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Rectified photographs

Building Seaside Drawing Dwg

In the absence of line drawings, rectified photographs of the elevations of a ruin can be used to identify the location and scope of defects (Figure 3.19). In general, they are more useful to superimpose survey grids onto than for annotation of defects, since the level of detail in a photograph can prevent clear identification of individual repairs they can, however, be used to indicate the general scope of recommendations, for example locations where repair to wall heads is required or where repointing or grouting of fractures is necessary. Aerial photographs can be used in place of site plans, especially where low-level wall remnants exist. If rectified photographic elevations exist as well as line drawings, the surveyor will benefit from using both, since the photographs will provide a visual record of the appearance of the ruin at a point in time. Figure 3.18 Waterlow Park in London. Simple elevation drawings have been done by hand to assist in conveying the scope and nature of...

Aerial Photographs

One must be wary of a ready fascination with aerial photographs. The processes at work erosion, parcel division, and provision of services are observable in these documents and in diverse situations, in a way that is so obvious that it is almost a caricature. Shapes can also appear, seen from the sky they are beautiful precisely because they are strange, and there too is a danger that should be avoided. However, these exercises in observation complete what we analyze on the ground. We need to build up our knowledge, to train our eye to grasp these devices. This fieldwork, these anatomies of landscapes in the planning stages allow us to dissect complex situations in order to reach simple solutions. And that is why these aerial photographs are valuable.

Consider damage assessment issues

In the United States and other countries, federal and national funding is available when a museum is affected by a natural emergency. Documentation of damage, along with photographs of objects before they were damaged, is required. In the United States, additional funding for temporary relocation of objects, equipment purchase, and so forth, may be available through the Institute of Museum and Library Services and the National Endowment for the Humanities in Washington, D.C.

Key Points Landslide Estimation Prevention and Correction

Certain combinations of surface disturbances can signify former landslides or areas of high landslide potential (Table 253-5). Large-scale aerial photographs (greats than 1 9600) can be used to reveal crescent-shaped scarps and hummocky topogra phy that is characteristic of previous sliding.

Pedestrian Malls Walkways and Experiential Trails

Famous Urban Designers

Experiential trails highlight places and link them together based on some theme. These themes are usually historical but could be based on odours and touches for the blind or some set of activities or simply a set of aesthetic experiences. One of the goals of these trails has been to enhance the image of areas and or the self-image of subgroups of people by bringing attention to socio-historic places whose importance might otherwise not be recognized. Places along the routes have had their images enhanced primarily through landscape design and building renovation. Some of the trails simply link places where events took place without much additional detail (e.g. the Haymarket Massacre trail in Chicago), while others have plaques and photographs and have received considerable recent landscape architectural attention to raise their ambient qualities. This step may include special paving and street furniture (lamp poles, seating and rubbish bins), murals and planting.

William Wenzler and Associates William Lam and Associates Central United Methodist Church

Artificial Lighting Churches

In order to test the system, model studies were carried out to convince the architect that the idea was practical. This is an excellent use of model studies which can be carried out quite simply using actual sunlight conditions they are both quicker and cheaper than to try to use the various methods of calculation or by means of computers. The model studies showed the architect the dramatic sunlight patterns that would be achieved. The photographs of the actual interiors shown here followed the model studies closely.

Characteristics of Tempera

Tempera is available in shades of gray for use in renderings that are to be reproduced in black and white, as well as in most of the colors of transparent watercolors, plus a few more. Tempera shows up in a precise, sculptural way in either black-and-white or color photographs. It gives such a realistic appearance that a photograph of a tempera rendering is often mistaken for a photograph of a finished building. The colors themselves are strong and brilliant and must be mixed with a great deal of white (and sometimes a small amount of black) before they can be used.

Brazilian Modernism and

Brazilian Modernism Architecture

Other artists have sought to make a more obvious visual transformation of the source material. The Sao Paulo-based artist Jair Lanes, who exhibited photographs of Brasilia in Paris in 2005, depicted the city's architecture in a series of large-scale, out-of-focus but colour-saturated photographs, in which all detail was evacuated, save the gestalt of the essential form.37 The architecture was reduced to its elements, but also something hazy, like a memory, removed from real time and place as if the architecture itself was no longer really of contemporary importance, but a kind of mirage. The transformation of the architecture into something dreamlike was emphasized by showing the pictures opposite the straightforward monochrome reportage of the city by Alberto Ferreira. At Leeds, the following year, several artists from Brazil made different, but comparable work based on Brazil's Modernist architecture. The vast photographs by Rubens Mano and Rogerio Canella of the Bienal pavilion in...

To The reader of Architecture In Europe

The same is the problem with architecture you cannot see an ecological building. Of course you can build the image of an ecological house. The house under the apple tree, for instance. Or you can calculate how to save energy and how to clean up the environment. The problem with the second is that nobody will take pictures of it and publish it.

Completing Construction And Closing Out Your Project

Who prepares the record or as-built drawings Record drawings are the final set of modified contract documents which contain the changes that took place over the course of construction to the original design drawings. The construction team project manager will keep a set throughout the construction process, marking up the changes and taping any sketches which were made by the construction team, design team, or the museum onto the set. If compensated under their contract, the design team will pick up these changes and prepare a final set for you to keep. These drawings, along with photographs taken prior to and during construction, will provide you with invaluable information of what was built when you maintain or plan to alter the building in the future.

Lived Representations

Describing these different kinds of imagery and distribution channels at some length discloses their emphatic presence within skateboarding. However, their importance does not lie in their quantity, for images per se are only an apparent stage of the representation process within the skateboarding production of space. Instead, we must introduce the second way of thinking about the image, realising that skateboarders use imagery less as pure image, and more as an integration and representation of that imagery through skateboarding practice. The lived representation of skateboard images occurs when skaters undertake the moves themselves, reliving and re-producing photographs, video footage and the internet movie clips through the agency of their body. This needs to be taken apart in more detail. In purely quantitative terms, however, the move is the unit of exchange between skaters, and skaters spend much time poring over photographs in order to understand and acquire them. The skate...

Brazil Builds and History

History Brazil Architecture

The Grande Hotel at Ouro Preto was a small building in a remote location. Part of the reason it assumed such importance was its presence in a remarkable exhibition held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1943 Brazil Builds Architecture New and Old, 1642-1942. Curated by the museum's co-director Philip Goodwin, himself an architect, with photographs by G. E. Kidder-Smith, it was vital in reinforcing the idea of Brazil as a modern nation, and the architectural careers of Costa and Niemeyer in particular.30 Its impact in Brazil was considerable, too,

Agriculture Texture And The Unfinished

Long fascinated with aerial photographs of the earth's surface and various land patterns, especially those that depict a moment in time in an otherwise shifting and changing ecology, Michel Desvigne approaches landscape architecture as a form of earth marking that is inevitably provisional, staged and cumulative. This provisional condition is not simply a marking or a form, however, but more a material environment that effects and propels its own development.

