Mm glass

The ground is dense saturated London clay. The ground's impermeability means that the heat stored would not be carried away by water flow. However, there is a heat loss due to conduction that is minimised by decreasing the surface area to volume ratio. The initial proposal was to use the ground below the building as a heat store by using the structural piles as heat exchangers. Polythene pipes cast into the concrete of the piles would carry the heating fluid from the solar panels to transfer...

Elevation of Science block

Courtyard (showing relatively recent new roofing) Courtyard (showing relatively recent new roofing) The client, Southwark Education and the School Board of Governors, was well aware of this and in the brief called for creative architectural and design work to create an attractive and welcoming institution and one which provided a high-quality environment with low future maintenance costs and high levels of energy efficiency. At present the insulation levels are poor, windows are all...

Making renewable energy viable by minimising demand

The challenge appeared to be how to integrate as many functions as possible into a single element of construction, at the same time as optimising its overall performance. Adding more technical parameters into the design of each individual component makes the design more difficult, but the duplication of function can enable passive environmental features to be incorporated without additional cost. The primary objective for us is to design the building fabric as the primary or passive internal...

PVs and the natural ventilation strategy

The need to provide conference room facilities in the visitors centre and offices area and future flexibility led to a strategy of a raised floor for services and air distribution as indicated in Figure 6.8. The bowling green ventilation strategy (Figure 6.9) was developed to both ventilate the internal space and take the heat away from the back of the PV modules to prevent a layer of hot air forming at high level. The architect considered a variety of wall constructions and favoured, on...

How big they were

The mechanical and electrical plant rooms were both positioned just to the north of the north-east corner of the indoor bowling hall to allow for ventilation for the boilers and the PV switchgear room (Figure 6.13). This fairly central position, although distant from the first PV modules, was thought to be appropriate over the life of the building when other PV sub-arrays will be positioned much closer to it. It was also thought that if more space for PV equipment became necessary in the future...

Surface area

Anti Scatter Grid

To assess this required further development of the building form. Based on common practice in low-energy office design (Chapter 3) it was decided that the visitors centre office should aim at a floor width of about 15m at most to allow for natural ventilation. Thus, the form of the visitors centre office area was confirmed as a rectangular block with the long axis running east-west. As for the indoor bowling green, it was necessary to study the daylighting in more detail to determine the area...

References

Renewable Energy World 2(6), p. 17. 2. Anon, (2000), News. Renewable Energy World, 3(1), p. 14. 3. Anon, (2000), Achievements and Potential. Renewable Energy World, 3(1), p. 94. 4. Gratzel, M. (2000), Powering the planet. Nature, 403(676), p. 363. 5. Anon, (1999), PV - Breaking the Solar Impasse, Renewable Energy World, 2(6), p. 95. 8. Anon, (1998), News. Electrical Review, 231(22), p. 3.

Introduction

If the 19th century was the age of coal and the 20th of oil, the 21st will be the age of the sun. Solar energy is set to play an ever-increasing role in generating the form, and affecting the appearance and construction, of buildings. The principal reason for this is that photovoltaic (PV) systems which produce electricity directly from solar radiation are becoming more widespread as their advantages become apparent and as costs fall. PVs are an advanced materials technology that will help us...

The site

The site is a long, thin strip of derelict land, aligned on a north-south axis, two miles from the centre of Belfast. A flat area in the centre approximately 35 metres wide and 150 metres long provides the only useful space to build upon. Figure 8.2 shows the site. Along its eastern edge, where a row of semi-detached houses previously stood, there is a continuous frontage to Shore Road, which historically was a main route north out of Belfast and is still a busy multi-lane highway. To the west...

Environmental strategy

A broad environmental strategy study was carried out. The goal was to set out a range of possibilities which would enable the School to become a national example of environmentally responsible refurbishment of high architectural quality over the next 20 years. A long-term goal, perhaps for beyond the year 2020, was a school that over the course of a year produced more energy (probably through photovoltaics (PV) panels) than it used. Site considerations such as the creation of favourable...

Identifying problems with existing approaches to lowenergy buildings

The traditional approach to low-energy design has been to filter the adverse effects of the outside environment as heavily as possible, insulate the occupied space, limit the size of window openings, provide a gridwork of solar control blinds in front of those windows that remain, add layers of conservatory structures to south-facing facades with perhaps a few solar collectors or photovoltaic cells added on as bolt-on extras. This has often had a depressing effect on the interior, as the quest...

