Classification societies

There are many classification societies which co-operate through the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) (, including:

American Bureau of Shipping

Bureau Veritas

China Classification Society

Det Norske Veritas

Germanischer Lloyd

Korean Register of Shipping

Lloyds Register of Shipping

Nippon Kaiji Kyokai

Registro Italiano Navale

Russian Maritime Register of Shipping

As with IMO, a lot of information on the classification societies can be gleaned from their web sites. The work of the classification societies is exemplified by Lloyd's Register (LR) of London which was founded in 1760 and is the oldest society. It classes some 6700 ships totalling about 96 million in gross tonnage. When a ship is built to LR class it must meet the requirements laid down by the society for design and build. LR demands that the materials, structure, machinery and equipment are of the required quality. Construction is surveyed to ensure proper


standards of workmanship are adhered to. Later in life, if the ship is to retain its class, it must be surveyed at regular intervals. The scope and depth of these surveys reflect the age and service of the ship. Thus, through classification, standards of safety, quality and reliability are set and maintained. LR have developed a Hull Condition Monitoring Scheme to assist in the inspection and maintenance of tankers and bulk carriers. A database is created using a vessel representation program to generate the structural codes, geometry and rule and renewal thickness of individual plates and stiffeners. Results of class surveys and owners' inspections are input to the database which can be accessed on board ship or ashore. Tabular and graphical outputs are available.

Classification applies to ships and floating structures extending to machinery and equipment such as propulsion systems, liquefied gas containment systems and so on.

For many years Lloyd's Rules were in tabular form basing the scantlings required for different types of ship on their dimensions and tonnage. These gave way to rational design standards and now computer based assessment tools allow a designer to optimise the design with minimum scantlings and making it easier to produce. For a ship to be designed directly using analysis requires an extensive specification on how the analyses are to be carried out and the acceptance criteria to apply. Sophisticated analysis tools are needed to establish the loads to which the ship will be subject.

Classification societies are becoming increasingly involved in the classification of naval vessels. Typically they cover the ship and ship systems, including stability, watertight integrity, structural strength, propulsion, fire safety and life saving. They do not cover the weapon systems themselves but do cover the supporting systems. A warship has to be 'fit for service' as does any ship. The technical requirements to make them fit for service will differ, as would the requirements for a tanker and for a passenger ship. In the case of the warship the need to take punishment as a result of enemy action, including shock and blast, will lead to a more rugged design. There will be more damage scenarios to be considered with redundancy built into systems so that they are more likely to remain functional after damage.

The involvement of classification societies with naval craft has a number of advantages. It means warships will meet at least the internationally agreed safety standards to which merchant ships are subject. The navy concerned benefits from the world wide organisation of surveyors to ensure equipment, materials or even complete ships are of the right quality.

Lloyd's is international in character and is independent of government but has delegated powers, as do other classification societies, to carry out many of the statutory functions mentioned earlier. They carry out surveys and certification on behalf of more than 130 national


administrations. They also carry out statutory surveys covering the international conventions on load lines, cargo ship construction, safety equipment, pollution prevention, grain loading and so on, and issue International Load Line Certificates, Passenger Ship Safety Certificates and so on. The actual registering of ships is carried out by the government organisation. Naturally owners find it easier to arrange registration of their ships with a government, and to get insurance cover, if the ship has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of a classification society.

Lloyd's Register must not be confused with Lloyd's of London, the international insurance market, which is a quite separate organisation although it had similar origins.

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.

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