First Interstate World Building Los Angeles Floor Plan

Cityspire Tower Ground Floor Plan

Figure 8.19. 21st Century Tower, China (a) model photographs (1), (2), and (3) (b) bracing system (c) framing plan, levels 19, 28, and 37 (d) structural action in primary columns and braces (e) typical interior core bracing. Architects Murphy Jahn Inc., Chicago, structural engineers John A. Martin & Associates Inc., Los Angeles, and Martin & Huang, International, Los Angeles. Fluid viscous dampers have been installed in diamond-shaped superdiagonal bracing architecturally expressed on the building's perimeter moment frame (Fig. 8.20c). All four elevations of the building contain superdiagonals configured as diamonds rather than Xs. Broad south and north faces contain dampers, that resist seismic loads in the east-west direction. Each of these elevations has four steel diamonds with 137.8-ft (42-m) legs. The diamonds overlap each other at their peaks and valleys to form three smaller diamonds. Each small diamond has four 1200-kip-capacity dampers, one on each leg near the apex or...

Looking And Seeing Through Drawing Modern Sketchbook Practice

Modern sketchbooks tend, therefore, to contain four main types of visual material -the sketch as record, the sketch as re-construction, sketches augmented by photographs or digital images, and finally, abstract or analytical drawings. The combination of drawing types makes the sketchbook an important pedagogic tool, whilst also enhancing the level of critical viewing. In this sense there is a direct relationship between the sketch and looking, and by extension with the development of visual and design skills.

Light And The School Environment

Typical Middle School Classroom

As a surrogate for daylighting, researchers explored the benefits of full spectrum fluorescent lighting. Some of the pioneering research in the learning environment came from John Ott, who was known for his work in the cinematic use of time-lapse photography. Ott's experiments with different colored lighting systems and their effects on the health of plants, humans, and later on individual cells using time-lapsed micro-photography set the standard. In 1973, he examined the effect of full spectrum lighting using four first-grade classrooms in Sarasota, Florida (Ott, 1973, 1976). Using two windowless classrooms with full spectrum fluorescent lighting and two identical windowless classrooms with standard fluorescent fixtures, he observed and compared student activities in the four classrooms using time-lapsed concealed cameras. Photographs revealed that students under cool-white standard fluorescent lights exhibited decreased attention and greater hyperactivity, fatigue, and irritability...

School Building Assessment Methods

Sanoff et al. (2001) developed a number of methods to assess the quality of school buildings, including a six-factor school building checklist (as a means for a well-structured walking tour), a school building observation form, a school building rating scale and a photo enquiry. The six factors include context, massing, interface, wayfinding, social space and comfort. By using a series of checklist questions and a numerical rating scale, one can assign a score to each factor being assessed. For example 'Does the scale of the building suit the scale of the surrounding buildings ' 'Are all the circulation routes understandable and convenient '. The rating scale is a six-point scale and scores from very unsatisfactory to very satisfactory. The observation form includes a number of questions that should be answered with yes or no, for instance 'The building itself is flexible, including some open large spaces, some small rooms and some multifunctional spaces'. The rating scale includes...

Questions to Consider

As a visual aid, ask presenters to bring along news clippings, videotapes, and photographs of emergencies and the damage they cause. Acquire more advice and information by talking with staff of institutions or emergency response organizations that have been through the emergencies you are studying. This kind of research is worth the effort.

Location location location The Queens House 161635

The house now makes a fine art gallery housing a notable naval collection, but it is rather forlorn and has a problematic restoration history. Paintings once on the ceiling of the great hall were long ago stripped out, later replaced by photographs (and why not ), and then again stripped out by the purists. Between 1708-11 the windows were replaced by sashes, then returned to casements at the same time the northern steps were remodelled. The colonnades were added in 1807. The house became a part of the naval school in 1821 and a part of the hospttal in 1892. In 1933 the house was restored and became a gallery. Further restoration (further altering earlier restoration work) was in the 1980s and more recent work has been by Allies

Decoration Lo Mantang

Tibetan origin, but rather is derived from the two older stupas at Carumati and Bodhnath in the Katmandu Valley, in Nepal. Evidence for this is to be found in the innumerable photographs of Tibet now available careful examination of them shows that the most frequent chorten are those symbolizing the great Enlightenment' and the descent from Heaven , whereas those of the many gates , apart from the one at Gyantse and several others elsewhere, are uncommon. The portico enclosing the forecourt at Tengpoche was demolished and rebuilt in 1975. The survey made of it since it was rebuilt is therefore of documentary value. However, photographs of the monastery taken by Tilman in 19501 show that the portico had been considerably altered prior to being demolished in 1975. Unfortunately, nothing is known about the shape and dimensions of the monastery before it was totally destroyed by the great earthquake of 1933. One can only suppose that the shape and dimensions of the present monastery are...

Acquiring Mental Angles of Approach the AlAs Foreign Relations Committee 19201930

By the end of the war, the AIA began to turn its attention more proactively to the myriad issues associated with practicing architecture abroad. In 1920 the Institute's twelve-member Foreign Building Cooperation Standing Commitee's actions reflect increasingly diverse challenges.4 In 1921, for example, the Committee 'gathered together and shipped to France for exhibition a collection of drawings and photographs of American architecture' (AIA Proceedings, 1921, p. 156) but by 1923 there emerged a clear AIA focus on 'foreign' being equated primarily with architectural developments in Latin America, a tendency that persisted until about 1930. In 1923, at the Second Pan-American Congress of Architects in Santiago, Chile two AIA delegates (William Plack and Frank Watson) were among the sixty-five who attended from throughout the hemisphere. Their report to William Faville, AIA's President, about what they had learned there was both illuminating and prophetic

Difference And Ambiguity

Florestano Fausto Tripolitania

Even as late as 1938, one author described the settlement houses In Libya as built on a virgin land. 30 And If one looked at the villages alone, especially In close-up photographs, one might believe that Balbo's formulation - according to which the Libyan settlements would be ethnic islands of Italians - had been realized (Figures 8.14, 8.15, and 8.16). In other words, Italian colonial discourse continued to portray colonial territory as devoid of prior occupation. And yet, various slippages underpinned this ostensibly absolute distance between Italians and Others slippages that become more apparent as we consider settlements built for Libyans, and native areas built in Italian compounds in East Africa. while assimilating It to Italy one village was like one of our own In Sicily the land was an extension of Sicily. By then, of course, Cyrenaica had been annexed to Italy, and in a sense, he was correct to minimize Cyrenaica's difference from southern Italian lands. More interesting...

