Building Systems Classification Framework

The rationalization of building performance in dialogues between stakeholders requires the systematic discovery of performance domains and their specialization to the level where individual measures of performance can be addressed. Such individual measures of performance will be termed performance indicators (Pis). There is no established theory for the discovery and definition of Pis. Wim Gielingh in his General AEC Reference Model9 hypothesizes a design process in which the design problem is...

Living Standards

I have offered this brief outline of biotechniques to make two very simple points about the conditioning of contemporary buildings. First, environmental conditioning is not just a collection of devices whose performance can be optimized. They are complex systems that operate on buildings and people simultaneously, systems with their own history, trajectory and momentum. Second, there are critical thresholds in the scale, velocity and intensity of that conditioning that radically alter the...

Biotechniques Cubicles

The acceleration of biotechniques after World War II became evident in research agendas and the rapid development of digital technology. And even as highly rationalized, seemingly mechanized offices were being built across the United States, the German Quickborn management consulting group were quietly inventing a new form of office layout the B rolandschaft or office landscaping.31 Based on a rigorous analysis of communication patterns within an office, charted through exhaustive interviewing...

Nontraditional approach to communication and interaction among the disciplines

The team organizational structure for a residence hall at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, USA (1999-2002, architects Steven Holl Architects figure 3.5) fostered a multidisciplinary, non-linear process that required feedback. The owner community had four distinct constituents, each with its own driving mission. The MIT President desired a landmark building in terms of architecture and sustainability one goal was to develop the building without traditional air...

Case Studies Owner commitment

A client from the University of Texas proved his commitment to environmental issues by replacing a project's first architect when he felt that not enough was being done to incorporate environmental features. While the resulting building is not outwardly remarkable to look at (figure 3.2), it offers a series of interesting features in terms of water recycling, solar harvesting, appropriate orientations to minimize solar heat gain, and superb use of daylight throughout. This building is going to...

Performance Design Again

In 1967 Progressive Architecture magazine published a special issue on performance design, explaining it as a set of practices that had emerged from general systems theory, operations research and cybernetics thirty years earlier, at the end of the World War II.1 The editors described its practitioners as systems analysts, systems engineers, operations researchers and argued that it was a more scientific method of analyzing functional requirements, which involved psychological and aesthetic...

Simulating Performance

Today, digital quantitative and qualitative performance-based simulation represents the technological foundation of the emerging performative architecture described earlier. Analytical computational techniques based on the finite-element method (FEM), in which the geometric model is divided into small, interconnected mesh elements, are used to accurately perform 14.5 An early computer rendering of the structural system for Kunsthaus Graz, Austria (2000-03), architects Peter Cook and Colin...

Performance Form

Since its founding more than thirty years ago, the architectural practice Herzog + Partner has been committed to exercising social responsibility through its projects, while at the same time actively pursuing scientific and technological advances relevant for the environment in multiple ways, such as the potential of harnessing solar energy. New concepts are developed in collaboration with universities and research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Association (Fraunhofergesellschaft), the...

Solar Design

In the past, the use of solar energy was seen primarily as a way to reduce conventional heating energy in buildings and to produce hot water. Great advances have been made in both areas through constructional developments. The results can be realized, among other things, by creating large areas of south-facing glazing and closed, heavily insulated north walls, or by zoning in the layout of rooms through the orientation of buildings, thereby ensuring a favorable relationship between the volume...

Threshold Effects Highly Conditioned Buildings

In 1957 the head of the Carrier air conditioning corporation observed that whenever 20 percent of the office buildings in any one city include air conditioning, the remaining buildings must air-condition to maintain their first class status.38 That process had apparently taken about ten years, and after the late 1950s it was largely assumed that a high-quality office building in an American city would be conditioned to some degree. The technology had been available for many decades, but it took...

Guest Building For The Youth Education Center3

The Premonstratensian monks of Windberg Monastery run a youth education center for which they commissioned a new dormitory block. The nature and duration of use of the various groups of rooms played an important role in determining the energy concept for the building. The rooms that are used for longer periods of the day are separated from those that are used briefly. The two sections of the building were also constructed with different materials figures 5.1 and 5.2 . Guest Building, Windberg...

Conclusions

The use of performance simulation in architectural design is on the rise. This is due mainly to the increase of computing power and the maturing of the building simulation field. The full integration of simulation within the design process is far from complete. However, the building industry, including architects, is aware of the need for the better integration of these tools into the life cycle of the building. Many of the developments presented in this chapter are a testimony to the rapid use...

Urban Considerations

In the first half of the 1960s, it became clear that the segregation of urban functions into housing, production and leisure zones led to a loss of quality in modern cities. At that time the interest was concentrated on the recovery of complexity. Concentration, Interconnections, Urbanity was the title of a seminar held in 1964 at the Department for Urban Planning of the TUM. Younger architects pinned their hopes to large-scale variable structures of the kind that Yona Friedmann had developed...

Strasbourg Train Station Extension

Glass Solar Energy Architecture

The last project is an extension of the old train station in Strasbourg, again with the help of the SNCF's in-house architectural department and of Matthias Schuller's team in Stuttgart. Trains stop one level above the access level, while public transportation runs 15 m below ground. A link is required in front of the station, between the street level and the underground tram. However, the station is one of the urban features of the city and the new building extension should not hide it....