu Shastra is based on teachings of the ancient scriptures of India. Introduced into the US by the American practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (TM), Vastu Shastra aims to harmonize people, buildings and land. While individual homes have been built using these ancient principles, the largest commercial expression of this approach to creating healthy work and living environments is an office building in Rockville, Maryland, expected to open for business in 2007. Vastu Shastra is also concerned with proportion, a key to successful design in nature. Proportion is a key principle in architecture, and nature often mimics the same proportions at different scales, an approach characterized by fractal geometry. As you might suspect in a healthy building, Vastu Shastra also has a focus on using natural and non-toxic materials, filling rooms with daylight and fresh air and using the sun's power for on-site energy...

First Part

What a procession of vices must accompany this uncertainty No more sincere friendships no more real esteem no more well-based confidence. Suspicions, offenses, fears, coldness, reserve, hate, betrayal will hide constantly under that uniform and false veil of politeness, under that much vaunted urbanity which we owe to the enlightenment of our century. The name of the Master of the Universe will no longer be profaned by swearing, but it will be insulted by blasphemies without offending our scrupulous ears. Men will not boast of their own merit, but they will disparage that of others. An enemy will not be grossly insulted, but he will be cleverly slandered. National hatreds will die out, but so will love of country. For scorned ignorance, a dangerous Pyrrhonism will be substituted. There will be some forbidden excesses, some dishonored vices, but others will be dignified with the name of virtues one must either have them or affect them. Whoever wants to praise the sobriety of the wise...


Contrast the vivid smell sensation of markets with the neutralized, antiseptic scent-world of supermarkets. These cultivate the smell of nothingness, impenetrable, empty, blank. Creating the smell of absence is an art in itself - the blander the better - but there is a constant background tinge of refrigeration dry, sickly and plastic when you get your nose right into it. You are smelling iced water and air conditioning. The non-smell of food in supermarkets is ironic. It smells not of what you are buying, except for the bakery, where they pump out the flavours of hot crusty bread, or the roast turkey smell at Christmas.

Lord Kames

The innovative aspects of Burke's arguments for the beautiful and the sublime can also be judged by the contemporary account of beauty and sublimity by Lord Kames, who was born Henry Home. Kames was another figure of the Scottish Enlightenment and a member of the Select Society of Edinburgh. He labored over the writing of Elements of Criticism throughout the 1750s and thus was able to incorporate many of the insights put forth in this decade. The starting point for his system, however, was older, and thus the study owes more to Shaftesbury than to Hume. The result is a curious mixture of old and new ideas. Kames defines beauty, for instance, as both intrinsic (the object of sensation without mental reflection the beauty of a river, for instance) and relative (an object when seen in relation to utility and goodness). He accepts the notion of the sublime, but - following Addison - defines it simply as the experience of dimension or grandeur. Toward the end of his lengthy study he also...

General Introduction

Printing press, the use of vernacular languages, and the rise of literacy rates - all conspire to make the transmission of ideas more efficient and therefore more abundant. Renaissance writers, at the same time, prided themselves in recovering what they believed to be the lost ideals of classicism. Western theory now plots a relatively straight course (although with interesting regional variations) down to the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century, when secular forces-at-large now openly clash with the religious traditions and political structures inherited from the past. The result is that fascinating shattering of theory along nationalist and stylistic lines that we generally subsume under the ambiguous concept of historicism. Still another reason for choosing the year 1870 to conclude this volume is to respond to earlier intellectual histories that tended to isolate the twentieth century. This study does not represents a modernist view of the world, and indeed it rejects the...

Certainty And Doubt

The doubts concerning sensory perception raised by representational techniques, optical technologies, and the new science, play a crucial role in Descartes' theoretical philosophy, underpinning its understanding of vision. In the Meditations on the First Philosophy (1641), for example, the disparity between the image of the sun seen by the naked eye and the knowledge derived from the rational calculations of astronomy is seen to indicate the inherent uncertainty of sensory experience this disparity demonstrates 'that the idea which seems to have emanated most directly from the sun itself has in fact no resemblance to it at all' (1988, p. 90). Such uncertainty, however, is not restricted to the heavens nor provoked only by the telescope. In the Second Meditation, Descartes offers the more everyday scenario of looking out of a window across a square where men are passing. While accepting that we 'normally say that we see the men themselves', Descartes asks what exactly we do see, above...

The look of the city

One does not need to be a specialist to understand instantly that colour shapes how you feel. Dark colours can depress, and darkness has become a metaphor for negatives like evil, ignorance and mental gloom. Light colours lift again, word associations reinforce our perceptions - light and enlightenment. If a city were to be black it would be depressing, and the blackened industrial cities of industrial Britain were depressing in their time -and grey is not too uplifting either. It was always said that Berlin and Milan were grey cities, which is why their more recent creative and fashionable associations also change how you think of what their colour might be.

Malcolm Andrews

'Landtskip (Belg) Parergon, Paisage, or By-work, which is an expressing the Land, by Hills, Woods, Castles, valleys, Rivers, Cities & c as far as may be shewed in our Horizon. All that which in a Picture is not of the body or argument thereof is Landskip, Parergon, or by-work. As in the Table of our Saviors passion, the picture of Christ upon the Rood (which is the proper English word for Cross) the two theeves, the blessed Virgin Mary, and St John, are the argument But the City, Jerusalem, the Country about, the clouds, and the like, are Landskip.' It is the outdoor setting for the principal dramatic action, and includes towns and settlements as well as countryside scenes. However, it was during the Enlightenment that Landscape became more emphatically associated with natural, non-urban scenery. Romanticism's worship of Nature and of the Sublime in Nature, and its recoil from early industrialization and rapid urbanization pushed Landscape into remoter retreat from signs of...