Th Avenue Housing Group 18901909 Gilman and Torbactia Residences

These houses were built on lower Queen Anne Hill in an area once known as Smith's Cove. At this time, Puget Sound's tide extended along 15th Avenue West, and these homes were only one block from the waterfront. The Gilman house, located at 2016 14th Avenue West, was constructed in 1891. The two-story structure has a gabled roof, an angled bay window on the main floor, and a rectangular tower. Historic photographs of the buildings show milled brackets and posts, now missing, although the main gable still has remnants of elaborate Victorian scrollwork. The Torbactia house, at 2014 14th Avenue West, was constructed a decade later in 1901. Similar in plan to the Gilman house, it lacks the rectangular tower. Angled bays

The Findings Drawing Tools And Techniques

Nicholas Grimshaw Sketches

Irrespective of the medium of drawing, all ten architects admitted the importance of line. Designs grew by being shaped by lines in the first instance. These lines were edges and demarcations that ordered the abstractions of sites, urban footprints, the accommodation listed in briefs, structural rhythms and light. Lines in this sense were the delineation of space in both plan and section. Lines remain the fundamental ordering system of architectural exploration. Often, however, these early generative drawings were combined with words or photographs to evoke an essence rather than provide a mere description. In every case cited, lines occur before physical models or modelling on CAD. The lines produced were not usually neutral but were infused with meaning - artistic in the case of Alsop, evolutionary and democratic in the case of Allies, Murphy, Fraser, Allan Murray, Grimshaw and Foster, and authoritative and assured in the case of Cullinan, Farrell and Gordon Murray. freehand drawing...

Main Symptoms Of Structural Decay Of Earthen Walls

Shelter coating may need constant maintenance after heavy precipitation, especially the top part to be inspected and monitored with photographs. Top part of mud brick shelter coats (capping level) may be affected by erosional loss allowing future water to penetrate inside the membrane and affect the stability of both historic wall and shelter coating.

Photographing the Rendering

Photographs can be made any size or shape, but for economy's sake, choice should be limited to the standard sizes (in inches) listed below If the photographs are to be reproduced, glossy prints should be ordered, since the smooth surface preserves even the finest details of a picture. As a matter of fact, matte and pebbled finishes are often used to subdue detail (as in portrait photography). For presentation-type enlargements, however, prints should be matte (pebble grain). Color Photographs As mentioned above, color photographs are available in the same sizes as black and white. They are, of course, more expensive than black and white. To keep costs down and still retain a color record, some delineators prefer 35-mm transparencies. If the job warrants the purchase of color prints, a negative should be made. Mounting Photographs

Visual Perception As It Pertains To Architectural Sketches

He Gibson hypothesized that a faithful picture is a surface that reflects a sheaf of light rays to a point that is the same as the sheaf of rays coming from the depicted scene. According to this view a picture performs its representational function by providing the eye with the same variations in light energy as would the depicted scene Thus, a line drawing, which preserves relational information but not a point-by-point projection of light energies, may provide as accurate information as a photograph .Caricatures are paradoxical in that they do not present either the same sheaf of rays or the same nested visual solid angles as the things they represent yet, in a sense they are more faithful representation than photographs. (Gibson, 1982 226-227) There is no value in trying to imitate exactly. Photographs will serve you best of all, if that is your aim. We should not imitate when our intention is to create to improvise .The capacity to see comes from persistently analyzing our...

Impediments to Earthquake Risk Reduction

This was attributed to systematic non-enforcement of regulations in return for bribes. The offices housing the corrupt officials had conformed to the regulations and withstood the earthquake. Similar greed-inspired tragedies have occurred in many other countries, and similar unnecessary tragedies are waiting to happen. The Chinese government initially promised to punish those responsible, but sadly later imprisoned a school teacher, Liu Shaokun, who had posted photographs on the Internet of collapsed schools for inciting families of victims to petition and for disseminating anti-government rumours (Guardian, 2008). At the time of writing, Amnesty International was preparing to petition for Shaokun's release. See also Section 1.4.

The preservation movement in the USA

Figure 9.22 (a) The archaeological area around the ruined Casa Grande in southern Arizona was established as a Federal archaeological reservation in 1889. The remains of the house are protected under cover. (Photo John P. O'Neill. HABS HAER Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress). (b) White House Ruin in the National Park of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. (HABS HAER Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress). (c) Totem Bight Community House, Ketchikan, ALaska. (HABS HAER Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress) Figure 9.22 (a) The archaeological area around the ruined Casa Grande in southern Arizona was established as a Federal archaeological reservation in 1889. The remains of the house are protected under cover. (Photo John P. O'Neill. HABS HAER Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress). (b) White House Ruin in the National Park of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. (HABS HAER Collection, Prints...

American Society Of Landscape Architects

However, I returned to Yellowstone the next summer and noticed how vegetation and animals were starting to come back in some areas yet not in others. I soon recognized I had the makings of a long-term research project based on my original photographs. Realizing that observation of an interesting phenomenon is the first step in classic scientific method research, I drove back to my home in Logan, Utah, gathered up and organized all my slide photographs from that first year, then immediately drove right back to Yellowstone and started to seek out my locations for as many of those 1988 photos as possible. Of course, this was a major challenge because when I took the first photographs I wasn't thinking about research. I had no notes indicating the locations, and there was no gps (global positioning system) at that time. I persevered and was able to reestablish more than 50 of those points. I have continued this systematic repeat photography every year...

Saint Hippolyte and Cluny III

Corbeled Vault

They also opened the lateral space by narrowing the base of the corbeled groin into a thin strip (see Fig. 118a) and bending the true vault into flat web segments (see Fig. 118b). This arrangement avoids the kind of projecting springers at the bottom of the vault and steeply curved arrises at the top that interrupt the line of sight between the central and side aisles. It also allows for an arcade with a delicate arch. Masons covered the back side of the vaults with spandrels that are thinner and descend less far on the elevation (see Fig. 118c) than if the corbels and webs had been fully curved. Once they made the arcade tall, the groin vault high and flat, and the spandrels thin, they took the next step and reduced the wall - the only solid remaining below the barrel vault - to less than half the height of the arcades (see Fig. 117). They also opened this wall to light. Prerestoration photographs show that at the center of every bay they penetrated this solid horizontal strip with a...

Preface to the second edition

In the ten years since the first edition I have also had the opportunity to travel more widely and to collect examples from many other landscapes and cultures. This is reflected in the updating of the photographs, in which almost every continent is now represented, and many cultures included.

Seeing Lighting Clearly

Only exhibited one sculpture - The Little Dancer Aged Fourteen -and in that sense these were not sculptures. There were figures of ballet dancers, thoroughbred horses, and women going about their ablution. These were his fascinations and the recurring themes of his paintings and pastel studies, and he used the figures as tools to sharpen his observation. A friend has described a visit to Degas' house in which he slowly rotated a figure in the light of a candle so that they could watch the changing projection of the figure on a white wall. The figures are now very fragile, but several art museums have collections of castings made from the originals. The balanced poise of a dancer (Figure 4.1), the frozen movement of a horse (Figure 4.2), and the relaxation of a woman taking a bath (Figure 4.3) can be seen captured in three-dimensional form. He studied these subjects meticulously. He actually had a bath installed in his studio for his models to climb in and out of. When a series of...

City Form Neighborhoods and Parks

Individuals in communities such as Levittown who benefited most from open spaces without accompanying store traffic were the adjacent property owners who had long expanses of maintained parkland for a year-round view. Owners of property adjacent to Central Park also have views of magnificent parkland without storefronts on their personal sidewalk street fronts. The combination of stores and parks is beneficial because it allows people to trip chain, or combine a leisure trip to the park with a purposeful trip to the store. In 1887, Mulberry Bend Park in New York City achieved the goal of providing pleasure with purpose in a park bordered by shops as seen in photographs by Riis (Alland 1975). The Central Park and Levit-town decisions to not combine parks and shopping were based on economic and not physical activity reasoning because residences that bordered parkland could demand a higher premium.

