Ebook On Drawing Pencil Portraits
Schell Lewis makes his pencil renderings on tracing paper, using a rag bond with a good tooth not slick or smooth. Aftera perspective line drawing and a preliminary study (Figure 9.13a) are made, another sheet of tracing paper is placed over the line drawing, and the finished rendering is made, beginning at
The carbon pencil isa much more versatile instrument than thegraphitepencil. Basically, a combination of carbon andasort ofgum paste ispressed intoastick, and then encased in a wooden container in much the same way as a graphite pencil. Beyond this basic similarity of general appearance, the two have little in common. Whereas the graphite pencil glides across the paper, thecarbon pencil grips it. When it is.drawn across the paper it produces a clean, dry line, jet-black in tone, velvety in quality. The carbon pencil, of which the Wolff pencil (made in England) is most widely known, is made in six degrees soft-textured paper such as kid-finish bristol board, tracing paper, vellum, charcoal paper, pastel paper, or any of the colored illustration and poster boards. Its sole disadvantage is that the point breaks easily for this reason, it is advisable to hand-sharpen the pencil very carefully with a sharp knife, exposing only about lA inch of the carbon. Care must be taken not to nick the...
A good understanding of the principles of perspective is necessary to create an accurate and visually appealing piece of art. Perspective drawings are forms of pictorial drawing. Blueprint readers may not see a perspective drawing very often, but they will undoubtedly appreciate the descriptive information it offers. Perspective drawing is a system for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. It utilizes either one, two, or three points to where the receding lines will vanish. These vanishing points are placed along a horizontal line called a horizon line. In perspective drawings receding lines are no longer parallel to each other as in oblique or isometric drawings. In perspective drawings, distant objects appear smaller but have the same shape and proportions as they would close up. In other words, as objects are further away, they become smaller and appear to vanish into the distance. The general principle behind perspective drawing is simple and shares many features...
Perspective drawing is a system for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. The general principle behind it is simple, and shares many features with the way people actually perceive space and objects in it. It depends essentially on four interconnected criteria that will invariably affect the final image the level of our eyes when viewing the scene or object, and thus determining the horizon line, the distance from the picture plane to the object, the distance from the station point to the object and cone of vision, and the angle of object to the picture plane (Figure 4.15). The law of perspective parallel lines that lie in the same plane will appear to converge at a point on the horizon (at the eye level).The point of apparent convergence is called the vanishing point (VP). This is true whether we view an object placed at an angle, such as a building seen from the corner or look into a space, such as a room, (Figures 4.16, 4.17). In essence, there are three basic...
Medium Colored pencil on tracing paper medium Colored pencil on tracing paper Fig. 17.23 Office Interior architect Zeph Ginsberg, Architect renderer Robert Zaccone, A.I.A. media Pen and ink, watercolor, airbrush, and colored pencil on Bainbridge board Fig. 17.23 Office Interior architect Zeph Ginsberg, Architect renderer Robert Zaccone, A.I.A. media Pen and ink, watercolor, airbrush, and colored pencil on Bainbridge board g 17.24 V.I.P. Apartment' Sedroom for the State of Kuwait a&chitect Swanke Hayden Connell Ltd. nderer Robert Zaccone, A.I.A. media Pen and ink, airbrush, watercolor. and colored pencil on Bainbridge board g 17.25 V.I.P. Apartment' Lnnng Room for the State of Kuwait architect Swanke Hayden Connell Ltd. 5enderer Robert Zaccone, a.I.a. media Pen and ink, airbrush, watercolor, end colored pencil on Bainbridge board
Preparation for an airbrush rendering is similar to that for brush tempera. The perspective line drawing is applied to the sheet or illustration board with a clean pencil line, making certain that the drawing is entirely clean before any work is begun. If any dirt such as a fingerprint is present, it will show through the airbrush washes. As mentioned before, the value study and color study are both of the utmost importance and must bo relied upon heavily in the course of working with this medium.
Figure 2-2 The three types of pencils available for designers are the wood-cased pencil, the traditional leadholder, and the fine-line mechanical pencil. Figure 2-2 The three types of pencils available for designers are the wood-cased pencil, the traditional leadholder, and the fine-line mechanical pencil. Hard pencil leads are used for drawings, light layouts, and drawings requiring a high degree of accuracy. pencil line control is needed. To expose the lead, the wood shell is cut away by a draftsman's pencil sharpener. However, the sharpener only cuts the wood and does not touch the lead. To point the lead, the designer can use a lead pointer, which forms the lead into a conical point. If a wedge point is desired, rubbing the lead on sandpaper can form it. Wood-cased pencils come in a variety of different lead weights, ranging from 9H (extremely hard) to 6B (extremely soft). These leads are explained later in this chapter. This type of mechanical pencil is made of metal or plastic,...
The schedule, which is located adjacent to the furniture plan, may simply be in the form of a legend indicating codes and the generic types of furniture they refer to, such as C for chair or TA for table, and not specific product information. The codes must then be explained in more detail in the job or control book, as seen in the example in Figure 12-4. In the job or control book, trade names, product numbers, color names, and other specific details are given. A photograph or line drawing may be included as well as an actual piece of the finish or upholstery fabric. Figure 12-5 shows a page from a job book in which a chair is specified for a project.
Excellent results may be obtained by rendering plot plans in pen and ink and watercolor. Such drawings may be applied to cold-pressed stretches or to illustration boards with the same surface. The plan of the building is first placed upon the sheet in graphite pencil. Lach contour is drawn with a clean pencil line, and textures such as those for the terrace and tile are laid out. Trees and other details such as rock outcroppings are first drawn in pencil. Shadows are applied upon the ground as if the plan were cut 4 feet above floor level. The entire grass area is rendered first, with the same number of light washes as there are contours. The first pale wash of this color is applied to the highest contour, then (after the first wash is dry), to the second highest contour, then to the third highest, fourth highest, etc., until the lowest contour has been given one wash.
