Photovoltaic panels strategy

All of the buildings, except the tower, have roofs that are designed to slope gently southwards at a suitable angle for the future installation of photovoltaic panels. A pilot installation, with an array of 10m2 of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the tower was originally proposed. This would provide sufficient energy for lighting in the common areas (lift lobby or stairway). A larger array of 70m2 is now being designed with an estimated annual output of 4400kWh, which should provide ample...

Mm glass

The ground is dense saturated London clay. The ground's impermeability means that the heat stored would not be carried away by water flow. However, there is a heat loss due to conduction that is minimised by decreasing the surface area to volume ratio. The initial proposal was to use the ground below the building as a heat store by using the structural piles as heat exchangers. Polythene pipes cast into the concrete of the piles would carry the heating fluid from the solar panels to transfer...

Elevation of Science block

Courtyard (showing relatively recent new roofing) Courtyard (showing relatively recent new roofing) The client, Southwark Education and the School Board of Governors, was well aware of this and in the brief called for creative architectural and design work to create an attractive and welcoming institution and one which provided a high-quality environment with low future maintenance costs and high levels of energy efficiency. At present the insulation levels are poor, windows are all...

Peter Clegg

The Earth Centre was conceived as a visitor attraction providing both education and entertainment around environmental issues. It exists on a 300-acre site in one of the most environmentally devastated areas in the country the coalfields of South Yorkshire. The masterplan for the Earth Centre (Figure 11.1) was to provide a large-scale visitor attraction providing new landscape for demonstrating the principles of ecological regeneration through a vibrant series of gardens, exhibitions which...

Conclusion

It is clear that any building can become carbon neutral if enough PVs are included, or green electricity is purchased from some remote windfarm. This is short-term thinking and can easily be dismissed by deeper engineering analysis - as buildings become increasingly capable of generating their own power, it will become important to measure all incoming and outgoing energy flows in kWh m2 y. The demand for green electricity has already outstripped supply, making it important to include renewable...

Program and budget

Informal discussions began in 1994 between Trevor Silver of Akeler and architect David Lloyd Jones of Studio E about the possibility of a low-energy design incorporating PV. At commercial rates of return PV does not currently pay for itself in fuel savings. So, as Doxford is in an appropriate development area, an application was made for funding support to the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) to cover the major costs of the PV installation and some aspects of the proposed...

System considerations

Note Earthing arrangements not shown Note Earthing arrangements not shown The preliminary PV system design assumed that the PVs would be split into sub-arrays each with its own inverter and that the incoming electrical supply, main switchgear, meters, power conditioners and various data, communications and control panels would all be located in the electrical switchgear room. Figure 6.12 shows a schematic of the system at this preliminary design stage. Starting at the mains incomer there is a...

Making renewable energy viable by minimising demand

The challenge appeared to be how to integrate as many functions as possible into a single element of construction, at the same time as optimising its overall performance. Adding more technical parameters into the design of each individual component makes the design more difficult, but the duplication of function can enable passive environmental features to be incorporated without additional cost. The primary objective for us is to design the building fabric as the primary or passive internal...

PVs and the natural ventilation strategy

The need to provide conference room facilities in the visitors centre and offices area and future flexibility led to a strategy of a raised floor for services and air distribution as indicated in Figure 6.8. The bowling green ventilation strategy (Figure 6.9) was developed to both ventilate the internal space and take the heat away from the back of the PV modules to prevent a layer of hot air forming at high level. The architect considered a variety of wall constructions and favoured, on...

Figure 63 Building massing

The design team then began to examine what the implications on form would be with particular attention to PVs and daylighting. The team knew that PVs were not normally immediately financially viable but needed to set out the facts to the client and wished, as far as possible, to allow for future flexibility. From the brief it was possible to develop the design. As daylighting of the bowling green (particularly) needed to be fairly uniform, this part of the building was likely to be single...

How big they were

The mechanical and electrical plant rooms were both positioned just to the north of the north-east corner of the indoor bowling hall to allow for ventilation for the boilers and the PV switchgear room (Figure 6.13). This fairly central position, although distant from the first PV modules, was thought to be appropriate over the life of the building when other PV sub-arrays will be positioned much closer to it. It was also thought that if more space for PV equipment became necessary in the future...

Surface area

To assess this required further development of the building form. Based on common practice in low-energy office design (Chapter 3) it was decided that the visitors centre office should aim at a floor width of about 15m at most to allow for natural ventilation. Thus, the form of the visitors centre office area was confirmed as a rectangular block with the long axis running east-west. As for the indoor bowling green, it was necessary to study the daylighting in more detail to determine the area...

