Plumbing Walls Janitor Closets And Toilet Rooms

Fixtures in bathrooms, toilet rooms, shower rooms, kitchens, laundries, and other areas with plumbing should back up to plumbing walls.A plumbing wall has an internal cavity large enough to house the supply, waste, and vent piping necessary to serve the fixtures. Plumbing walls should be stacked vertically from the bottom of the building to the top. It is possible to offset plumbing walls a few feet from one floor to the next, but the horizontal offsets are expensive and cause maintenance headaches. A typical plumbing wall arrangement, complete with janitor closet, is illustrated and dimensioned on the diagram to the right. The given widths are adequate for floor-mounted fixtures. If wall-hung fixtures are used, a 24 in. (600 mm) dimension is needed to accommodate the fixture carriers.

Fixture requirements for toilet rooms are established by plumbing codes and vary widely from one code to the next. Requirements for the model plumbing codes included in this book are reproduced on the following pages. The designer must also keep in mind the general requirement that toilet rooms be usable by disabled persons. For detailed layout dimensions of toilet rooms and accessible facilities, consult Architectural Graphic Standards.

Janitors Room

Minimum janitor closet 8'-0" X 4'-6" (2.44 X 1.37 m)

Minimum Toilet Fixture Requirements in the International Building Code

Consult the table on the facing page to determine the minimum number of toilet fixtures required based on the type of occupancy and number of occupants served. See pages 7-10 for more information on determining the occupancy type for your building, and page 270 for determining occupant load. For occupancy types not listed in the table, select the most comparable type in terms of patterns of use and occupant density.

When determining fixture requirements, the following should also be considered:

■ Under most circumstances separate toilet facilities are required for each sex. Separate facilities are not required for private facilities, for areas where the total occupant load is 15 or less, or for employee facili-

176 ties where 15 or fewer persons are employed.

■ Fixture requirements should be based on the assumption of equal numbers of male and female occupants, unless an unequal distribution of the sexes in the occupant population can be demonstrated.

■ For male toilet facilities, urinals may be substituted for not more than two-thirds of the required water closets.

■ In most circumstances, required toilet facilities must be located in the same building as the area served, be located not more than one floor above or below the occupied area, and be reachable along a path of travel distance not exceeding 500 ft (152 m).

■ In covered malls, the maximum path of travel to toilet facilities must not exceed 300 ft (91 m). Facilities may be located within individual stores or be centrally located. Where facilities are centrally located, the path of travel is measured from each store's main entrance to the facilities.

■ In most areas occupied by both employees and members of the public such as customers or tenants, the required facilities for each occupant group may be combined. In Institutional occupancies, employee and patient or inmate facilities must be separate, with the exception of Residential Care facilities, where they may be combined.

■ One-, Two- and Multifamily Residential occupancies must provide, in addition to the requirements of the table below, one kitchen sink per dwelling unit. One- and Two-Family occupancies must provide one automatic clothes washer connection per dwelling unit, and Multifamily occupancies must provide one such connection per 20 dwelling units.

■ Required toilet room facilities must be free of charge.

■ At least one service sink for maintenance personnel should be provided per floor or use area.

Accessible Toilet Facilities in the International Building Code

In buildings required to provide access to disabled persons, accessible routes must be provided to toilet and bathing facilities, and each facility must have at least one accessible fixture of each type. In toilet rooms with partitioned water closet compartments, at least one such compartment must be wheel chair accessible.Where six or more compartments are provided, one additional compartment must be at least 36 in. (914 mm) in width, must have an outward-swinging door, and must be equipped with grab bars. In accessible buildings at least one-half of the required drinking fountains, but no fewer than one per floor, must be accessible.

In Group A Assembly and Group M Mercantile occupancies, unisex toilet rooms that provide private access to facilities for disabled individuals and their assistants are required wherever an aggregate of six or more male or female water closets are required. In recreational facilities providing separate-sex bathing facilities with more than one set of fixtures in each bathing room, at least one unisex bathing room is also required. Generally, unisex toilet or bathing rooms should have only one set of each fixture type, although in some circumstances separate-sex facilities with two water closets may be used to meet the unisex facility requirement. Unisex facilities must be located on accessible routes, not more than one story above or below the area of occupancy, and with a maximum path of travel distance of 500 ft (152 m). Unisex toilet and bathing facilities may be counted toward the total fixture requirements in a space.

In addition to noting the International Building Code requirements summarized here, be sure to determine what other codes or regulations pertaining to accessibility, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, may apply to your project.

Occupancy

Water Closets

Lavatories

Bathrooms/ Showers

Drinking Fountains

Assembly

Coliseums, arenas with 3000 seats or more

Coliseums, arenas with less than 3000 seats

Stadiums with 3000 seats or more

Stadiums, pools, etc. with less than

3000 seats Theaters, halls, museums, etc.

Churches

Nightclubs Restaurants

Business

Educational

Factory and industrial

Passenger terminals and transportation facilities

Institutional

Residential care

Hospitals, ambulatory nursing homes

Day nurseries, sanitariums, nonambulatory nursing homes, etc.

Employees, other than residential care

Visitors to institutional facilities, other than residential care

Prisons

Asylums, reformatories, etc.

