Beam And Girder Configuration

The orientation of beams and girders in a floor or roof framing system may depend on a variety of factors. In relation to the building at large, it may be advantageous to run girders parallel to the building's shorter axis, the direction most susceptible to lateral forces. In this way, these stronger members can contribute additional lateral resistance to the building through rigid frame action. Within individual column bays, it is usually more economical to run girders in the shorter direction...

Exposed Versus Concealed Services

In many buildings, the designer has a choice between exposing the mechanical and electrical services and concealing them above a suspended ceiling. Exposed services are the rule in warehouses and industrial buildings. In other types of buildings, exposed pipes and ducts can have an attractive, sculptural complexity. They are easy to reach for maintenance and revision. They make sense in many large, open buildings (athletic arenas, exhibition halls), as well as in certain other kinds of...

Central Systems Versus Local Systems

In a central system, heat is supplied to a building or extracted from it by large equipment situated in one or several large mechanical spaces. Air or water is heated or cooled in these spaces and distributed to the inhabited areas of the building by ductwork or piping to maintain comfortable temperatures. In a local system, independent, self-contained pieces of heating and cooling equipment are situated throughout the building, one or more in each room. Central systems are generally quieter...

Water Supply

Water from a municipal main reaches the building via an underground service pipe and a water meter. In warm climates, the meter may be outside the building, but in cold climates, it must be installed in a heated space, usually the basement or the mechanical equipment room. In many areas a tiny electronic readout, connected by wires to the inside water meter, is mounted on the outside of the building so that the meter reader does not need to enter the building. From the water meter, domestic...

Designing The Ceilingfloor Plenum Space

An above-ceiling location is ordinarily best for ductwork, which is often too large and bulky to fit above or within the structural floor, The wiring and ductwork must share the above-ceiling plenum space with lighting fixtures and sprinkler piping.This requires careful planning. Generally the lowest stratum, about 8 in. (200 mm) thick, is reserved for the sprinkler piping and lighting fixtures. Lighting fixture selection plays an important role in determining the thickness of this stratum,...

Daylighting Systems

This section will help you lay out the components of a daylighting system and estimate the size of daylight openings to provide the required levels of interior illumination for a project. Different tasks require different levels of illumination.The nature of a task, the need for accuracy and efficiency, and the visual acuity of the occupants are all contributing factors. For example, navigating the lobby of a commercial office building requires minimal attention to detail and is not a task with...

Fan Rooms And Outdoor Air Louvers

In an all-air system, an air handling unit in a fan room circulates air through a filter and thermostatically controlled hot water and chilled water coils to condition it. The conditioned air is ducted to the occupied spaces of the building. A return fan draws air from the occupied spaces into return grilles and back to the fan room through return ducts. Just before it passes through the heating and cooling coils again, a portion of the air is diverted by a damper and exhausted through a louver...

Checklist Of Core Components

Pianoforte Coda Miusre

The following is an alphabetical listing of components that are often incorporated into the cores of a building. For more information on any component, follow the accompanying page reference. Drinking fountains and water coolers (page 176) Dumbwaiters and vertical conveyors Elevator lobbies Freight elevators and freight rooms Passenger elevators Service elevators and service lobbies Escalators (page 184) Fan rooms (page 165) Fire hose and fire extinguishers cabinets (page 180) Mail chutes Mail...

Planning The Internal Arrangement Of The Cores

The ratio of the total floor area of the core or cores of a building to the floor area served varies widely from one building to the next. The average total area of the cores in 40- to 70-story New York City office buildings, including the stairways, toilets, elevators, and elevator lobbies, is approximately 27 of the open area of each floor served by the core. This ratio runs as high as 38 in some older buildings, but ranges around 20 to 24 in office towers of recent design. At the other...

Index Of Occupancies

You may use the following index of uses to determine the Occupancy Group classification for your project. If the specific use for your project is not listed, choose the most similar use based on comparisons of number and density of occupants, nature of the activity, and any associated fire- or life-safety risks. Once you have determined the building code Occupancy Group classifications for your project, you can use this information throughout the other sections of this book. If you are unsure...

Large Buildings

In large buildings energy consumption is most often dominated by internally generated heat loads, rather than by exterior climate conditions or characteristics of the building skin. The removal of heat generated by occupants, lighting, and equipment is quite often the most significant factor in the overall energy performance of a large building. In conditions such as these, daylighting can contribute significantly to energy savings. Natural daylight illumination is free.' Wherever daylighting...

Lateral Load Resisting Elements

Rigid frame action is possible in column and slab systems, although its effectiveness depends on the depth of the slab, particularly in the areas close to the columns.Where large lateral forces are expected with systems with shallow slabs, a deepening of the slab or the addition of structural beams between columns may be required to achieve sufficient lateral resistance. Shear walls or braced frames may also be used to develop lateral resistance in column and slab systems. These elements may be...