As in pencil rendering, the perspective drawing should be transferred to the rendering paper with a graphite pencil (see Chapter 3). Extreme care should be Before the final rendering is begun, a preliminary pen sketch should be made on a sheet of tracing paper placed over the perspective drawing. This, of course, should not be a complete rendering, but rather an experimental drawing in which various parts of the building and textures can be studied. In particular,
Plastic or Mylar pencils work best with Mylar film because they are compatible media, as illustrated in Figure 15.1. Graphite pencils (11, F, and B leads) can be used, but the delineator should be careful not to smear the image while working with this medium. Ink is an outstanding medium on Mylar and can be applied by pen, brush, and airbrush, as shown in Figure 15.2. Ink can be a problem in that it may flake from the surface of the drawing when dry. For color renderings it is possible to paint or airbrush large areas with Easter-egg or food-coloring dyes mixed with vinegar. This technique will not damage the Mylar surface, and later detailing can be done with plastic pencil, graphite pencil, and ink. The Easter-egg and food-coloring dyes can be removed with Mylar erasers for changes at any lime. To remove these dyes from Mylar, tho delineator should first moisten the area to be changed with a small amount of water on a Q-tip, and then carefully erase, using a Mylar eraser.
The same building, reducing it to a line drawing, whose line comprised a series of tiny numbers the numerical series was hard to read from a distance, giving the line a halting, fragmented quality analogous to the pavilion's construction. In common with all Niemeyer's large-scale work, the futurity of the design contrasts with the crudeness of the construction methods. At the pavilion, as elsewhere, the utopian first impression does not long survive. Climachauska's image makes this plain.38 Perhaps the best-known Brazilian artist to be exhibited outside Brazil in recent years is Helio Oiticica, whose work has been the subject of major exhibitions at the Whitechapel, Tate and Barbican galleries in London since 2000. Oiticica's attitude to architectural Modernism was ambiguous. On the one hand, his interest in the favela (see chapter Four) suggested a profoundly critical attitude to the formal city on the other, many of his sculptural and relief works extend Modernist architectural...
Figure 1-1 Sketching existing objects and spaces helps designers develop their freehand drawing skills. Figure 1-1 Sketching existing objects and spaces helps designers develop their freehand drawing skills. Figure 1-2 Designers can use their freehand drawing skills to visualize and sketch new spaces and objects. Figure 1-2 Designers can use their freehand drawing skills to visualize and sketch new spaces and objects.
The entire perspective for the rendering in Figure 9.16 was constructed on tracing paper and then reproduced on charcoal paper by placing a large sheet of white carbon paper between the tracing paper and the charcoal paper (carbon side down). Each line of the perspective was traced with a 3H pencil, lightly but firmly, to reproduce it on the rendering paper below. It is necessary to use carbon paper because thecarbon pencil will not take on lines which have been drawn by a graphite pencil, but will slide off. Fig. 9.17 Shading Made with a B Carbon Pencil. Fig. 9.17 Shading Made with a B Carbon Pencil.
Practice does not require that you spend your time entirely on location drawing. The home and the design studio or workshop provide ample opportunity to develop eye-to-hand co-ordination or to test the rules of perspective drawing. By looking at the outline of the subject and infilling part or all of the detail - whether it be a drawing of a chair or cup and saucer - you will quickly develop the basic skills necessary for sketching in the street. The importance of spontaneous, relaxed drawing cannot be overemphasised. While you might be concentrating on organising the angled lines of a scene into a sound perspective framework, the fact that you are sketching at all is of the greatest importance. Unlike the first notes on a piano or trumpet, the artist's scribbles are largely a private affair and should not disturb the Derelict industrial areas (in this case on the edge of Birmingham) provide much material upon which to practise different drawing techniques.
Webb was born in Oxford, son of a physician with drawing skills and a mother equally talented. Both taught him to draw. He intended to be a painter but changed his mind when, at seventeen, his father died. In 1849 he was articled to John Billing in Reading, worked as his assistant until 1854, then moved to Bidlake and Lovatt in Wolverhampton - an experience that appears to have exposed him to the horrors of the Industrial Revolution. Two months later he had moved to Oxford to work for G.E. Street at half the salary. Here, as Street's chief assistant, he met William Morris. In 1856 the office moved to London and Webb, together with Morris became members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. In 1858 Morris, about to marry, asked Webb to design him a house in south-east London what was to become the famous Red House (named after its red bricks and tiles).
The development of perspective drawing by ihe painters and architects of the fifteenth century gave them and all who lived after them a means of combining in one drawing width, depth, and height. Drawings made before that time were distorted and flat. For about four centuries the three-dimensional perspective was used by artist and architect alike, and many painters produced pictures of existing buildings and also worked along with architects to render in perspective buildings still on the drawing board. When the camera was invented early in the nineteenth century, the photographer quickly took the place of the artist in painting existing architecture. Artists began to seek new means of expression that the camera could not duplicate and found such expression in the cubists' use of a fourth dimension and in abstraction, dadaism, expressionism, fantasy, tauvism, and the like. Many artists, shunning realism, followed the new movement and no longer worked with architects. Cubists, for...