European Landscape Architecture

European Landscape Architecture draws together a team of leading professionals and academics in the field of landscape architecture. The case studies are well-illustrated with photographs and many original construction drawings running alongside the text. This will be a valuable source book for students and practitioners alike, as well as being of interest to researchers with an interest in the process of design.

Document all protection efforts

Document protection procedures as you implement them. The two purposes of documenting are to create a powerful tool for communicating progress in emergency preparedness, and to provide evidence of the implemented protective measures for insurance or legal purposes. Use photographs, videotapes, and written records to document building interiors and exteriors and grounds. Photos should have captions, such as Building before after tree-trimming and Workers replacing roof nails. Videotaped records also work well. Remember to date all records. Post copies of the photographs on walls or bulletin boards in staff areas to show employees the progress being made toward preparedness. Or, distribute an emergency preparedness bulletin to the entire staff. These practices build not only confidence in the emergency preparedness and response program but also morale on your team. Be sure to credit those on or off your team whose suggestions resulted in measures undertaken.

Are supplies and equipment available to remove water and debris and to isolate affected areas

As a learning tool, ask presenters to bring news clippings, videotapes, and photographs of emergencies and the damage they cause. It is also helpful to talk to colleagues at other institutions around the world. The purpose, however, should be to research what those institutions did correctly and incorrectly during emergencies, not to copy their plans.

Case Study Charting Instumentalization of a House Construction System

Fig. 2 Raising the framed walls of the balloon frame. 1941. (Alfred T. Palmer, photographer, 1941, Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA OWI Collection, LC-USE6-D-000861.) Fig. 2 Raising the framed walls of the balloon frame. 1941. (Alfred T. Palmer, photographer, 1941, Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA OWI Collection, LC-USE6-D-000861.)

A final acknowledgement

It has been difficult to track down some of the sources of information included in this book. A number of the photographs that form part of my collection were given to me by students and colleagues over the past 20 years. I no longer have a record of their provenance. A number of the drawings prepared for this text are based on more than one source and who holds the original copyright is unclear. Every effort has, however, been made to contact and credit the copyright holders of all this material. In a number of cases it has been in vain. I thus apologize for any copyright

Social exclusion and the development process preliminary observations

The photographs in this montage illustrate different aspects of design which inhibit disabled people's movement and mobility. 1.1a exhibits contradictory design elements, whereby smooth paving is intersected by cobbled stones which tend to prevent ease of movement of wheelchairs. 1.1b is a shopping centre directory board, characterised by information which is presented in lettering too small for most vision-impaired people to see. 1.1c shows a step into the rear of a shopping centre which prevents wheelchair users from gaining access.

Cooperatively Assessing Space Needs

These questions are a good starting point, but the best way to help a group collectively come to an agreement on aesthetics is to let them see an aesthetic for themselves. You can accomplish this through visits to other healthcare facilities or by reviewing photographs of them. Hospital staff need to visualize the possibilities, and they also need to see specifically what they do not like. These examples can then be used as the foundation to guide designers to develop the right aesthetic for the facility.

Bucklingrestrained Braced Frame

Unbonded brace frame connection (photographs courtesy of Edwin Shlemon, S.E., Associate Partner, ARUP Partners, Los Angeles CA). Figure 8.36e. Unbonded brace frame connection (photographs courtesy of Edwin Shlemon, S.E., Associate Partner, ARUP Partners, Los Angeles CA).

History Of The Grotesque

A recent book, on The Grotesque in Photography, completes this progression, displaying not only artificially distorted or rearranged images, but also technically uncomplicated photographs of hangings, murder victims, Che Guevara's staring corpse, and the famous picture, almost a modern icon, of the televised pistol execution of a Viet Cong. (Harpham, 1982 xix)

Repairs Made To The Monument

In the photographs of the Marcian Monument taken at the beginning of the 20th century, it is seen that the monument had had hoops put on it at various levels. This repair must have been carried out on the parts of the monument that were damaged in the 1894 earthquake and the 1908 Fatih fire. In this photograph, the marble stepped platform is still at street level. On the lower plinth of the column, there are steel hoops at the column bracelet and on the body. The lower plinth has been encircled with four hoops, the bracelet with two and the column body with three. One cannot understand, however, if the metal cramp and chains that are on the column today-but are not seen in the photograph-were put on during this repair or in repairs carried out later. The photograph also does not show the statue that is said to have been on the uppermost of the monument, so it could not have been still extant at this date.

Calcium Silicate Brickwork

Fig. 1.21 Polychromatic calcium silicate brickwork - Queens Building, De Montfort University, Leicester. Architects Short Ford & Associates. Photographs Lens-based media, De Montfort University Fig. 1.21 Polychromatic calcium silicate brickwork - Queens Building, De Montfort University, Leicester. Architects Short Ford & Associates. Photographs Lens-based media, De Montfort University

Soviet National Missile Defense

American intelligence analysis of Soviet missile defense development could only rely on external observations of various kinds, such as operating frequencies and pulse durations collected from Soviet radars, observation of tests at Sary Shagan, and overhead photographs of missile installations. Analyses of this evidence relied on the methods of systems analysis, introduced from industry by US defense secretary, and former Ford Motor Company president, Robert McNamara. During the mid-1960s, while systems analysis of Soviet missile defense failed to understand the significance of many tests conducted at Sary Shagan or the relationship between the Hen House radar network and the Moscow missile defense network, US national intelligence estimates (NIE) nonetheless correctly determined that the Soviets were deploying NMD. These assessments were ultimately challenged in the late 1960s as the USA and the Soviet Union began negotiating what would become the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM)...

Learning From Townscape Precedents

As with many of the themes and issues considered in this book, it is extremely valuable to collect examples of precedents to inform your appreciation and thinking, as well as to allow you to reflect on what you want to realise within your designs. Precedents in townscape allow us to consider the various qualities that have been achieved in the past, so it is always useful to sketch or take pictures of impressive views created by the layout of buildings and spaces within the landscape so that something of these qualities might be pursued in future work. As important as the general perspective view, however, is the need to analyse the plans, sections and content to appreciate what it is about the forms of the three-dimensional solids and voids, as well as the materiality of the views, that gives them character (Figure 8.7). Themes for such an analysis are discussed in the following sections.

Systems for Private Residences

The Internet requires fast speed and high bandwidth (information carrying capacity) to enable users to download photos, graphics, and music. In addition to the Internet, high-definition TV requires high bandwidth wiring to transmit crystal clear signals into a home, whether it has cable service or a satellite dish.

Cornford And Cross Problems Solved

In a linked exhibition photographic images of the lawns of Oxford Colleges, which are protected by observance of custom rather than security equipment from encroachment, were shown. Camelot was a public art commission, selected from a submission of designs Cornford and Cross used adapted photographs of the site to give a visual impression of their proposal. Their view is that by reinforcing the boundaries of a site with security fencing, as an intentionally excessive display of authority, they sought to relate current debates on security and access to the tragedy of the commons,45 as they put it, when sites of open mixing are encroached on by those of consumption and routine. The title references the UK national lottery, and the mythicised ideal (chivalric) life of Arthurian Britain, but the work's intention was to interrupt the public realm thereby pointing to its sterility. Later Cross found himself on a local bus when the driver pulled over, pointed to the installation and...