Male: 1 per 120 Female: 1 per 60 Male: 1 per 75 Female:1 per 40 Male: 1 per 150 Female: 1 per 75 Male: 1 per 100 Female: 1 per 50 Male: 1 per 125 Female: 1 per 65 Male: 1 per 150 Female: 1 per 75 1 per 40 1 per 75

1 per 50 1 per 50 1 per 100

1 per 500 1 per 10

1 per room, or 1 per two adjacent rooms when provided with direct access from each room 1 per 15

1 per 25

1 per 75

1 per cell 1 per 15

Male: 1 per 200 Female: 1 per 150 1 per 150

Male: 1 per 200 Female: 1 per 150 1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 200

1 per 75 1 per 200

1 per 80 1 per 50 1 per 100

1 per 750

1 per 10

1 per room, or 1 per two adjacent rooms when provided with direct access from each room 1 per 15

1 per 35

1 per 100

1 per cell 1 per 15

None

None

None

None

None

None

None None

None None

Emergency showers and eyewash stations may be required None

1 per 15, but 1 only within day nurseries

1 per 1000

1 per 15 1 per 15

1 per 1000

1 per 500

1 per 1000

1 per 500 1 per 500

1 per 100 1 per 100 1 per 400

1 per 1000

1 per 100 1 per 100

1 per 100

1 per 100

1 per 500

1 per 100 1 per 100

W Zj

Mercantile Residential

Hotels, motels

Lodges, dormitories

Multiple family, one- and two-family dwellings

1 per 500

1 per guestroom 1 per 10

1 per dwelling unit

1 per 750

1 per guest room 1 per 10

1 per dwelling unit

1 per guest room 1 per 8

1 per dwelling unit

1 per 1000

None 1 per 100 None none none none

Storage

1 per 100

1 per 100

Emergency showers 1 per 1000 and eyewash stations may be required

Minimum Toilet Fixture Requirements in the National Building Code of Canada

Consult the table on the facing page to determine the minimum number of toilet fixtures required for projects located in Canada based on the type of occupancy and number of occupants served. See pages 11-13 for more information on determining the occupancy type for your building, and page 277 for determining occupant load.

In determining fixture requirements, the following should also be considered:

■ Under most circumstances, separate toilet facilities are required for each sex. Separate facilities are not required for Assembly, Residential, Business and Personal Services, Mercantile, and Industrial Occupancy Groups with an occupant load of 10 or less.

178 ■ Fixture requirements should be

- based on the assumption of equal numbers of male and female occu pants, unless an unequal distribution of the sexes in the occupant population can be demonstrated with reasonable accuracy.

■ For male toilet facilities, urinals may be substituted for not more than two-thirds of the required water closets. Where only two water closets are required, a urinal may be substituted for one closet.

■ For Business and Personal Service Occupancy Groups with a floor area of more than 600 m2 (6460 sq ft), toilet facilities must be available to the public.

Accessible Toilet Facilities in the National Building Code of Canada

Most buildings must provide at least one accessible, barrier-free washroom. All washrooms on floors requiring barrier-free access must themselves be barrier-free, except that barrier-free washrooms are not required:

■ Within a residential occupancy suite

■ Where other barrier-free facilities are located on the same floor area and within a path of travel of 45 m (148 ft)

■ Within individual suites less than 500 m2 (5380 sq ft) in area that are separated from the rest of the building and to which no barrier-free access is provided.

In Assembly occupancies with shower facilities, at least one shower stall must be barrier-free.

Special barrier-free, single-fixture, unisex washrooms may be provided as an alternative to the barrier-free washroom requirements above. When such special washrooms are provided, the occupant load used to calculate fixture requirements for the general public may be reduced by 10 persons in Assembly, Business and Personal Services, Mercantile, or Industrial occupancies, as well as in primary schools, day care facilities, places of worship, and undertaking premises.

Occupancy

Number of Occupants of Each Sex

Number of Water Closets

Lavatories

Occupancy

Lavatories

Assembly

1-50

Male: 1 male; Female: 2

At least 1, and not

less than 1 for

every 2 water

closets

51-75

Male: 2; Female: 3

76-100

Male: 2; Female: 4

101-125

Male: 3; Female: 5

126-150

Male: 3; Female: 6

151-175

Male: 4; Female: 7

176-200

Male: 4; Female: 8

201-250

Male: 5; Female: 9

251-300

Male: 5; Female: 10

301-350

Male: 6; Female: 11

351-400

Male: 6; Female: 12

Over 400

Male: 7 plus 1 for each

additional increment

of 200 occupants;

Female: 13 plus 1 for

each additional increment

of 100 occupants

Primary schools and day care

Male: 1 per 30

Same as above

centers

Female: 1 per 25

Places of worship and

Any number

1 per 50

Same as above

undertaking premises

Care or detention occupancy

Any number

Based on the specific

Same as above

needs of the occupants

on a case-by-case basis

Residential

Any number

1 per 10

Same as above

Dwelling units

Any number

1 per unit

Same as above

Business and personal services

1-25

1

Same as above

26-50

2

Over 50

3 plus 1 for each additional

increment of 50 occupants

Mercantile

Any number

Male: 1 per 300

Same as above

Female:1 per 150

Industrial

1-10

1

Same as above

11-25

2

26-50

3

51-75

4

76-100

5

Over 100

6 plus 1 for each additional

increment of 30 occupants

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