Functional Relationships How To Organize Your Spaces

Adjacency diagrams, often called blocking and stacking diagrams, are abstracted plans showing adjacencies of your primary function spaces on each floor to help you understand the amount of space needed on each floor and how spaces work together from a functional and circulation perspective. The diagrams should use color blocks which relate to use and should be keyed to indicate the presence (or absence) of collections. These diagrams should also relate to the site itself and indicate points of...

Operating Budget Requirements

When a museum undertakes a building project, funds are dedicated to the direct costs of design, construction, and equipping the facility. However, there are other substantial costs that must be funded from the operating budget. Some of these costs are onetime and some will have an impact on the operating budget well into the future, if not forever. All these additional costs over and above normal operating costs must be taken into account when the museum prepares an operating budget when...

Phases And Deliverables Of A Project

This chapter approaches the deliverables (work products) of predesign and conceptual design in detail since the quality and depth of these planning and design documents will determine your ability to successfully complete the building your community expected at the cost and on the schedule your board mandated. The predesign phase encompasses all planning and programming activities prior to development of a specific design solution. In a sense, predesign is the process of defining your problem...

Brand Marketing And Communications

An important component of the communications during a building project is creating a brand for the museum creating an image in the mind of the public regarding your museum.2 It is an effort to help you stand apart from others. Branding often includes a graphic design and tag line that are highly memorable. For example, the Detroit Institute of Arts campaign Great Art New Start and its tag line let yourself go gives a glimpse to visitors of something new in store for them. New York's Museum of...

Index

Accessibility codes, 132 action plans, 19 admission fees, 168 advertising, communications strategies, 197 African American museums, 2 aging facilities, drivers of expansion, 3 air-conditioning systems (HVAC), 112 Akron Art Museum, 211 Allan, Jan, 240 Allen-Greil, Dana, 207, 239 amenities for visitors, design trends, 8 American Association of Museums (AAM) accreditation process, 132, 158 source for planners and architects, 61 tracking capital fund-raising campaigns, 2 American Revolution Center,...

The Design Teams For The Building And Exhibits

Hiring building design and exhibit design teams are important steps, since these teams have a significant impact on translating the museum's vision and needs into reality. In selecting these teams, the steering committee should carefully consider their expertise and fit with your leadership team. Museum leadership must ask, Do they understand who we are and what we are looking for Can we work with this team day in and day out, trusting their advice, their ability to stay cool under fire, and...

How Do You Measure Success

Answers to the first five questions above are straightforward. Whether the project meets the latter goals will take some time to answer time for the staff to settle in and establish normal operating patterns time for a critical mass of visitors to view exhibits and attend educational programs, and decide whether to return and encourage others to do the same. But there are deeper, longer-term questions to be asked and several methodologies for finding the answers. The success of a construction...

Sources Of Funding

The possibilities for project funding are limited only by a museum's creativity, boldness of strategies, and willingness to do extensive research. However, there is an A-list of types of funders who traditionally constitute the bulk of the resources for museum projects. While an array of fund sources exists, the museum must develop a strategy to prioritize how it will concentrate its resources and efforts, a strategy that seeks sources best aligned with its mission and goals, the funding...

Managing Costs

In a museum design project, there is never a shortage of ideas, only a shortage of money to build and support programs. In this environment, predesign planning to define scope is money well spent, but without a culture of ongoing management of project cost as part of your design process, you will find it impossible to make the predesign budget hold through the design process. Reconciling the museum's capacity to raise money and the cost to build determines the final scope of what you build. If...

Implementing And Ensuring A Successful Planning Process

The time involved can be anywhere from a few months to several years. Typically strategic plans are meant to cover an implementation period of three to five years. However, if a building program is involved, the time involved could stretch to a decade or more. In reality the plan is a living document that continues to guide the work of the museum. It can also be changed as internal and external circumstances warrant. For example, a museum on the East Coast...

Selecting A Construction Phase Methodology

Selecting the Best Process for Building Your Museum As construction professionals and board members who are in real estate will tell you, you must select a methodology for how you build your project in the predesign phase. The construction methodology you select is related to your museum's approach and management of costs, risk and time, so it is a fundamental decision which has impact on the planning and design process. While some government and higher education institutions have a fixed...

Measuring Performance

There is helpful literature on measuring performance. A comprehensive program takes time, effort, and thoughtful preparation.1 While there is ample literature evaluating programs and exhibits, what information exists on the impact a new or renovated building has on a museum's success is largely anecdotal or taken from personal accounts about individual projects. There is little quantifiable information on the degree of success, how museums have managed disappointing results, how they have...

Importance Of A Business Plan

Given the intense competition for the public's leisure time and for donor, government, and granting agency dollars, museums can no longer assume that visitors will come when they open their doors nor donors write checks when asked. In order to position themselves, museums have begun to adopt business practices once thought applicable only to the private sector, becoming more entrepreneurial in seeking new sources of income, new partnerships, new offerings, and a new way of thinking about their...