Annual electrical demand and PV supply

The loading of the building had to be examined in detail. For the visitors centre and office area an electrical consumption of 30-35kWh m2 y was estimated based on an energy-efficient building (Chapter 3). For the bowling green each aspect (artificial lighting, small power for cafe bar, etc.) was studied resulting in an estimate of 35-40kWh m2y. Figure 6.5 shows the annual energy demand pattern (and PV supply - see below) Figure 6.6 shows a typical weekly power demand in summer.

Site

The site for the new building lies within the mature gardens of Madingley Rise (see Figure 12.1), a large Victorian house occupied by the Department of Earth Sciences, and describes an arc between the house to the south and its stables building to the north. It will provide 816m2 of accommodation, arranged on three floors, comprising a full ground and first with a basement floor on the western side only, and will accommodate 30 people. Discussions with the Department indicated that the best way...

KWhm2y

The area of photovoltaic cells integrated into the atrium roofs on Nottingham University New Campus annually generates 60,000kWh and provides enough electrical energy to power the air-handling units and heat-recovery systems - enabling a lower annual energy consumption than a naturally ventilated building, within a construction budget of 900 m2 of floor area including the EU Thermie contribution. The Nottingham University mechanical ventilation system only required an annual average of 0.37...

References

Renewable Energy World 2(6), p. 17. 2. Anon, (2000), News. Renewable Energy World, 3(1), p. 14. 3. Anon, (2000), Achievements and Potential. Renewable Energy World, 3(1), p. 94. 4. Gratzel, M. (2000), Powering the planet. Nature, 403(676), p. 363. 5. Anon, (1999), PV - Breaking the Solar Impasse, Renewable Energy World, 2(6), p. 95. 8. Anon, (1998), News. Electrical Review, 231(22), p. 3.

Introduction

If the 19th century was the age of coal and the 20th of oil, the 21st will be the age of the sun. Solar energy is set to play an ever-increasing role in generating the form, and affecting the appearance and construction, of buildings. The principal reason for this is that photovoltaic (PV) systems which produce electricity directly from solar radiation are becoming more widespread as their advantages become apparent and as costs fall. PVs are an advanced materials technology that will help us...

PVs on buildings

PVs offer enormous potential to building designers but, as an architect has said, it has to be done right from the start - they should not be an afterthought. PVs can influence the building's orientation, footprint, layout and form they will affect the building fabric and will be an important element of the environmental and building systems. They need to be considered as an integral part of the energy strategy of the building and of its functioning. The integration of PVs with the other...

The site

The site is a long, thin strip of derelict land, aligned on a north-south axis, two miles from the centre of Belfast. A flat area in the centre approximately 35 metres wide and 150 metres long provides the only useful space to build upon. Figure 8.2 shows the site. Along its eastern edge, where a row of semi-detached houses previously stood, there is a continuous frontage to Shore Road, which historically was a main route north out of Belfast and is still a busy multi-lane highway. To the west...

Environmental strategy

A broad environmental strategy study was carried out. The goal was to set out a range of possibilities which would enable the School to become a national example of environmentally responsible refurbishment of high architectural quality over the next 20 years. A long-term goal, perhaps for beyond the year 2020, was a school that over the course of a year produced more energy (probably through photovoltaics (PV) panels) than it used. Site considerations such as the creation of favourable...

Project Principals

Client Architect Services Engineer Structural Engineer Landscape Architect Quantity Surveyor PV Consultant PV Thermal Panel Research Consultant Environmental Systems Consultant Haileybury and Imperial Services College Netherlands Energy Research Foundation Esbensen Consulting Engineers

Identifying problems with existing approaches to lowenergy buildings

The traditional approach to low-energy design has been to filter the adverse effects of the outside environment as heavily as possible, insulate the occupied space, limit the size of window openings, provide a gridwork of solar control blinds in front of those windows that remain, add layers of conservatory structures to south-facing facades with perhaps a few solar collectors or photovoltaic cells added on as bolt-on extras. This has often had a depressing effect on the interior, as the quest...

The next step taking fans out of the ventilation system

A new conference building at the Earth Centre, built to tight budgets, tries to co-ordinate a variety of renewable energy features to maximise the thermal and solar benefit of each season. This building uses a small number of roof- mounted polycrystalline photovoltaic cells to power pumps connecting roof-mounted solar hot water collectors to an underground highly insulated hot water store. The electrical output from the photovoltaics occurs at exactly the same time as the effective output from...

Figure 1014 Monitoring diagram

Monitoring is covering the performance of the photovoltaic installation, energy consumption and internal comfort. This is being carried out over a two- to three-year period by Newcastle Photovoltaics Application Centre. The PV system performance includes output measurement for all four sub-arrays as well as the complete system. Array temperatures are measured using embedded thermocouples in four of the modules, two on each side of the facade. Energy consumption and internal comfort monitoring...