The trend in art, design and architectural education is to 'integrate' drawing with projects. Stand-alone drawing classes tend not to occur beyond the foundation years. The main difficulty with the concept of integration is how to develop drawing skills in parallel with project ones. The task of design tends to become dominant over that of drawing and increasingly, to fill the gap, students and design professionals rely upon computer-based drawing packages (Schenk 1998). This further distances the student from learning through drawing or matching the complexity of design projects with equally complex modes of traditional drawing techniques. Also, since drawing is the means whereby there can be a marriage of art and architecture, to neglect freehand sketching is to undermine the alliance of art, sculpture and architecture upon which the twenty-first century seems increasingly reliant.
The two gardens of Shisen-do in Kyoto and Jiko-m near Nara are closely related to academic Chinese bunjin painting. This bunjm tradition is similarly reflected in a secret garden text composed in 1680 by the print-maker and man of letters Hishikawa Morono-bu, entitled Yokei tsukuri niwa nozu, Garden Drawings for the Creation of Specific Views . In this single volume he suggests eighteen ways of creating gardens having particular atmospheres, in double-page illustrations employing the sophisticated drawing techniques of the day. At the top of each illustration he describes the scenic ingredients necessary to create the garden in question - whether famous sights in China or Japan, seasonal scenery or poetic lore and thereby falls fully in line with the secret oral traditions of Japanese garden art.
Acoma Pueblo Terraced houses are well designed to absorb the low winter sun and protect from the higher summer sun. (Perspective drawing by Gary S. Shigemura in Energy and Form by Knowles 1974,27.) Acoma Pueblo Terraced houses are well designed to absorb the low winter sun and protect from the higher summer sun. (Perspective drawing by Gary S. Shigemura in Energy and Form by Knowles 1974,27.)
Three-point perspective is a development of two-point perspective and is usually used for buildings seen from above or below. Like two-point perspective it has two vanishing points somewhere on the horizon and a third somewhere above or below the horizon line toward which the verticals converge (Figure 5.30). This means that the object is either tilted to the picture plane or the spectator's central axis of vision is inclined upward or downward and the picture plane is tilted. Three-point perspectives usually indicate that the spectator is very close to the object or that the object is very large. It is best used for drawing tall objects such as buildings, although this form of perspective is not widely used in architectural presentations. Its best use may be to show a particular viewpoint of a tall object such as a skyscraper. This type of drawing is sometimes called an oblique perspective drawing, as the vertical lines are drawn to the third vanishing point not located on the...
A perspective line drawing is first applied to the paper or illustration board by the method described in Chapter 3. A val ue study and a color study must be made for each project, and an explorat ion of the color scheme selected should be made before the rendering is begun, as described in Chapter 12. With the exception of renderi ngs on colored paper, i t is advisable to cover al I portions of the paper with tempera, even areas that must be painted white, since any portions not covered in such drawings would have a different appearance from the tempera.
Whilst all architects interviewed designed primarily by drawing, not all employed the pen. Foster, for instance, designs mainly in pencil (HB) because of its flexibility and textural potential. The dogmatic nature of black pen lines worries Foster and he feels they suggest a solution too soon. Allan Murray, who also designs in soft pencil (2B) on detail paper, enjoys the way pencil glides over paper giving the author the ability to alter the weight of line in a way that reflects the hierarchies implicit in architectural briefs. He also notes that pencil leads to drawings that, with their many revisions and erasings, provide a better narrative of the evolution of a design than the more bombastic pen drawing. To several of those interviewed line was the primary organisational device that allowed the problem to be defined and then solved. However, Alsop, who uses pencil (6-6B) and sometimes charcoal to describe lines that can then be filled in with colour (usually acrylic paint), refuses...
Think about places and buildings, and hence plays a significant part in how we might approach design. The use of perspective drawing, axonometric, figure-ground or shadow-enhanced image shapes our perception of the subject. The current fashionable interest in figure-ground representation has discouraged the deconstructed distortions of many designers. Five hundred years ago the discovery of geometric perspective led to a similar interest in spatial patterns, vistas and terminations. There comes a time when a more critical and analytical approach is needed, and here formal perspective drawings or computer simulation can be useful. But at the conceptual stage, when designs are still fluid and where a number of options need to be explored quickly, the sketch can be invaluable. At this point the designer will be relating the plan and form of the proposed building to such matters as function considering how to link patterns of circulation to the section and having initial thoughts
Like many small, isolated Japanese villages. Ihe community of Azuma-Mura in the mountains of Gunma prefecture dee ded that certain government credits would be well spent on a new museum. They organized a competition for a 3 000-square-meter facility to be dedicated to the work of a locally famous painter. Tomihiro Hoshino. Severely injured in a 1972 gymnastics accident, the artist began painting with pencil or brush held in his mouth He calls his work shi-ga - watercolors of flowers and poetry. As the architect puts it, his poetic images are an expression of his search for the essence of life, its simplicity and gentleness as reflected in the form of flowers. Of some 300 works painted by Tomihiro Hoshino in the past 30 years. 120 are to be exhibited in this museum at any one time Offices, a gift shop, caf , temporary exhibition space and a learning center were also part of the program requirements. As Neil Denan has written, the scheme has a formal relation to the artist's brush and...
On the other hand, the fact thatvertical lines in a perspective drawing appear to be considerably larger further back in the drawing than in the foreground, can be explained by the fact that the drawing is interpreted spatially. A line that is further away, i.e. in the background, must be longer than a line in the foreground in order to produce an equi-valently large retina image - in the depth of the space a line of effectively the same length will therefore be interpreted and perceived as being longer.