Grand Isle Lake House Project

The Grand Isle Lake House is located on Lake Cham-plain in northwestern Vermont, and has been used as a project site for the Geotechnical Design course and as a senior capstone project. The building is currently owned by the Preservation Trust of Vermont, a statewide nonprofit committed to assisting Vermont communities in the preservation of their historic buildings, sites, and town and village centers. The Preservation Trust uses the Lake House as a special events facility in support of their nonprofit activity. Photographs of the structure are shown in Figure 2.

Collective Intelligence in Design

Prototypical examples of the Multitude include political organisations fostered by networking technologies, such as the highly distributed and the partially Internet-coordinated World Trade Organization (WTO) resistance movement, but also user-generated organisations like the file-sharing communities of myspace and flickr or the online

Experiencing the experience

When interaction designers Duncan Kerr and Mat Hunter were developing an early digital camera in the 1990s, they conceived a graphical user interface with animations that would respond to physical manipulation, a direct coupling of rotary switches, and a miniature screen. They searched for the most appropriate way to feel how intuitive and engaging this might be, and communicate this to their client, Kodak.2

The benefits of drawing

It is said that in our modern world we now produce more photographs than bricks. For the first time in history the visual image has become more prevalent than the means of making houses. The lesson concerns the importance of design and appearance in contemporary society. But photographs are not always the most appropriate medium for expressing this visual concern. There are times, and subjects, which lend themselves to graphic analysis, rather than pictorial description. This book has the aim of reviving the sketchbook tradition, in order to create a visually literate society. The objective of education is to achieve not just literacy and numeracy, but graphic, visual and spatial skills. Our success as an industrial society requires this and so do we, whether as designers or as individuals.

Atmospheric Pollution

Fig. 9.10 Load-bearing stone masonry - David Mellor Cutlery Factory, Hathersage, Derbyshire. Architects Hopkins Architects. Photographs Arthur Lyons Fig. 9.10 Load-bearing stone masonry - David Mellor Cutlery Factory, Hathersage, Derbyshire. Architects Hopkins Architects. Photographs Arthur Lyons

Stabilization and restoration techniques

Prefab Rebar For Holes

The reconstruction of the Catoctin Aqueduct (planned for 2008 9) will use a mix of new and original aqueduct stones that had been salvaged and buried by the NPS after the collapse of the arches Except for a few historical photographs there is very little documentation of the original arch geometry or elevations available The arch had to be re-created in order for the proper placement of stones to result in a smooth curve Historically, the layout of elliptical arch stones has been done using graphical methods that proved impossible to duplicate from the historical photographs Instead, The NPS engineered a simple device for measuring the stones which have tapered sides and a curved top and bottom

Information Management Tool

The application, and the database, is structured in three main groups, which define the way in which the information can be accessed, namely spatial units, level of access and thematic areas. The spatial units should be understood as the different areas in which the Monastery has been divided. The level of access defines the privileges of the user. Thematic areas are the options for searching the information contained in the database. The database can be browsed through menus or hotspots in photographs, 360 panoramic views or 3D model (Fig. 27). The thematic areas depend on the level of access. A tree-like structure was thought for the thematic areas (menus and submenus), in which each one can be subdivided in three different levels.

The Monument And Its Structure

Involved cutting through the projections of the travertine corbels, the points of attachment to the walls for an attic in the central room on the level of the first-floor passages, and their covering by means of small groined vaults. The most interesting discovery is the blocking of the large central oculus set in the summit of the vault and documented by photographs taken during the alterations in the 1930s. The oculus does not date back to the period of Roman construction but is prior to 1546, when it appears in an image of the Great Hall in the altarpiece of the Stoning of St. Stephen by Giulio Romano. During the construction of the cloister, the oculus was adapted as an intake for air and light for the new spaces laid out on the first floor, with a band of brickwork running round its perimeter. Finally in 1926-1934 it was closed with bricks arranged in a radial pattern. After the removal of the modern cement facing in 2006, it was left visible (Ungaro & Vitti 2007, Vitti 2007).

Structural Interventions

2) Photographing of all wall panels from both sides and in detail was then carried out. These were used to indicate instructions for repairs directly on them. Repair of joints, bridging of cracks, replacing damaged stones and mud bricks, changing the location of stones to break continuity of vertical joints providing key stones etc. were marked one by one on the photographs using code numbers and marking of areas. This way a sort of wall repairing shop drawings were provided to the contractor. These were supplemented with analytical descriptions and specifications for each and every code number, for the work to be carried out and the material to be used. Figure 23. Instructions on photographs. Figure 23. Instructions on photographs.

The Explanatory Rendering

Consistent with Dewey's logic, Behnisch's website tells visitors that, Our vision is to unite with the client and city to build a shared vision of architecture rather than impose a personal vision. This personal declaration of intent is confirmed by educator and theorist Tom Dutton who has characterized the intent of the Behnisch firm as an attempt to transform meaning through the arrangement of program, form and content and by solving problems articulated by the client.9 From the authors' expert point of view, the digital renderings produced by the Behnisch office do seem to offer more explanation of possibilities than fixed solutions. The renderings are, unlike the conventional (Pelli) or critical (Hadid) ones, pedagogical, meaning that they explain to decision makers how the building solves problems spatially and technologically. Text, photographs, and diagrams are used freely, suggesting the architects think that decision makers are capable of and willing to invest time and effort...

Silken Hotel Aldwych 2008

Ken Shuttleworth (who left to set up Make as a practice contriving to be everything the Foster practice was not the fallout bizarrely resulting in Foster being accused of exercising a Stalinesque Photoshop elimination of Shuttleworth from office photographs). Foster's London office buildings (as at Canary Wharf and More London) have, on the whole, been formulaic - with the exception, perhaps, of interesting ones such 100 Wood Street (exorcised from the practice's web site, possibly because of a lack of purity and the blatant theatricality of one fa ade), and the nearby Gresham Street building that strives to make homage to Mies (except that the 'steel' cladding sections are now aluminium looking like steel). The Jubilee Line station at Canary Wharf remains, despite a degree of 'silting up' to which Foster designs are particularly vulnerable, a very pleasant way to enter and leave the development.

Drivers barriers and issues

In the German capital, Berlin, a PC-based city model has been commissioned by the authorities and created by the company Artemedia. The basic model was created from land registry data, containing information about the city lots and services such as gas and water. Aerial photographs were superimposed to gain height data. The resultant model shows the location of street blocks and key buildings rather than detailed models of all buildings.

Getting Real About Urbanism

Outstanding urban design starts with identifying and incorporating the unique characteristics and personality of an area. The author explains the how-to's of creating authentic, innovative urban designs, including an outstanding section on working with the community. Lavishly illustrated, the book is packed with examples and hundreds of large color photographs.