Mail Facilities

Vertical gravity chutes for mail deposit are often provided in multistory buildings. The chute occupies an area of about 5 X 15 in. (125 X 375 mm) in plan and terminates in a receiving box in the base of the building. Vertical mail conveyors are sometimes provided for delivery of mail in a large multistory office building. The mailroom at the base of the conveyor should be adjacent to the loading dock and can be sized at about o of 1 of the area it serves. The walls around the conveyor shaft...

Packaged Central Heating And Cooling Equipment

Packaged central heating and cooling equipment comes in two different configurations Single-packaged heating and cooling equipment combines the functions of a boiler room and chimney, a chilled water plant, and a fan room into a compact, rectangular, weatherproof unit that is specified, purchased, and installed as a single piece of equipment.The supply and return ducts from the building are connected through the roof or the wall of the building to the fan inside the packaged unit....

Sizing the Components

The heat pumps may be located above a dropped ceiling over the bathroom and dressing areas in hotel rooms, or below windows. A typical under-window heat pump unit is approximately 30 in. (760 mm) high, 12 in. (305 mm) deep, and 60 in. (1525 mm) long. An above-ceiling unit has approximately the same dimensions, with the 12-in. (305-mm) dimension vertical. For the dimensions of the other components of the system, see the chart on pages 190-191.

Small Buildings

Small building energy consumption tends to be driven primarily by heating and cooling loads associated with thermal exchange through the building's exterior skin.Thus, in cold climates energy consumption is dominated by the need to replace heat lost through the walls and roof during the cold months. In warmer regions energy consumption is driven by the removal of heat gained through the exterior envelope during the warm months. Daylighting design can contribute to the reduction of energy...

Standpipes

A standpipe is a large-diameter steel water pipe extending vertically through a building, with fire hose connections at every floor. There are two types of standpipes A wet standpipe is continually filled with water and is fitted with hoses for emergency use by building occupants. A dry standpipe contains no water and is reserved for use by firefighters. In case of fire, the firefighters supply water to the dry standpipe by connecting pumper trucks to a Y-shaped Siamese connection on the front...

Variations

In direct gain passive solar heating, sunlight enters south-facing windows and warms the interior directly. Roof overhangs or louvers are configured to block out high summer sun. Internal mass (masonry, concrete, large containers of water, or small containers of phase-change salts) must be provided, Concrete floor direct gain passive solar heating Concrete floor direct gain passive solar heating attached sunspace passive solar heating attached sunspace passive solar heating preferably in direct...

Waste Piping And Sewage Disposal

Sewage flows from each fixture through a trap into waste pipes that drain by gravity. To assure that the traps do not siphon dry and to maintain constant atmospheric pressure in the waste piping, a vent pipe is attached to the waste system near each trap. The vent pipes rise upward through the building until they penetrate the roof, where they are left open to the air. The vent pipes may be gathered together into a single pipe in the attic of the building to minimize the number of roof...

Where Do I Go From Here

Once you have determined the building code Occupancy Group classifications for your project, you can use this information throughout the other sections of this book. If you are unsure of where to go next, see page xi, How to Use This Book, for suggestions on how proceed. Boarding houses Bowling alleys Children's custodial homes Children's custodial homes, not more C than 10 ambulatory persons living in a dwelling unit as a single housekeeping unit Churches, places of worship A-2 Community halls...

Configuring Stabilizing Elements

The arrangement of shear walls, diagonal braces, or rigid joints in a structure is crucial to their effectiveness in resisting lateral forces acting on the building. As illustrated in the adjacent schematic floor plans, these elements may be placed within the interior of the building or at the perimeter, and they may be combined in a variety of ways. However, they must be arranged so as to resist lateral forces acting from all directions. This is usually accomplished by aligning one set of...

Zoning A Building For Heating And Cooling

Before attempting to select a heating and cooling system, rough out a zoning scheme for the building, establishing separately controlled zones so that thermal comfort can be achieved throughout a building despite conditions that differ between one space and another. Sometimes a zone should be no larger than a single room (a classroom, a hotel room). Sometimes a number of spaces with similar thermal requirements can be grouped into a larger zone (a group of offices that are occupied during the...

Total Shaft Area

Elevator Shaft Cooling

The total open area of all the mechanical and electrical shafts in a tall office building is normally equal to about 4 of the area served on each floor, and can be estimated at about half this amount for a low-rise building. This should be divided into at least two separate shafts to relieve the congestion that would otherwise occur where the vertical and horizontal distribution networks connect. It is especially effective to provide separate shafts for supply and return ducts because it is...