Tilt the board about 10 or 20 degrees by placing books or a wood block under the edge farthest from you. Using a small brush, place several drops of the mother wash in lA inch of clean water in a wash pan. Stir until the ink is thoroughly mixed. For practice, a cold-pressed illustration board rather than a stretch may be used. Draw six graphite pencil rectangles on the board, each about 4 inches wide and 6 inches high. Dilutea fewdropsofl liggins' waterproof ink in some water and outline each of these rectangles with a pen. After the diluted ink is dry, remove the graphite lines.
The outlines of the building were reproduced on the sheet with graphite pencil. Then each line was in turn drawn with a pale, thin, diluted waterproof-ink line, using a ruling pen with T square and triangle. The shadows were cast and outlined in the same manner. on tracing paper over the line drawing which had previously been inked, as in the practice washes.
He Gibson hypothesized that a faithful picture is a surface that reflects a sheaf of light rays to a point that is the same as the sheaf of rays coming from the depicted scene. According to this view a picture performs its representational function by providing the eye with the same variations in light energy as would the depicted scene Thus, a line drawing, which preserves relational information but not a point-by-point projection of light energies, may provide as accurate information as a photograph .Caricatures are paradoxical in that they do not present either the same sheaf of rays or the same nested visual solid angles as the things they represent yet, in a sense they are more faithful representation than photographs. (Gibson, 1982 226-227)
So far you have been working in model space, the part of AutoCasd that creates designs or models. In Chapter 11 we discussed creating drawings in model space by adjusting the title block size. In this chapter we will use paper space to create drawings. Paper space is much easier to use when you are dealing with multiple views.
Its correspondence with site characteristics appears to be the main concern of most architects. However, in the case of Murphy and Fraser the first drawing was frequently a marriage of plan and section explored on a single sheet. For Cullinan, on the other hand, the first drawing was generally an overhead axonometric and for Farrell it was frequently a diagrammatic section. For Alsop the first drawing that followed the painting stage was often an abstract composition of lines and marks in soft pencil or charcoal that encouraged him 'to see something in interesting and unfamiliar ways'. Alsop also talks about 'mark making' rather than the use of conventional architectural drawing techniques but after this explorative stage the first drawing is a plan. Conversely, Grimshaw approaches the design problem from both ends (site plan and construction detail), allowing the marriage of technology and materials to influence his thinking right at the beginning of the design process.
If used collaboratively, most of the previously discussed drawing techniques develop citizen skills and control. Several techniques are particularly empowering building community, choosing, and drawing everything essential. Participatory design builds community. Group graphic techniques developed by the landscape architect Daniel Iacofano consciously and effectively achieve this. By visualizing and recording each person's ideas about a design problem on a large sheet of paper, by consciously organizing the ideas by topic, by showing relationships between ideas, and by highlighting areas of agreement, Iacofano creates a shared experience that serves as a collective memory of a design process and heightens a sense of community. As a result, many previously disjointed communities come together to achieve a common goal.22 Although not as dramatic as the group graphic exercises described above, most collaborative drawing strengthens the sense of community among the participants if everyone...
Within this box parallel lines should be drawn and the position of the fingers marked in with a hard pencil the fingers are then cut in with a sharp knife, the waste lifted and the two veneers pushed tightly together and taped in position. Figure 292 illustrates the various stages, and the completed finger joint, which was not 'faked' in any way, shows the joint as a slight deviation only in the grain direction on the right-hand side of the completed panel. The method can also be used in random lengths of veneers, providing the grain is reasonably uniform throughout the several sheets.
Generation trained in the tradition of the freehand drawing but practising in an age where digital representation was the norm. The resulting tension between the screen and the sketchbook interested the author. The nine questions put to the architects can be divided into three types - those dealing with the relationship between drawing and thought processes, those dealing with drawing and problem solving, and those dealing with drawing techniques and communication.
These joints are sometimes used for bevel-sided hoppers, knife-boxes, etc., and although rarely used are worth describing for the sake or the principles involved in setting or laying out bevelled work. A full-size drawing is necessary from which the true length (A) and the true width (B) can be obtained (158), also the edge bevel in the thickness of each piece shown by the arrowed line (c). All the bevels are marked and worked holding the bevel at right angles to the edges of the sloping ends and not parallel with the sides. A marking-gauge cannot be used for setting out the dovetails, and depths etc. must be marked with pencil and adjustable bevel, while the dovetails are cut to slope equally either side of lines drawn parallel with the sides (see Canted dovetails above), but the pins are, of course, parallel. In cutting the dovetails above the piece should be canted to bring the cuts vertical, as in 158D but marking
The Preview Bar displays the predefined drawing methods that are available. 2 On the Preview Bar, click one of the drawing methods. The pointer changes to reflect drawing mode. Note There are four predefined drawing methods draw oval from corner, draw oval from center, draw circle from corner and draw circle from center.
This is an alternative method of drawing perspective which has the advantage that no plan has to be drawn. If the sizes are known, they can be used directly on the horizontal and vertical scales and a perspective drawing produced. Once the SP has been used to fix the measuring points (335 A) it can be ignored. As the object of such a perspective drawing is to convey the visual appearance only, and not to
Every lighting designer has to develop a communication technique that suits their style and fulfils their needs. The technique favoured by the author is to start by sketching an outline perspective of the space onto medium-grey paper. Shading is then filled in using soft pencil or black crayon, and highlights are picked out using white crayon. This technique of separately rendering the light and the shade is more than an effective communication tool. It is useful in the design development stage as it focuses thinking onto how the illumination distribution and the arrangement of luminous elements support the design objectives.