Time Saver Standards for Urban Design2111

What an impression is made by several grouped squares on the person who goes from one to the other The eye encounters a new scene every instant, and we feel an infinite variety of impressions. This may be observed in photographs of St. Mark's and of the Signoria of Florence. There are more than a dozen popular views of each square, taken from various points. Each one presents a different picture, so much so that it is sometimes difficult to believe that they are all views of the same place. When we examine a modern square of strict right angle design, we can get only two or three views of different quality, for in general they express no artistic feeling. They are only surfaces of so much area. H

Manchester UK 20002002

The Imperial War Museum was established by an Act ot Parliament In 1920. Its purpose is to collect, preserve and display material and information conq H with military operations in which Britain or the Commonwealth have been involved since August 1914. With lour branches in the South East, the Imperial War Mu H had wanted for some time to offer the population in the north access to its exceptionally rich collections of films, photographs, art. documents, objects, and services.' B aluminum-clad building, Daniel Libeskind's first structure in the UK. is based on the concept of a world shattered by conflict, a fragmented globe reassembled in H interlocking shards. These shards represent conflict on land, In the air and on water. Visitors enter through the Air Shard, which is 55 meters high and open to tfn B ments. It houses a viewing platform at 29 meters with views across the Manchester Ship Canal toward the city center. The Earth Shard is curved and houses the H public areas ot the...

In Memories Of Dark Times

In Freed's Holocaust museum, hundreds of photographs of the prewar tower-like structure, are made to tell the tory of a destroyed community. Another room offers not photographs, but objects, hundreds of shoes of the victims of the Majdanek concentration camp near Lublin, Poland. Metonymically, they give evidence for people about whom little more is known today.

Research Design Connections

The regional authority mailed potential participants a printed survey containing 30 images of lakeshores and 12 of roadsides. Participants returned 392 completed surveys. The images illustrated a broad assortment of the possible development options for the area, from single-family homes to commercial developments ofdifferent sizes and styles. The images varied in their use of natural elements as well. Using a five-point scale, participants responded to questions such as How well does each of the following photographs represent development that you feel is appropriate to Lake Tahoe Basin's scenic quality Other questions used five-point scales to assess levels of concern about the current and future scenic conditions in the area. Additional ques

Common adaptive reuse options

As indicated previously, however, the type and form of adaptive reuse of a property is constrained as much by the imagination as well by economic and legal restraints. The photographs in Figures 4.6-4.9, for example, illustrate some imaginative reuses of redundant buildings.


We are indebted to the following for permission to use copyright material Dr W.A.Allen of Bickerdike Allen Partners for the thermal pumping concept and diagram Jack Hinks for the photograph of tree damage the Kentish Gazette for the photograph of wind damage Addison Wesley Longman Ltd for permission to reprint several items from Cook and Hinks, Appraising Building Defects and Keith Bright, Diane McGlynn, Mr S.D.McGlynn and the University of Reading for permission to reprint several of their photographs.


You want the best for your home office, from practical workstations to stylish bookcases. Danny Prouix shows you how to transform any room into the perfect workspace, offering invaluable tips and advice, plus 13 fresh, functional, fun-to-build projects packed with detailed photographs and step-by-step instructions.

Illustration Credits

However, the constructional details of such buildings remain something of a mystery how this architecture is realized is a question not answered by the many publications available. In this book the engineering aspects come into their own. A representative selection of international projects from the past ten years is documented here, complete with working drawings, site photographs, details of sizes, materials and costs, as well as a precise analysis of the construction. The examples embrace a wide range of structures including bridges, industrial buildings, sports centres and houses, and cover many different regions and climate zones. All in all, a book which demonstrates the whole spectrum of possible applications for this fascinating material.

Factory as Icon

Library Etienne Louis Boullee

Also involved in the Werkbund was Carl Benscheidt Sr, the client for Fagus (Latin for beech), one of a number of enlightened industrialists who adhered to a socially and technologically advanced programme in their works. In 1911 his son, Karl Benscheidt Jr, worked briefly for the United Shoe Machinery Company at Beverly, Massachusetts, learning American works management in the company that was providing most of the finance for Fagus's current new development at Alfeld-an-der-Leine. The reinforced concrete daylight factory built for the company between 1903 and 1905 by the English-born agricultural engineer Ernest Ransome was currently the best known building of its type. Benscheidt may well have been the source of Gropius's photographs of American industrial buildings. Ransome's building was not among them. Mendelsohn was concerned to present the building for publication and to point out the novel points of his design. He organized - even cropped - all photographs of the exterior to...

Architects Comments

Florestano Fausto Tripolitania

The settlements' growth peaked in '938, when Balbo masterminded a mass transport of ',800 families at once, adding up to approximately '5,000 or '6,000 individuals. (Despite Balbo's protests, Mussolini - and therefore the press - insisted on calling these settlers the twenty thousand, i ventimila.)'0 Thus subsequent articles, published in '939, were reporting on the settlements after the fact. Architects still seemed covertly resentful, refusing to contribute their expert evaluations. One article, for example, reproduced photographs from a propaganda publication, L'illustrazione coloniale, merely appending a list of villages and a no comment A further article in the same journal showed photographs and did not even deign to comment on the fact that it offered no comment.'2 Yet another described the basic elements of each village - the church, the Fascist Party offices casa del fascio , the school with lodgings for the teacher, the military police station, the post office, the market,...

About this Book

Experimental Timber Frame Construction

Acknowledgements Particularly difficult and time-consuming during the preparation of this book proved to be ascertaining and procuring the detail information and drawings as well as the photographs taken during construction, which are often indispensable in clarifying construction systems. In most cases some time had elapsed since the design work was concluded, and the documents had already been sent to the archives or the architects were no longer in possession

Trees and Bushes

Tree Rendering

Obviously, a great deal of information about trees, particularly those in a given location, can be memorized. Those not often used are difficult to remember, however, and so it is well to accumulate a complete file of tree photographs and sketches for use in delineating buildings in areas outside your normal theater of operations. Where possible, a set of photographs of trees on the site under consideration should be made. An owner who is fond of the trees and plans to keep them will expect to see them faithfully duplicated.

Memory And Invention

'Clear focus, economy of expression. good selection of colour photographs, drawings and plans In its first goal of making recent building exciting, the book succeeds quickly and consistently' - The Times Literary Supplement Selected by The New York Times Book Review as an Architectural Book of the Yeat. Architecture In Europe since I960 surveys two and o half decades of a period characterized by discord between tradition and invention, modem and ant modern, ond an abundance of disparate design solutions. A wide ranging introductory text and contributions by eminent cntics including Jean Louis Cohen. Lucius Burckhardt. Frit Neumeyer and Peter Rice address the major issues of the period urban context and change, typology, technology and ecology. Over 75 projects are presented, with critical essays locating each in contoxt. together with photographs, drawings, site diagrams, construction details and bibliographical data Here is an important contribution to contemporary debate on...