Developing Your Business Plan

Where to begin As noted earlier, a museum should have a business plan, based on its strategic plan, at the ready. If that is not the case and you are considering a building project, the leadership team must make the commitment to undertake the business plan. This is not the time for lengthy discussion of tactics. It is the time for strategic thinking and action, to demonstrate an entrepreneurial nature, to rise above the daily grind and work toward a vision that positions the museum to attract...

Phasing Or Closing Down Sequence Of Implementation

Whether new, expansion, or renovation, your building project may require phasing if you are planning substantial renovations and do not plan to close your facility, or the availability of financial resources requires phased implementation. As you see in figure 7.4, the Philadelphia Museum of Art started construction of the two wings to its neoclassical building without the central pavilion that connects them with the goal of shaming the local community into finishing the building. (This was, by...

Managing Decisions

What's the Importance of Early Decision Making The cost of making a decision in predesign is comparatively small all you have invested is your staff and the design team's time. Each decision becomes the basis for future decisions and project direction, so as soon as each decision is made new questions arise, and they form layers which become the bedrock for your building. Gradually they build up as the project proceeds, so that changing your mind later can involve throwing out the work of the...

Museum

Sample Design Team Organization Chart Collections & Archive Management Sample Design Team Organization Chart agement tools and procedures should not inhibit the free flow of information, but are needed to help to keep decisions on track and avoid possible misdirection of the work of the team. Who's in charge Communication flow between the museum and design or construction teams should always go through your museum project manager (PM) to the design or construction team project managers...

Financial Planning and Cost Management

The purpose of this chapter is to identify the requirements for a financially successful building project and how to meet them. It will elaborate on the importance of a sound business plan and how to ensure its success the role and responsibilities of the financial or business officer the elements of total project costs and the resources and tools needed to plan for, secure, and manage project financing, including developing and implementing budgets. This book mentions many types of studies and...

Working Groups Of The Steering Committee

Each project will require input during the planning and design process from a variety of individuals representing programs and activities inside the museum as well as interests and activities outside the museum. The steering committee should charter a series of working groups to focus on areas requiring Exhibits, Educational Programs Visitor Experience the attention of the many stakeholders. Each working group will also need a position description for each of its members with clearly...

Operations

The purpose of this chapter is to reinforce the museum's need for detailed operational plans prior to and during construction and at start-up. In the best of worlds, by opening day new exhibits will be installed, permanent ones reinstalled, collections will be relocated and properly stored, and staff members will be in their appropriately fitted out workspaces. In reality the museum does not return to normal for a year or more after opening. In some instances museums lack funds to fit out parts...

Impact Of Remaining Open During Construction

As noted above, the decision to remain open brings its own issues. If the contractor must work around staff and their programming and keep collections protected in place, the construction schedule will be lengthened, and project and operating costs will be higher. The collections are at increased risk if they remain on-site and staff becomes frustrated with constant shifting to accommodate construction and aggravated with the messiness created by construction activity. The public is likewise...

Hiring The Construction Team

Prior to selecting the construction team, the steering committee must decide on the method of contracting or construction that will be best for the project. Depending on the museum's needs, the steering committee may elect to hire a general contractor (GC) or a construction manager (CM) these and other approaches with the pros and cons of each are described in chapter 6. Once the decision on a general contractor or construction manager is reached, hiring follows the process described earlier in...

Preconstruction Decisions

This section focuses on the development of an operations plan covering the period leading up to and through project design, during construction, and opening. Maintaining effective operations throughout the process is challenging and requires careful consideration and planning. The operations plan itself, developed in close consultation with staff, should include a master schedule for all tasks and activities with responsibilities spelled out in advance for each, along with goals and objectives...

Design Phases Work Products

Design moves from diagrams and narratives into giving form to a building. Using your basis of design report as a guide, you have a great deal of information developed, whether you are just hiring the architect or used an architect to develop the basis of design report and are continuing with the same team based on a good working relationship and the confidence that you have developed over the past few months. Pay the same attention and take the same level of care over the next few phases, in...

Finishing Your Basis Of Design Report

The last two sections of the basis of design report include the estimate of probable cost and schedule which are covered in chapter 6. When you complete your predesign basis of design report, you may have several hundred pages of information. Even if some factors change, all of it will be usable through the design process. You will know a lot about your future building without having drawn an architectural plan or elevation. In fact, there is a use for the basis of design report which has not...

Managing Schedules

Schedules are used to organize the activities of the museum stakeholders and the predesign, design, and construction teams. Over the course of the project, you will develop several schedules which move from milestone schedules to very detailed schedules that describe activities and coordinate efforts of project stakeholders and the design and construction teams. Presdesign schedule. The predesign schedule is prepared around major milestone dates which are timed to obtain approvals by the...

Visitor Experience And Audiences

A successful museum in the twenty-first century serves as an advocate for the visitor. It is sensitive to visitor concerns, needs, and learning styles and in particular to an obligation to educate the public. Museums are no longer only institutions that preserve heritage they are engaged with communities in a proactive effort to improve society. This mandate has been endorsed by the museum profession for at least twenty years. Museums seek to be relevant in this world with a focus on service to...