The first set of questions tried to tease out the cerebral role of drawing not just in terms of organising and solving abstract problems but also in relaying something of the thought processes of the designer. In this there was an attempt to discover the architects' inner thoughts and how they interfaced with traditional and electronic graphic tools. The second group of questions aimed to discover the specific nature of drawing in the more practical arenas posed by design problems, the type of drawings used at different points in the design process (using the RIBA Plan of Work as a guide), and the interrelationship between drawing, CAD and model-making. The third group sought to investigate the tools and techniques employed, particularly how and when the drawing becomes a shared design tool. The questions posed dealt only with the early stages of a design project the research had no interest in the perspective drawing prepared to simulate a final design nor with drawing as part of the...
The Preview Bar displays the predefined drawing methods that are available. 2 On the Preview Bar, click one of the drawing methods. The pointer changes to reflect drawing mode. Note There are four predefined drawing methods draw rectangle from corner, draw rectangle from center, draw square from corner and draw square from center.
FIGURE 3.24 Shade and shadow suggests volume as well as substance. Compare this illustration with Figure 3.5, a line drawing with no shade or shadow. FIGURE 3.24 Shade and shadow suggests volume as well as substance. Compare this illustration with Figure 3.5, a line drawing with no shade or shadow.
The rendered elevation and the fully rendered ground perspective were soon added to the architect's presentation of plan, section, and elevation (Figure 1.22). During this period, James Malton published An Essay on British Cottage Architecture, complete with rendered elevations. Figure 1.23 shows two of the simpler designs, both rendered in watercolor. Other media used were pen and ink wash used alone or with pen and ink or watercolor used alone, with pencil, or with pen and ink. Prepare a creamy mixture of a color say light blue in one cup, and place an equal amount of Chinese white in another. Divide each rectangle into 16-inch increments, and draw lines at these points with a pencil and straightedge ( Figure 13.3). To grade from dark to light, introduce a small amount of blue into the
While the carbon pencil has a slightly gritty feel when used on paper, the lithographic crayon pencil is smooth and somewhat waxy. It is used in the same manner and on the same kinds of paper as the carbon pencil (when it is used alone) and is capable of producing the same jet blacks, atmospheric effects, and tonal variations. The best known is Korns Lithographic Crayon Pencils, which are made in the following grades Like the carbon pencil, the lithographic pencil is excellent for indicating large expansive projects without actual detail, as shown in Figure 9.22, drawn by Hugh Ferriss. In this powerful rendering, the eye is drawn to the center of interest because the tones in that area were left light, and because the focal points were surrounded with rather deep (sometimes almost black) values.
The size of sketchbook depends upon the type of drawing you intend to do, and the medium you are working with. Large-format sketchbooks (A3-A2 in size) suit pastel drawing or watercolours rather than line drawing. As a rule, the finer the line, the smaller the sketchbook required. If you wish to mix line with paint then the effect is rather more of a painting than of a drawing, and consequently a large format is generally preferred. point for people learning to draw since corrections are easily made and the graphite or lead pencil has a 'graininess' suitable for many building subjects. Pencil also lends itself to depicting shade, light and shadow and this may be important in canyon-like street scenes. Pencil drawings have one other advantage they can be photocopied to highlight or darken the tentative lines of a timid artist. Indeed, modern photocopiers can be a useful adjunct not only can they encourage confidence in beginners, but in addition, several copies of a drawing may be...
Drawings for interior design projects generally use three line widths thick (dark), medium, and thin (light). Thick lines are generally twice as wide as thin lines, usually V32 inch or about 0.8 mm wide. Thin lines are approximately V inch or 0.4 mm wide. Medium lines fall between these two extremes. In pencil drawings, each type can be further broken down, depending on the variety of lead and level of pressure. With the variety of mechanical pencils on the market today, it is easy to control line widths. As discussed in Chapter 2, fine-line mechanical pencils are available in a 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, or 0.9 mm lead. By switching to different pencils, the drafter can vary line weight easily.
The perspective view produces a more realistic picture, as it attempts to duplicate the way our eyes actually see objects and space. In perspective drawing, parallel lines in space or on an object appear to converge to a common distant vanishing point, as illustrated in Figure 4-7. Perspective drawings resemble a photograph and are the most convincing of the drawing systems. They generally take more time to produce by hand, but computer generation has made the process less time-consuming. Paralines are usually faster and easier to develop than perspectives, as receding horizontal lines can be drawn with instruments, without calculating depths or drawing lines to a common vanishing point as is necessary in perspective drawings. However, when using computer-aided design (CAD), the speed of the rendering programs will govern which of these is produced the quickest. Paraline drawings are categorized according to the projection method used to develop them, and can be subdivided into two...
A value study is the best way to begin your preliminary investigation, whether the rendering is tobe in black and white or color. In a black-and-white rendering there will be no contrast if the values are not correct, and in a color rendering the colors will not look well if the values are not right. The value study is usually drawn on tracing paper which has been placed over the perspective line drawing on the illustration board below. It is usually drawn in charcoal or soft pencil. The author personally prefers a medium grade of charcoal, because changes may be made more easily in this medium than in pencil. Modifications or erasures may be made with the fingers, with a chamois, or with a kneaded eraser.
Assuming that a daylight view has been chosen and that the 45-degree shades and shadows have been mechanically laid out, a value study may be made in charcoal or soft pencil on tracing paper placed over the perspective. The lightest values (other than the white of the paper) will be the highlights on pitched areas which receive the light rays most directly (see Figure 5.1, sketch 1). The lights,
Like smudge charcoal, pastels require a rather rough surface for file action. Ordinary pastel papers, 19 X 25 inches, have already been described in Chapter 9 in the discussion of carbon-pencil rendering. In addition, pastel drawingbooksofsimilarpaperaremadein thefollowingsizes 9 X 12, 12 X 18, and 18 X 24 inches. They may be used for outdoor sketching or studies. v d for the presentation. The linear perspective is transferred to the paper as escribed in Chapter 3, using a graphite pencil.