Addis Ababa In 1936

But Rava was now alone in articulating such views. Gherardo Bosio, one of the planners most involved in East African cities other than Addis Ababa (Gondar, Dessie, and Jima), perused a series of local types, accompanied by photographs, but from a position of extreme anthropological distance, and not as if they might be relevant to Italian concerns.17

Brazils Legacies

In June 2003 a peculiar structure was erected in the genteel surroundings of Kensington Gardens, London. Made of steel, glass and concrete, but more of a sculpture than a building, it had an airy loggia with inclined walls, a catenary roof and a dramatic red zigzagging ramp. It looked like the set for a 1950s sci-fi movie. The loggia was open to the elements, while one of the two end walls contains a great oval window, framing views of the park. The whole structure sat on a cylindrical podium containing some calculatedly retro-futuristic furniture and an exhibition of architectural photographs. This was Oscar Niemeyer's pavilion for the Serpentine Gallery of contemporary art, one of an annual series, which had previously displayed designs by Zaha Hadid, Daniel Libeskind and Toyo Ito. Superficially it resembled Niemeyer's earlier work the ramp seemed to be a quotation of the Museu de Arte Contempor nea (mac) of 1997 at Niteroi, while the catenary form of the roof (as well as the size...

An other architect

Architectural discourse usually focuses on the individual project and ignores the terms that frame discussion. The most essential subject is often the least discussed but its absence can be painfully visible. The major currency in contemporary architecture is the image, the photograph not the building. Two-thirds of the city of Los Angeles is covered in roads. The photograph occupies an equivalent position of importance within architecture. The architectural photograph has two contradictory roles. First, to present architecture as a higher form of cultural production to defend and promote the class it represents and, second, to further architecture's absorption into consumer culture. The combination of these two demands reduces the architectural magazine to the level of a travel brochure. Photographs in architectural magazines all have similar characteristics. The profusion of blue skies and balmy weather turn the shiny pages of the magazine into a sanatorium in which the architect is...

Pam Ph Arch Itec

The site is promoting a web 2.0 landscape design competition to explore new design solutions for China's historic and infamous Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The competition is open to all. Submissions, in the form of two- or three-dimensional models, montages, or plans, hand or computer drawn (or photographed in the case of models), can be uploaded to the competition's Flickr page at www. flickr. com groupsAiananmen_ square_ landscape_ architecture__ competition 2010 . See additional details at history_ theory chinese_ landscape architecture_competition. Winners will be announced in June 2010.

Why steel

Nevertheless, we saw at Expo.02 in Switzerland that presumably, half of all the exhibition pavilions were made of steel from Jean Nouvel's Monolith in Murten, to the Cloud (or Blur Building ) by Diller & Scofidio in Yver-don, to the Towers of Biel by Coop Himmelb(l)au in Biel. And there is no stopping the flood of photographs of new airports from around the world, with their long-span roofs of steel lattice girders and steel columns reminiscent of trees. But the lion's share of steel in building is visible only for a short time, while the building is under construction - and I don't mean just the steel feinforcement in concrete.

Manufacture Of Steel

Fig. 5.1 Structural steelwork - Waterloo International Terminal, London. Architects Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners. Photographs Courtesy of Jo Reid & John Peck, Peter Strobel Fig. 5.1 Structural steelwork - Waterloo International Terminal, London. Architects Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners. Photographs Courtesy of Jo Reid & John Peck, Peter Strobel

Technology And Form

If the philosophical critique of phenomenology in the 1960s involved a fundamental questioning of the concept of form, the adequacy of form as a category for addressing visual experience had in fact already been put in question by technological developments dating back to the nineteenth century. As we saw in chapter one, Baudelaire's hostility to photography stemmed from his appreciation of the threat to the unity of aesthetic form posed by the photograph's inclusion of contingency. Baudelaire's insight soon found an echo in subsequent reactions to the high-speed photography famously exploited by Muybridge, Marey, and Janssen from the 1860s. While exposure time for the daguerreotype and the calotype was several minutes, the development of the collodion and then the gelatin-brominde dry-plate processes achieved exposure times of 1 1000th of a second by the 1870s and 1 6000th of a second by the 1880s at the same time, devices like the photographic revolver allowed the rapid replacement...


Arts and Crafts a movement in architecture and design from England, initiated by William Morris in 1867 to counteract industrialism it is characterized by an interest in the handcrafted, and uses motifs from nature and the Gothic Revival. arts centre see cultural centre. artwork drawings, photographs and graphics in such a form as to be of use in printing and reproduction.

Why draw

Architectural Freehand Drawings

Many students of architecture and design today spend a great deal of time making photographs rather than sketches. They could, of course, buy postcards or tourist guides, which often contain better and more accurate pictures at only a fraction of the cost, thereby concentrating their efforts instead on the harder but more valuable process of drawing. What the sketchbook provides is a means of delving deeper into the subject than merely recording it, in order to begin to understand why and how the scene was shaped. The main barrier to using the sketchbook in this way appears to be the lack of basic graphic skills, together with the hectic pace of modern life. As with all endeavours of value, you have to practise a great deal to cultivate the craft of freehand drawing, in order to fulfil the potential offered by the sketchbook. This sequence of four comparisons of sketches and photographs of central Glasgow shows the benefits of freehand drawing. In each case unnecessary information has...

The medium

Printed paper can be encapsulated in a hard-wearing resin to produce a durable and high-quality result. The printing can include photographs, and if an ultraviolet filter is inserted the problems of colour fading in sunlight can be reduced. These resin laminates, when bonded onto a plywood or fibreglass base, are resistant to scratches or chips and can be repaired relatively easily. They are expensive but very durable.

The USOA System

Also, the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service has developed a classification system that evaluates and classifies soils in terms of their genesis and morphology. Newer surveys are superimposed on aerial photographs and are supplemented with information applicable to land uses other than agriculture. In the USDA system, information on soils is limited to depths of about 1 m (3 ft) This data cannot be used to address problems requiring soil information at greater depths

Traditional Modern

Modern architectural sensibility. 71 In Rationalist terms, vernacular architecture was modern because a ll the architecture is in the construction and never against it, and it expressed the all-important full correspondence between form and structure. 72 In 1932, Michelucci compared photographs of Italian farmhouses with drawings of typically international-modernist single-family houses (Figure 4.1). Like Ponti before him, his main goal was to re-appropriate forms that belonged - according to these theories - to the autochthonous Italian repertoire. He used the two farmhouses to show how 'new' forms, which the not-very-attentive public defines as Nordic, or more precisely, 'German', also

Qualitative Results

Visual observations for each space were documented in text and graphic formats, including written notes, tape recordings, photographs, hand-drawn site plans, and analytical sketches. Observations first focused on how many people were present, what they were doing, where they congregated, which amenities they used, how they entered and left the space, and their demographic characteristics. Next, salient aspects of design and operation were noted, with particular reference to how they supported or discouraged use. Design elements such as size, shape, orientation, location, materials, and amenities were noted in relation to which uses such elements would support. Operational elements involved how the space was maintained, how it was managed vis a vis responsiveness to the public's right to use the space, and whether the space was in apparent compliance with applicable requirements.

Visual Resources

As I write this, it's very early spring in Yellowstone, the snow still lying heavy on the landscape. The people will arrive soon with their cars and RVs, along with plenty of seasonal park rangers to guide and direct them. The wildfires will come again, too. And I'll be there, taking another series of repeat photographs on the 21st anniversary of the great wildfires of 1988.