Bid And Construction Phase Management Bid Phase Management

No matter which construction procurement process is used, expect your time involvement, which may have slowed during later parts of contract doc umentation phase, to accelerate. During bidding, depending on the methodology, your museum project manager or your construction manager working with the design team will Prepare bid packages for bidders. Send out contract documents and respond in writing or with additional drawings to any questions to all bidders on scope or intent. These formal...

Planning And Managing Project Financing

The chief financial officer or business manager is the management staff member responsible for the overall financial health of the museum before and during the construction and after the new space becomes operational. He or she is an integral part of the steering committee and works closely with the director, the museum project manager, and the development officer in the development and implementation of budgets for the construction project, the capital campaign and associated communications...

Museum Buildings Construction And Design Manual

Closed to the Public The Impacts of Closing a Museum for Construction. Paper, George Washington University Museum Studies Program, 2006. American Association of Museums. National Standards and Best Practices for U.S. Museums. Commentary by Elizabeth E. Merritt. Washington, D.C. American Association of Museums, 2008. American Institute of Architects. The Architect's Handbook of Professional Practice, 13th ed. New York John Wiley, 2001. American Institute for Conservation of...

Selecting Project Team Members The Museum Project Manager

The first person the museum should select to work directly on the project is the project manager, who will be the critical link between the museum (the board, steering committee, working groups, and the museum staff), design team, and construction team. Where can you find the right person If the museum is part of a university or a local or state government, the owner of the museum, the university or the government entity, may supply the project manager. In such cases, project managers tend to...

Components Of A Communications Plan

Communication methods vary, and often the museum is not in complete control of the message. Internet websites, blogs, email, and the press are all ways in which information about the building project, whether negative or positive, can be disseminated with lightning speed. The traditional methods of internal and external communications through news articles, press briefings, paid advertising, and direct mail are a baseline expectation while many museums are employing technology to share...

Ethics Of Giving And Receiving

Before beginning a capital campaign, it is incumbent on the board of trustees to ensure that appropriate policies and procedures are in place with regard to sources of support. Some of these policies are procedural and some are more substantive, going to the heart of the museum's values. You and your board should be familiar with the 2000 update of the 1978 Code of Ethics by the American Association of Museums (AAM). It offers guidelines on governance, collections, and programs. Aware of...

Impact Of Closing A Museum During Construction

Renovation and expansion projects offer an opportunity to extend the museum's mission by increasing exhibition space or by adding and improving facilities for educational programming. A museum in the midst of a building project, however, must balance staying useful and open to the public, on the one hand, with completing the project in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner on the other. This section will explore how and why museums make the decision to close their facilities during...

The Project Steering Committee Steering Committee Structure

The board chair is the most likely individual to assume the lead role in steering the project. However, another board member may fill this role, particularly if the chair cannot commit a significant block of time to the effort. In such cases, another member of the board, someone with special expertise or a deep commitment to the project or a longtime museum supporter could fill that role. If necessary, the board may go outside its own membership or contract for services to find the full range...

Glossary

A E Short for Architect and Engineer, or Architecture and Engineering, in a single firm or with an architect hiring engineers under the architectural contract. AAM Short for American Association of Museums, the national professional association that serves the museum industry, publishes industry standards, and provides educational materials. AIA Short for American Institute ofArchitects, the national professional association that serves the architectural field, publishes industry standards, and...

Completing Construction And Closing Out Your Project

As construction moves toward completion, there is a great deal of excitement as well as activity which must be coordinated by your museum project manager in order to bring construction to a close and your new facility online. Depending on the size of your project, your museum project manager may need additional assistants who can take primary responsibility for coordinating other activities such as exhibit installation, IT AV media installation and integration, FF& E (fixtures, furnishing,...

Campaign Planning And Implementation

The first phase, called the quiet phase of the campaign, is an intensive planning period when the campaign committee along with museum staff and or consultants drafts a case statement, develops and integrates a campaign communications plan with all other communications planning, develops prospect lists, identifies potential key donors, determines the amount the campaign needs to raise, prepares a budget, undergoes training, develops operational policies, and oversees preparation of campaign...

Planning For Communications

From the very outset, your museum must develop a plan to keep internal and external stakeholders abreast of the building project. Communication with staff allows them to own the project and understand their role in the process. Timely and regular external communication before and during a building project keeps the public and external stakeholders aware of closings and project progress, and can build excitement and support for the project's completion and opening. After opening, your museum...

Notes

Douglas McLennan, Culture Clash Has the Business Model for Arts Institutions Outlived Its Usefulness Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2005,11. 2. In recent years business schools focusing on nonprofit management identify nonprofit organizations that generate earned income as nonprofit enterprises. See the Yale School of Management Program on Social Enterprise and the Duke University Fuqua School of Business Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship for extensive coverage of this...

Intellectual Framework

The visitor experience depends on the creation of an intellectual framework which builds on the core strengths and assets of the museum the collections, exhibits, research, and education and outreach programs. Creating these programs is the responsibility of museum staff, supported by the board, and with meaningful input from community stakeholders and outside experts. Staff involved should include curators, collections managers, educators, and other program specialists. Curators most often...