Lead holders and mechanical pencils are often preferred to the traditional wooden pencil or the technical drafting pen. The wood pencil needs to be continuously shaved back to expose about 'it inch of the lead shaft, and the technical drafting pen, while capable of producing better quality drawings than the lead pencils, requires greater skill to use. Mechanical pencils are available in a variety of point sizes, and are capable of precise line widths.A sharp lead point is essential to good line quality (Figure 4.2). Lead, whether for the lead holder, for the mechanical pencil, or the common wooden pencil, also comes in various degrees of hardness, from 9H (extremely hard) to 6B (extremely soft). Before making a determination on the most appropriate lead for the job, the designer should decide on the desired sharpness of lines and the opaqueness of the lead for reproduction.The most common and recommended lead weights are FIGURE 4.3 Some of the tools, aids and materials used by the...
This rendering was executed with carbon pencil combined with chalk on Herga green pastel paper. 9. In combinations of white chalk or other kinds of white with carbon pencil, care must be taken to limit Ihe amount of white, because too large an area will reduce the importance of the carbon pencil itself. A careful analysis in the value study indicated the use of white in the places shown on the finished rendering. As this rendering was being made, errors in carbon pencil were corrected by masking around the area to be changed with pad paper and erasing the unwanted portions of the wash with a small piece of kneaded eraser, wiping it away from the edge of the pad paper.
Preliminary assembly in the dry state can be made but only to establish the direction of entry and the exactness of the fit. Dowelled components can be tried with spare dowel-pegs sanded slack (tight dowels should never be used as the suction in a tight hole can hold them immovable), and there can be no objection to fully seating tenons in order to check the shoulders, but dovetails only fit once and should not be entered beyond the halfway mark. If parts of the carcass can be glued, assembled and set aside to dry well before-hand, so much the better but the squareness must be carefully checked, and if rails or fixed shelving are first glued to the carcass sides both carcass top and bottom should be partially entered to act as spacers. All joints should be clearly marked and readily distinguishable tenons in chalk or soft pencil on the face of the rail, mortises also numbered on the face, sides marked in bold chalk lettering 'left' and 'right', 'top' and 'base', and other parts...
The technique of drawing a Single or m ultiple lines freely and quickly as a subject Is scannedandperceptkmsofvolume. mass, movement, and significant details are projected onto the drawing surface. In contrast to contour drawing, gesture drawing genera ily proceeds from the whole to the parts.
There are several tried and tested three-dimensional drawing systems used to produce a realistic representation of an object. Some techniques, such as isometric projection, are based on mathematical systems others try to convey a larger degree of realism by applying perspective to the drawing. Amongst the methods covered in this tutorial are oblique, isometric, axonometric, and perspective drawing.
Figure 2.2 Some of the tools, aids and materials used in manual drafting (from Montague, John Basic Perspective Drawing A Visual Approach, 3rd ed., New York John Wiley and Sons, 1998). Figure 2.2 Some of the tools, aids and materials used in manual drafting (from Montague, John Basic Perspective Drawing A Visual Approach, 3rd ed., New York John Wiley and Sons, 1998).
Views and perspective drawing The perspective drawing for th is work demonstrates the close, harmonious association of house and desert. It would seem, from this view, that the desert and dwell i ng were made at one and the same moment. Since the living room faced north, there was no need for an overhang, and the two-storey glass gives a view on to a mountain range
Sometimes called angular perspective drawing in this method only the vertical lines are drawn vertically. The horizontal, depth, and length receding lines are drawn to the vanishing points located on the horizon line. The front view is no longer true in shape but is now drawn in an isometric configuration. Again, the location of the horizon line and the vanishing points on the line will provide many different looks of the object. Shade and shadow are often used in perspective drawings to give a better perception of the depth and form of a space or object. The drawing of shadows and reflections both follow the same immutable rules of perspective. 3. Draw lines from the top of the vertical that disappear to both of the vanishing points. Repeat the process for the bottom of the line. 5. To draw the top of the box, draw lines from the back verticals to the opposite vanishing points.
The drawing skills are outlined in this book under simple headings such as shade, line weight, composition and rules of perspective. As with learning to play a musical instrument, you have to spend time practising and training eye-to-hand coordination The rules of drawing are, like the rules of grammar or numeracy, based upon a language we all share and understand. By combining elements of the 'craft of drawing' with 'graphic rules', you will quickly develop a technique suitable to your particular needs - whether as a student of architecture, design or landscape, or simply as an inquisitive tourist on holiday abroad. Just as the sketchbook can be used to dissect graphically an existing building, the technique of unravelling and abstracting different architectural features can be employed in the reverse - to represent the different elements of a design proposal. The explanation of form, structure and decoration can help in the development of design especially where complex matters of...
Drawings using various methods of erasure. He often ' erased' by using gesso to block out certain areas, providing an opportunity to redraw, or pasted additional sheets to the one of immediate interest. It is possible that Scarpa would draw a design proposal and then critique the solution employing other images. It is also conceivable that once he perceived the solution it sparked new ideas and refinement. In either case, he used the drawings as references for the continuation of his design process, possibly a reason that he did not move to a separate, clean sheet. The result became a layering of gesso, graphite, erasures, colored pencils and pasted paper appliqu . This result also evidenced the drawing as a memory device, since he could view, remember and manipulate the images once they appeared on the paper. This working through the design helped him envision the three-dimensional structure, and may have acted as the medium for his imagination. This page shows how he participated...
