Fan Rooms And Outdoor Air Louvers

In an all-air system, an air handling unit in a fan room circulates air through a filter and thermostatically controlled hot water and chilled water coils to condition it. The conditioned air is ducted to the occupied spaces of the building. A return fan draws air from the occupied spaces into return grilles and back to the fan room through return ducts. Just before it passes through the heating and cooling coils again, a portion of the air is diverted by a damper and exhausted through a louver...

Checklist Of Core Components

The following is an alphabetical listing of components that are often incorporated into the cores of a building. For more information on any component, follow the accompanying page reference. Drinking fountains and water coolers (page 176) Dumbwaiters and vertical conveyors Elevator lobbies Freight elevators and freight rooms Passenger elevators Service elevators and service lobbies Escalators (page 184) Fan rooms (page 165) Fire hose and fire extinguishers cabinets (page 180) Mail chutes Mail...

Planning The Internal Arrangement Of The Cores

The ratio of the total floor area of the core or cores of a building to the floor area served varies widely from one building to the next. The average total area of the cores in 40- to 70-story New York City office buildings, including the stairways, toilets, elevators, and elevator lobbies, is approximately 27 of the open area of each floor served by the core. This ratio runs as high as 38 in some older buildings, but ranges around 20 to 24 in office towers of recent design. At the other...

Index Of Occupancies

You may use the following index of uses to determine the Occupancy Group classification for your project. If the specific use for your project is not listed, choose the most similar use based on comparisons of number and density of occupants, nature of the activity, and any associated fire- or life-safety risks. Once you have determined the building code Occupancy Group classifications for your project, you can use this information throughout the other sections of this book. If you are unsure...

Lateral Load Resisting Elements

Rigid frame action is possible in column and slab systems, although its effectiveness depends on the depth of the slab, particularly in the areas close to the columns.Where large lateral forces are expected with systems with shallow slabs, a deepening of the slab or the addition of structural beams between columns may be required to achieve sufficient lateral resistance. Shear walls or braced frames may also be used to develop lateral resistance in column and slab systems. These elements may be...

Laying Out Banks of Elevators

Elevators serving the same zone of the building should be arranged in a single bank so that waiting persons can keep all the doors in sight at one time. A bank of three in a row is the largest that is desirable four in a row is acceptable. Banks of elevators serving different zones of the building may open on opposite walls of the same elevator lobby or onto separate lobbies. The minimum width of an elevator lobby serving a single bank of elevators is 8 ft (2.45 m) and for a lobby with banks of...

Locating The Cores In The Building

A centrally located core leaves the daylit perimeter area of the building open for use. It also works efficiently with a scheme that distributes services horizontally from one set of shafts, because it minimizes duct and pipe sizes. The central location can be undesirable, however, because it interrupts the open space of the floor. A core at one edge of the building does not have this problem, but it may not be able to incorporate exit stairways that are separated widely enough (see page 245),...

Mail Facilities

Vertical gravity chutes for mail deposit are often provided in multistory buildings. The chute occupies an area of about 5 X 15 in. (125 X 375 mm) in plan and terminates in a receiving box in the base of the building. Vertical mail conveyors are sometimes provided for delivery of mail in a large multistory office building. The mailroom at the base of the conveyor should be adjacent to the loading dock and can be sized at about o of 1 of the area it serves. The walls around the conveyor shaft...

Masonry And Steel Construction

Open-web joists are the steel spanning elements most commonly used with loadbearing masonry construction because of the rela tively small concentrated loads produced where the joists bear on the walls. Where steel beams and girders bear upon masonry walls, pilasters may be required at points of support. For economy and strength, interior columns in such systems are typically structural steel rather than masonry. See pages 87-105 for information on EM steel construction. ST The sitecast and...

Packaged Central Heating And Cooling Equipment

Packaged central heating and cooling equipment comes in two different configurations Single-packaged heating and cooling equipment combines the functions of a boiler room and chimney, a chilled water plant, and a fan room into a compact, rectangular, weatherproof unit that is specified, purchased, and installed as a single piece of equipment.The supply and return ducts from the building are connected through the roof or the wall of the building to the fan inside the packaged unit....

Ratings For Wood Light Frame Joists

Wood light frame floors with nominal 1-in. (19-mm) subflooring and finish flooring can have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating when the underside of the framing is finished with -in. (16-mm) Type X gypsum board or its equivalent. 16 (406 mm) 14 (356 mm) 117 8 (295 mm) 91 2 (241 mm) 21'-5 (6.5 m) 19'-4 (5.9 m) 15'-10 (4.8 m) 13'-4 (4.1 m) 23'-2 (7.1 m) 20'-11 (6.4 m) 17'-1 (5.2 m) 14'-5 (4.4 m) 24'-8 (7.5 m) 22'-3 (6.8 m) 18'-2 (5.5 m) 15'-4 (4.7 m) 27'-1 (8.3 m) 24'-6 (7.5 m) 20'-0 (6.1 m) 16'-10...