The next step taking fans out of the ventilation system

A new conference building at the Earth Centre, built to tight budgets, tries to co-ordinate a variety of renewable energy features to maximise the thermal and solar benefit of each season. This building uses a small number of roof- mounted polycrystalline photovoltaic cells to power pumps connecting roof-mounted solar hot water collectors to an underground highly insulated hot water store. The electrical output from the photovoltaics occurs at exactly the same time as the effective output from...

Figure 1014 Monitoring diagram

Monitoring is covering the performance of the photovoltaic installation, energy consumption and internal comfort. This is being carried out over a two- to three-year period by Newcastle Photovoltaics Application Centre. The PV system performance includes output measurement for all four sub-arrays as well as the complete system. Array temperatures are measured using embedded thermocouples in four of the modules, two on each side of the facade. Energy consumption and internal comfort monitoring...

Taking stock and minimising fan power

An examination of the overall system energy consumption showed that using a combination of the technologies discussed above would result in an annual energy consumption of around 65kWh m2 y. Figure 14.11 shows available energy from wind and solar power. Not all these features have been incorporated into the New Parliamentary Building as built - Ove Arup predict an overall energy consumption of around 96kWh m2 y. The next step in our research program examined ways of reducing the reliance on...

Adding winddriven ventilation to reduce fan use

Nottingham University New Campus uses corridors as ultra low pressure drop return air paths with stair towers as vertical chimneys. By placing the heat recovery air-handling units above the stair towers, it is possible to bypass the mechanical ventilation system and allow natural ventilation of Nottingham University wind cowls with photovoltaic atrium roofs in foreground Nottingham University wind cowls with photovoltaic atrium roofs in foreground View of the Beddington ZED project from the...

Integrating photovoltaic panels

Providing that ultra low pressure drop air distribution is specified and combined with most of the building components described earlier, it is possible to reduce the annual electrical load to the point where it can be met by grid-connected building integrated photovoltaics. The study undertaken by Conphoebus showed that photovoltaics could be integrated with return air flues built into the ventilated facade system however, this would be more appropriate for passive cooling applications in...

What are photovoltaics

PV systems convert solar radiation into electricity. They are not to be confused with solar panels which use the sun's energy to heat water (or air) for water and space heating. This chapter looks at PVs and examines a number of issues of interest to designers including Manufacturing technology. Environmental issues. Energy production. The most common PV devices at present are based on silicon. When the devices are exposed to the sun, direct current (DC) flows as shown in Figure 2.1 (see...

Selling the power to the grid

Although the UK has a non-fossil fuel obligation requiring electricity generating companies to become involved in selling electricity generated without fossil fuels, there was no specific requirement for them in 1998 to buy PV-generated electricity from grid-connected buildings. The project team found only one of the six regional generators ready to do so Northern Electric. Even then the standard contract started at 1MW and the annual administration charge was 1000 (later reduced to 500)....

A mission for the new millennium

A decade of environmental research on a series of projects ranging from the New Parliamentary Building at Westminster (see Figure 14.1) to a new Conference Facility at the Earth Centre, Doncaster (see Figure 14.2) has generated a strategy capable of producing a wide range of carbon-neutral buildings able to survive in both polluted inner city sites and high occupation densities in more suburban locations. A carbon-neutral building produces no overall CO2 emissions to the atmosphere when energy...

Daylight reflection systems

The windows incorporate light shelves to maintain daylight levels at the rear of rooms when the solar shading is in use, avoiding the blinds down lights on scenario with its consequent luminaire heat gain and energy penalty. The light shelf has been incorporated into a sealed unit with an internal corrugated reflector designed to maximise high altitude reflections, and to reject lower altitude direct solar gain. A partly internal, partly external light shelf shades the area close to the window...

Hl h

Voltage and is the load at a moment in time - think of a 100W bulb, for example. Energy is the product of power and time. A 1kW load which is on for 1 hour will consume 1kWh of energy. We are all familiar with this from our domestic electricity (energy) bills. Note the variability of the daily load (due in part to some appliances with high power requirements being used but only for short periods) and the significant evening demand when the PV output is negligible. Figure 3.5 shows the...

Oxford Photovoltaics

This glossary is almost entirely the work of the National Photovoltaic Applications Centre. The present authors have made only minor alterations to certain terms or introduced a small number of others indicated by an asterix. The definition of blocking diodes comes from Photovoltaics in Buildings see bibliography whilst the definition of bypass diodes come from Stand alone PV systems Guarantee of Results, ETSU S P2 00237 REP. 2. Light is used in common speech and in the text in a number of...