I look now at three projects by Mierle Laderman Ukeles to ask how they impact power (not as domination over nature and others as intended by Adorno and Horkheimer in Dialectic of Enlightenment but, after Foucault, as a process of implicit coercion).34 Touch Sanitation began in 1976 when Ukeles became unfunded artist in residence in the New York City Department of Sanitation

New is good

For those architects uninterested in moral imperatives, the main concern about environmental design seems to be with aesthetic limitation. Architectural education, in particular, is still firmly embedded in Enlightenment Modernist notions of progress, the supplanting of the old with the new (and improved). This has manifested itself in architecture in a drive towards originality - technical and aesthetic. Environmentalism brings with it a reconsideration of what has hitherto been an unchallenged assumption the desirability of this ever-proliferating new


I use the suffix -scape in soundscape, smellscape and mindscape as I would in landscape. I want to convey the fluid panorama of perceptions. Building on the ideas of Arjun Appadurai,10 each scape is a perspective depending on the situation of those navigating their way within it and on how they view these scapes, how they perceive and act upon them. These are the shifting and fuzzy ways and shapes within which we construct our world and views about it. Appadurai defines further scapes which, while they need not detain us here for long, are useful background tools for understanding difficult areas. They include the ideoscape, the linking together and valuing of ideas, terms and images, especially the Enlightenment worldview and its master concept, democracy, as well as freedom, welfare, rights, sovereignty and representation, around which political and economic discourses in the West revolve the ethnoscape, the fluid and shifting landscape of tourists, immigrants, exiles and other...


The primary design features of the space are a rooftop lawn and badminton co , a Corten steel water wall and a meditation pavilion. The garden terrace synthesizes the architecture and the landscape within a shared modernist vocabulary. a .e grasses catch the light of the setting sun and contrast with the raised lawn planter and meditation pavilion when seen from the dining room. * - chen terrace as seen from the raised lawn. A hanging Corten steel wall incorporates an oversized Ikebana shelf holding a small Japanese maple tree (oslund.and.assoc) * V 3 en is outdoor furniture is centered in the doorway looking out towards the kitchen terrace from the entry vestibule. -t's of Corten wall with Ikebana shelf & water feature. Looking at the meditation pavilion from within the grid of Corten steel planters. -> The small meditation pavilion anchors the corner of the rooftop, while the lush lawn softens the foreground.

Lighting Sources

Miguel was very excited about his new project renovating his client's home from top to bottom. However, there was one space that was problematic. The clients wanted to convert a section of the basement into a yoga and meditation room. The low ceiling wasn't too big a problem, since they would be sitting or lying on the floor much of the time. However, the space available was right next to the furnace room, and there were several large ducts running along one wall of the room. Miguel was struggling to find a design concept that would support the peaceful ambience the clients sought within this small, cluttered space. lution. They were bemoaning the limited space when Bill suggested that they borrow an aesthetic approach that celebrated the beauty of small spaces. The ductwork would be enclosed in a soffit, which would clean up its appearance and also help muffle any noise from the HVAC system. On the face of the soffit, they would build a ledge to hold a strip with small...

Artistic thinking36

Humans are largely driven by their sensory and emotional landscape, in spite of centuries of developing scientific knowledge and logical, analytical, abstract and technical thought. They are not rational in a scientific sense, which does not mean they are irrational, rather arational. This is why all cultures develop the arts. As the arts can speak the language of the senses and feelings, they have immense power that the 'scientifically' minded should understand and use as it can help them achieve their aims. There are hardly any other ways of tapping into this knowledge. Perhaps meditation or sex. Thus participating in or consuming art helps interpret reality and can provide leadership and vision.

Learning Objectives

Unlike earlier Crown Hall renovations in which the travertine and steel of the South Porch were replaced and women's bathrooms were added in the basement, this phase was more complex and intricate. Crown Hall contains the architectural DNA of Mies's entire aesthetic. The beauty exists paradoxically in the metaphorical nothingness of it. The building is a big box, a one-room school house, as Dean Donna Robertson, AIA, has called it. The 120-foot-by-220-foot floor plate seems to hover 6 feet above grade. Meanwhile, the roof hangs 18 feet above the floor from an exoskeleton made of four, 6-foot-deep steel girders. From the inside, the resulting clear-span, universal space experience is that of being in a structure with no visible means of support. Furthermore, the curtain wall had enormous expanses of glass held in place by the slimmest of stops.

Allan Ramsey

Ramsay and Hume, in fact, were the best of friends. In 1754 the two men (together with Adam Smith, Alexander Gerard, and Robert Adam, among others) founded the Select Society of Edinburgh, a debating forum that became the cornerstone of what is generally referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment. The following year the Select Society offered a prize for the best essay on the problem of ''taste.'' Ramsay was the first of the participants to publish his views (the next two entries follow from the same contest), which he actually wrote during a 9-month stay in Edinburgh in 1754. And rather than being a formal essay, it takes the form of a dialogue in which the defender of the classical tradition (Lord Modish) is pitted against a free-thinking modernist (Colonel Freeman), who is said to

Meditation Mastery

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