In multigon drawing mode you will be able to draw objects with a specified number of equal-length sides. You will find this tool useful when drawing mirrors, tabletops, hot tubs and In line drawing mode you will be able to draw straight lines of any length. You will find this tool useful when drawing angular details to cabinets, tables and so on.
The indications of textures of building materials explained and shown here are basic and will, of course, not fit every case because of the possible difference of the materials involved. However, they will serve as guideposts and should be practiced until you have mastered the techniques described. These techniques should be practiced on the cold-pressed watercolor paper previously recommended, or on illustration board, ruling off rectangles with a pencil. (See Figure 1 2.4, sketches a to e.) The textures described below are for surfaces considered to be in sunlight. Color for similar textures in shade should be modified by the use of a richer, darker mixture of the same colors. The various textures should be drawn in with an H pencil at 4-inch scale, making a careful line drawing. The rendering of brick will vary according to the scale of the drawing, but no matter what the scale, the brick joints should first be drawn in with pencil. At a scale of Vfe inch or less, a wash the color...
Computer-aided design (CAD) is important to understand, for its basic procedures are similar to those used in overlay drawing, as discussed earlier in this chapter. 'The delineator should approach CAD in the same way as any other medium, that is, from the standpoint of basic tests and exercises, as shown in Figure 15.3a -c. Procedures for a simple line drawing of a building are prepared, and details are then added in various separated segments of the drawing as desired. Fig. 15.3 Computer-Generated Line-Drawing Exercises. a. and b. Line drawings on personal computer. a. and b. Line drawings on personal computer.
Original drawings, particularly those done in pencil, need to be kept clean to provide for the clearest reproduction. Smudged drawings will often produce smudged prints that are difficult and time-consuming to read. Graphite from pencils is the greatest threat to drawing cleanliness. Sliding hands, elbows, and equipment over pencil lines will blur them and produce an undesirable patina over the entire drawing surface. The same is true with ink drawings, whether they are done by hand or computer. Time must be allowed for the ink to dry. Equipment should be lifted and placed over drawings, not slid from one area to another. Regular washing of hands and equipment will also help prevent smudging of line work.
In 1969, Alle Hosper joined the new Department of Spatial Planning at Wageningen University. There he developed a diagram the department referred to as the man place diagram. This diagram represented the young department's emerging definitions of, and illustrations of, the influence of place on man and vice versa 14-4 . We discussed such a lot of things in your office, wrote Hosper in a Festschrift presented to Wim van Mourik when he retired as Professor of Spatial Planning at Wageningen. They had mainly talked about the theory of this new discipline in which the relationship between man and place formed the core. Hosper produced many diagrams to illustrate this relationship. The graphic aspects of these diagrams are remarkable, almost technical in character and without the casual feel of the chalk drawings Hosper had made in the previous year. However, the man place diagram did not stand alone. While working part-time for the department, he also joined the Kring Midden-Utrecht, a...
Fruitful democratic design depends upon representative drawing, and representative drawing often requires coauthors, often the citizens themselves. Certain techniques discussed here are not unique to democratic design or landscape design 6-i0 . For example, securing a gestalt, careful observation, and thinking complexly are essential to design in all disciplines and forms. Other techniques are more particular to landscape design, notably evolving landscape, imaging fish heads, recording sacred places, and making science spatial. Most of these drawing techniques, however, have particular relevance to participatory design, although locational mapping, plan drawings, diagrams, quick perspective sketches, and before and after overlays, are common to most design practice. What differs, for the most part, are the specific ways the techniques are used to convey the importance of what others think, and to say I want to communicate clearly with you to create a common language for complex...
Curved panels can be produced, in one direction only, by cold rolling or pressing. Panels curved in three dimensions can be produced by deep-drawing techniques. Curved laminated panels (Fig. 6.20) will inevitably cost more than flat panels, as special forms are required to press the panels, which will increase their cost of production.
Figure 437 6 is the detail of the taper legs with curve formed in the leg and not out of the rail which would result in a feather edge at the junction, while 437 7 shows the handworked fluting to the drawer front, and the turned knob handles which were also used for the doors. Figure 438 shows a similar fluted front being worked with round moulding-plane, guided only by carefully marked-out pencil-lines. This measure of accuracy is only possible with a plane-iron whose profile has not been distorted by careless sharpening.
By combining design theory with practical lessons in drawing, Understanding Architecture Through Drawing encourages the use of the sketchbook as a creative and critical tool. The book is highly illustrated and is an essential manual on freehand drawing techniques for students of architecture, landscape architecture, town and country planning and urban design.
To construct a contoured base you will need one or two copies of the original contour drawing printed to the required scale. These will then used as a pattern to construct the contours as shown in the illustrations.The base can be solid-core or hollow base type. In the solid-core type, contours are cut so that they cover the whole base behind the contoured edge. This arrangement gives maximum strength and does not require additional support underneath. The contour layers are essentially glued in place after being cut to the required patterns. The hollow base technique is sometimes used to minimize cost and reduce the model's weight, using much less material. This method of construction uses piers to support the contours as shown in the illustrations. Figure 4.32 is an example of a simple model that can be made by the designer.
The Preview Bar displays the predefined drawing methods that are available. 2 On the Preview Bar, click one of the drawing methods. The pointer changes to reflect drawing mode. Note There are two predefined drawing methods closed curve and open curve.
The measured amount above or below sea level of an object or area. It is usually expressed in feet or meters. 2. The measured amount above or below a given base point on a drawing or site. This base point is usually a floor elevation, a paving elevation, or a known surveyed benchmark. 3. A drawing showing the view of, or appearance of, something as seen from a specific side projected to a vertical plane without any vanishing points (not a perspective drawing).