Narrative Museum


A large part of the museum's collection consists in documentary items collected from European countries, including photographs, papers, personal objects, such as shoes from the camps, and larger items, such as a railway boxcar and a Danish fishing boat, all obtained by voluntary donation (in the manner of other museums that collect worldwide). Objects enfold stories suitcases, for instance, speak of journeys which begin and end - at Auschwitz bearing the names, birth dates and numbers of victims in 'a registration system' for the machinery of annihilation (Rogoff, 2000 44).12 To counter the oblivion of the suitcases, Irit Rogoff turns to pages from the diary of Charlotte Salomon, who was killed at Birkenau 'replete with the images and dramas of everyday life, they bring us to the moment of departure and beyond with a full recognition of the abundance and breadth of the life that had been lived in situ' (Rogoff, 2000 47). But the design of the museum building is itself a narrative. The...

First Results

An evaluation of countermeasures against flood damage has to start with an analysis of former incidents. In many cases data are not available but still it is possible to draw valuable conclusions from reports and recordings of earlier catastrophies. Even the comparison of old pictures or photographs that show, how a Cultural Heritage building is located in its natural surrounding allows to identify some of the relevant characteristic parameters of flooding.


In this colourful book, filled with a combination of stunning photographs and architectural diagrams, she focuses on the merging between water and manmade structures along with all the difficulties that can emerge during this joining. Through the book Carol takes you room-by-room into homes that she and her fellow decorators have transformed. Full colour, before and after photographs demonstrate what a decorator can do for you and your favourite spaces. Woven throughout is Carol's own fascinating decorator's story, illustrating how she developed the style and grace that she has become world renowned for.


Settlement Plate Detail

Only aerial photographs can reveal the qualities of settlement forms and patterns, yet these add an element of distance which often reduces the subject to a map-like structure or even an abstract design. The photographs here are chosen to show the characteristics of particular places as caught through the necessarily narrow view of a camera lens. They also capture the varied scales of enquiry involved in the study of landscapes of settlement as well as the richly varied qualities of the particular places.

Thank Yous

Good food, good company, and rewarding work are often thanks enough for a volunteer, but a card or a phone call is a positive extension of goodwill. Have all your volunteers come out to a nonworking celebration of the project when it is finished. Hand out awards, enlarged photographs of crews and participants, or give a Thank-you speech. Of course, the best way to show your appreciation is to go out and volunteer on the projects your volunteers will undertake in the future. Share the knowledge and your time

No Gaps No Leaks

Offer approximately R-1 per inch, or R-5.5 for a common 2-by-6-inch stud. The thermal efficiency of the building is broken by these regular cold bridges. Infrared photographs of frame homes taken on a cold day will show the outlines of the studs as cold strips on the interior wall surface. Problems can also arise in frame walls with settling and improper installation of various insulation materials, creating cold gaps. In a bale wall, only the window and door openings create cold bridges.

Exotic Brasilia

So the British critic Jonathan Glancey referred to Brasilia as a 'science fiction city', its Congress buildings the 'headquarters of a Martian leadership'.31 Hannah Baldock in Icon describes a city made for a 'race of hyper-intelligent Volkswagens' rather than people, a city designed to speed up Darwinian processes of natural selection by murdering its residents in traffic accidents, and a city in which day-to-day survival for visitors is a test of wits.32 Carlos Moreira Teixeira wrote in 2005 for the French journal L'Architecture d'aujourd'hui that the city was simultaneously ghastly and beautiful, a kind of anti-city, a species of 'desert' or 'wasteland' in which architecture was a futile business in the face of the enormity of the cerrado landscape.33 'Let more filth come forth ', he declaimed let, in other words, the city become even worse. The report was accompanied by large-scale photographs by Emmanuel Pinard, which showed a vast, barren landscape, all dust, cracked earth and...


There are many illustrations in this book. With a number of exceptions the photographs, diagrams and drawings used are by me or I hold their copyright. The copyright has lapsed for some of the others while yet others are in the public domain. The source of each illustration for which I do not hold the copyright and or which I have used due to the courtesy of others is noted with the item. Giancarlo Cerutti di Ludovico, George Claflen, Vicente del Rio, Rohan Dickson, Ruth Durack, Robert Freestone, Mark Francis, Peter Kohane, Kathy Kolnick, Susannah Lang, William Morrison, Deepti Nijhawan, Laurie Olin, Tata Soemardi, Jennifer Taylor, Bernard Tschumi, the Universit t Bielefeld, Alix Verge and Herti Verge all provided me with photographs. Oleksandra Babych, Susanti Widiastuti, Thanong Poonteerakul, Lee Yuntai, Munir Vahanvati, Alix Verge, Wang Chao, Yin Yin and Zhe Xian prepared drawings for me from a variety of sources. These photographs and drawings have enriched my whole work so I owe...

The Politics of Eros

The desire to assimilate the architectural past into the present described in chapter One was motivated in no small part by the erotic.1 One motivation was certainly - as with Costa - the desire for cultural continuity between past and present, as a part of an ultimately conservative worldview. But both Costa, and (particularly) Freyre found an erotic nostalgia in the casa grande, a longing for a slow, sensuous way of living in which nature was beautiful and abundant, as was sex indeed, for contemporary readers of Casa Grande e Senzala, it is the frankness of Freyre's account of the sexual life of the fazenda that stands out as most prescient.2 While conscious of the power exercised in sexual relations between owners and slaves, he describes a sexual landscape of apparently far greater range and licence than that possible in the world of the urban bourgeois of the early twentieth century. There is in Freyre and his circle a nostalgia for an erotic life they knew of by rumour or...

Field Observations

At each field visit, the architect should document the progress of the work with a field report and photographs. The field report form can be a single-page document that lists the date, weather conditions, the number and type of personnel observed on the site, the work they were performing, and the general progress of the work. If any special questions or conditions arise during his field visit, the architect should record them on the field report as well. The field report is generally distributed to the owner and contractor. Since field visits are often conducted in conjunction with project meetings, it is important to note that the two are essentially different activities. The project meeting will cover in-depth issues of the project, and the results of those discussions will be recorded in meeting minutes. The field report is a general observation and snapshot of a day in the life of the project, and the nature of the report should reflect that. The architect will certainly list a...


In conjunction with the landscape architect, the handrail was the last element to be designed . The architectural team requested that the bridge's handrail and site's handrail be similar in a way that would tie the site together Photographs indicated that the original handrail was likely wrought iron, picket type with a spring scroll at the posts The curve of the spring scroll was found to be a feature that would add aesthetic interest, and as in the original use of the scroll, it adds strength to the post against horizontal load To give the bridge a finished edge, the top rail was designed using a wood dowel to match the rest of the site The handrail is sectional consisting of two sections per arch segment

Digital Camera and Digital Photography

Digital Camera and Digital Photography

Compared to film cameras, digital cameras are easy to use, fun and extremely versatile. Every day there’s more features being designed. Whether you have the cheapest model or a high end model, digital cameras can do an endless number of things. Let’s look at how to get the most out of your digital camera.

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