Rib Layout For Waffle Slab Construction

Standard 19-in (483-mm) domes are used with ribs that are 5 in. (127 mm) wide to create a 24-in. (610-mm) module. Domes of 30 in. (762 mm) are used with 6-in. (152-mm) ribs to create a 36-in. (914-mm) module. Standard domes are also available for 4- and 5-ft (1.2- and 1.5-m) modules, and other square or rectangular sizes can be specially ordered. Solid heads must be created over all columns by omitting domes in the vicinity of each column and pouring the slab flush with the bottom of the ribs....

Variations

In direct gain passive solar heating, sunlight enters south-facing windows and warms the interior directly. Roof overhangs or louvers are configured to block out high summer sun. Internal mass (masonry, concrete, large containers of water, or small containers of phase-change salts) must be provided, Concrete floor direct gain passive solar heating Concrete floor direct gain passive solar heating attached sunspace passive solar heating attached sunspace passive solar heating preferably in direct...

Waste Piping And Sewage Disposal

Sewage flows from each fixture through a trap into waste pipes that drain by gravity. To assure that the traps do not siphon dry and to maintain constant atmospheric pressure in the waste piping, a vent pipe is attached to the waste system near each trap. The vent pipes rise upward through the building until they penetrate the roof, where they are left open to the air. The vent pipes may be gathered together into a single pipe in the attic of the building to minimize the number of roof...

Where Do I Go From Here

Once you have determined the building code Occupancy Group classifications for your project, you can use this information throughout the other sections of this book. If you are unsure of where to go next, see page xi, How to Use This Book, for suggestions on how proceed. Boarding houses Bowling alleys Children's custodial homes Children's custodial homes, not more C than 10 ambulatory persons living in a dwelling unit as a single housekeeping unit Churches, places of worship A-2 Community halls...

Wood Stud Walls Normal Height

Studs supporting roof only 2 X4 24o.c. (38 X 89 mm 610 mm o.c.) 2 X6 24 o.c. (38 X 140 mm 610 mm o.c.) Studs supporting one floor and roof 2 X4 16 o.c. (38 X 89 mm 406 mm o.c.) 2 X6 24 o.c. (38 X 140mm 610 mm o.c.) Studs supporting two floors and roof 2 X6 16 o.c. (38 X 140 mm 406 mm o.c.) Studs supporting three floors and roof 2 X8 16 o.c. (38 X 406 mm 184 mm o.c.) Studs supporting roof only 2 X4 24o.c. (38 X 89 mm 610 mm o.c.) 2 X6 24 o.c. (38 X 140 mm 610 mm o.c.) Studs supporting one floor...

Building Design Development

As a design progresses and building configuration continues to develop, the impact of daylighting should be investigated in more detail and with more attention to specific local conditions. For example, a building not oriented on the cardinal points of the compass may interact with early morning and late afternoon sun in ways that require more detailed investigation. Local topography and climatic conditions may affect access to daylight at various times of the day or year. Adjacent structures...

Configuring Stabilizing Elements

The arrangement of shear walls, diagonal braces, or rigid joints in a structure is crucial to their effectiveness in resisting lateral forces acting on the building. As illustrated in the adjacent schematic floor plans, these elements may be placed within the interior of the building or at the perimeter, and they may be combined in a variety of ways. However, they must be arranged so as to resist lateral forces acting from all directions. This is usually accomplished by aligning one set of...

Plumbing Walls Janitor Closets And Toilet Rooms

Janitors Room

Fixtures in bathrooms, toilet rooms, shower rooms, kitchens, laundries, and other areas with plumbing should back up to plumbing walls.A plumbing wall has an internal cavity large enough to house the supply, waste, and vent piping necessary to serve the fixtures. Plumbing walls should be stacked vertically from the bottom of the building to the top. It is possible to offset plumbing walls a few feet from one floor to the next, but the horizontal offsets are expensive and cause maintenance...

Zoning A Building For Heating And Cooling

Before attempting to select a heating and cooling system, rough out a zoning scheme for the building, establishing separately controlled zones so that thermal comfort can be achieved throughout a building despite conditions that differ between one space and another. Sometimes a zone should be no larger than a single room (a classroom, a hotel room). Sometimes a number of spaces with similar thermal requirements can be grouped into a larger zone (a group of offices that are occupied during the...

Total Shaft Area

Elevator Shaft Cooling

The total open area of all the mechanical and electrical shafts in a tall office building is normally equal to about 4 of the area served on each floor, and can be estimated at about half this amount for a low-rise building. This should be divided into at least two separate shafts to relieve the congestion that would otherwise occur where the vertical and horizontal distribution networks connect. It is especially effective to provide separate shafts for supply and return ducts because it is...