Plans are primarily used by the architect to define the size and shape of space, todescribecirculation patterns, and toclarify the major structural elements. The plan is one of the most important drawings used in the presentation of a project to a client. Thus, it would be inappropriate to present a simple line drawing of a plan along with an elaborately delineated perspective or elevations, for these would distract attention from the plan. Therefore, the renderer should clarify and enhance the entire presentation by using the same media and similar techniques for plans as for the other drawings in the presentation.
FIGURE 4.20 General procedure for setting up of a one-point and two-point perspective. (Based on a drawing by Montague, John, Basic Perspective Drawing A Visual Approach, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1998) FIGURE 4.20 General procedure for setting up of a one-point and two-point perspective. (Based on a drawing by Montague, John, Basic Perspective Drawing A Visual Approach, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1998)
PAD FINISHING SANDERS 126 Padding, foam 476 Painted work 511 Panel-gauge 148 Parallelograms 366 Parequetry-work 314, 319 Particle boards, see also chipboards 54 uses 55 veneering 302 working properties 54 Pattern veneering 309 Pedestal desk 194 Pencil gauge 148 Perspective drawing 359
Exclusively, for the shelf could taper fractionally in the thickness, giving a sloppy fit if the housings were squared across and of constant width throughout. A better plan is to square a pencil-line across the cheek, place the shelf end vertically on the cheek against the pencil-line and scribe the thickness both sides with a sharp knife pressed hard against the shelf. A portable electric router can be used to cut the housings, working against a batten cramped clamped to the work. Alternatively, if cut by hand, the correct depth is gauged on the back edge, a hole bored at the front to the correct depth, the hole cut out square, the knife-cuts deepened and a small bevel formed to act as a guide for the tenon-saw, the sides sawn down to depth and the waste chopped out with a chisel or routed
If whole buildings or engineering structures are too complex for your needs or drawing skills, then select an aspect of their architecture or construction. You could concentrate on a relatively simple subject such as windows, chimneys or roofs, or alternatively you could attempt the more difficult topic of shopfronts, curtain walling or decorative paving. Whatever subject is selected, ensure you locate the example clearly and use a drawing style that allows one example to be compared with another. It is remarkable how much pleasure you will derive from building up a collection of examples drawn from your neighbourhood or on your travels. You will be surprised, too, at how freshly you view your local environment once you have taken the time to record and analyse it through the freehand sketch.
Dines, FASLA, is a professor of landscape architecture and serves as graduate MLA program director at the University of Massachusetts He has taught courses in site engineering, structures, design studio, design drawing, design theory, and professional practice for over 28 years. He is the author of two other McGraw-Hill publications, Landscape Perspective Drawing, and the recently released, Time-Saver Standards landscape Construction Details CD
The Academy's board commissioned six architects to propose designs for a new building on the site. Piano's ethereal wavy line drawing and vision of a building deeply connected to the surrounding landscape it's unusually open and transparent for a museum carried the day over ambitious models by other firms.
Drawings should be lightly done at first, using a medium hard pencil and boldly outlining when correct, while a 4H pencil should be used for critical measurements. Moulded sections should be heavily outlined to show the correct profile, and all end-grain sections cross-hatched for easy identification. Curved lines should be drawn first and straight lines carried into them, while tracing through to another sheet or to the bare wood can be done with carbon paper or rubbing the back of the drawing with a very soft pencil and then tracing through from the face. Both plans and elevations can be superimposed on one sheet, outlining them in different coloured crayons, but to avoid confusion it is better to keep them well apart wherever possible.
To the architect and urban designer there are three main types of freehand drawing. The first is the elaborate perspective drawing used to communicate design ideas to clients or planning authorities. Increasingly this type of drawing is produced by computer. The second type concerns the production of sketch perspectives and views used to communicate design ideas to specialists such as engineers, and sometimes to help clarify points for the designer's own benefit. This type of drawing can be split into
98 of this problem forty years ago led to a concerted effort to understand and portray human perception and cognition of, and response to, both the urban and wild landscapes.3 Over time, sociologists and environmental psychologists have produced a substantial body of research on these subjects.4 In retrospect, it seems that their findings, expressed in visual and spatial terms, were most used by designers less imageable research, no matter how important, remained unused. That is the likely explanation why Kevin Lynch's work on perception remains more familiar today than subsequent research on the topic.5 Drawing techniques, like behavior mapping or social ecology, require careful observation to create patterned visualizations, not unlike soils maps or vegetative mosaics with which landscape architects are accustomed.6 In a classic discovery of the utility of territoriality mapping, designers plotted the turf of the Dana Park gang in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which explained in spatial...
No discussion of color would be complete without mention of colored charcoal and pastel papers. These are available at any art materials store in a number of shades, including gray, brown, yellow, green, orange, and red. (See the section on carbon pencil rendering in Chapter 9.) Orange and red may be quickly eliminated, since colors as bright as these are usually not suitable for renderings. Generally speaking, the more delicately tinted papers such as cool brown, warm or cool gray, pale yellow, and pale green are easier to work on, but there are times when the darker papers are required. A good rule to remember is that the delicately tinted papers lend themselves to transparent washes, either of watercolor or of body color of a thin or medium consistency, while the darker papers give sharper contrasts when these are desired, or when thick body color (tempera) is to be used.
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Pencil Drawing Beginners Guide
Easy Step-By-Step Lessons How Would You Like To Teach Yourself Some Of The Powerful Basic Techniques Of Pencil Drawing With Our Step-by-Step Tutorial. Learn the ABC of Pencil Drawing From the Experts.