Taking stock and minimising fan power

An examination of the overall system energy consumption showed that using a combination of the technologies discussed above would result in an annual energy consumption of around 65kWh m2 y. Figure 14.11 shows available energy from wind and solar power. Not all these features have been incorporated into the New Parliamentary Building as built - Ove Arup predict an overall energy consumption of around 96kWh m2 y. The next step in our research program examined ways of reducing the reliance on...

External environment and site strategy

The design team began to investigate layouts that would maximise solar potential, considering daylighting, passive solar gain and the use of PVs. We looked at courtyard forms that grouped buildings around an enclosed landscaped space, creating a haven from the busy road. We compared these layouts with designs based on separate towers - good for solar orientation but by their object-like nature less useful for defining space. Figure 8.3a-c shows some of our sketch ideas for grouping buildings.

Combining thermal storage with ventilation aircooled structures

In a conventional speculative office building in central London a structural floor plate would be invisible, hidden by suspended ceilings and raised floors. An energy-conscious building will try to maximise visible areas of exposed thermal mass, providing large low temperature radiant surfaces that behave as a thermal flywheel. Rooms need to be higher to allow air to stratify below the ceiling under its own buoyancy, at the same time as scooping as much daylight as possible from the window wall...

Adding winddriven ventilation to reduce fan use

Nottingham University New Campus uses corridors as ultra low pressure drop return air paths with stair towers as vertical chimneys. By placing the heat recovery air-handling units above the stair towers, it is possible to bypass the mechanical ventilation system and allow natural ventilation of Nottingham University wind cowls with photovoltaic atrium roofs in foreground Nottingham University wind cowls with photovoltaic atrium roofs in foreground View of the Beddington ZED project from the...

Integrating photovoltaic panels

Providing that ultra low pressure drop air distribution is specified and combined with most of the building components described earlier, it is possible to reduce the annual electrical load to the point where it can be met by grid-connected building integrated photovoltaics. The study undertaken by Conphoebus showed that photovoltaics could be integrated with return air flues built into the ventilated facade system however, this would be more appropriate for passive cooling applications in...

What are photovoltaics

PV systems convert solar radiation into electricity. They are not to be confused with solar panels which use the sun's energy to heat water (or air) for water and space heating. This chapter looks at PVs and examines a number of issues of interest to designers including Manufacturing technology. Environmental issues. Energy production. The most common PV devices at present are based on silicon. When the devices are exposed to the sun, direct current (DC) flows as shown in Figure 2.1 (see...

A1 The Photovoltaic Effect

This is the basic process by which a PV cell converts solar radiation into electricity. In crystalline silicon cells a p-n junction (p for positive, n for negative) is formed (Figure 2.1) by diffusing phosphorous into the silicon and introducing a small quantity of boron. This results in an electric field being formed. When photons, particles of solar energy, are absorbed by a PV cell, electrons under the influence of the field move out towards the surface. This flow or current is harnessed by...

Selling the power to the grid

Although the UK has a non-fossil fuel obligation requiring electricity generating companies to become involved in selling electricity generated without fossil fuels, there was no specific requirement for them in 1998 to buy PV-generated electricity from grid-connected buildings. The project team found only one of the six regional generators ready to do so Northern Electric. Even then the standard contract started at 1MW and the annual administration charge was 1000 (later reduced to 500)....

A mission for the new millennium

A decade of environmental research on a series of projects ranging from the New Parliamentary Building at Westminster (see Figure 14.1) to a new Conference Facility at the Earth Centre, Doncaster (see Figure 14.2) has generated a strategy capable of producing a wide range of carbon-neutral buildings able to survive in both polluted inner city sites and high occupation densities in more suburban locations. A carbon-neutral building produces no overall CO2 emissions to the atmosphere when energy...

Daylight reflection systems

The windows incorporate light shelves to maintain daylight levels at the rear of rooms when the solar shading is in use, avoiding the blinds down lights on scenario with its consequent luminaire heat gain and energy penalty. The light shelf has been incorporated into a sealed unit with an internal corrugated reflector designed to maximise high altitude reflections, and to reject lower altitude direct solar gain. A partly internal, partly external light shelf shades the area close to the window...

Hl h

Voltage and is the load at a moment in time - think of a 100W bulb, for example. Energy is the product of power and time. A 1kW load which is on for 1 hour will consume 1kWh of energy. We are all familiar with this from our domestic electricity (energy) bills. Note the variability of the daily load (due in part to some appliances with high power requirements being used but only for short periods) and the significant evening demand when the PV output is negligible. Figure 3.5 shows the...

Oxford Photovoltaics

This glossary is almost entirely the work of the National Photovoltaic Applications Centre. The present authors have made only minor alterations to certain terms or introduced a small number of others indicated by an asterix. The definition of blocking diodes comes from Photovoltaics in Buildings see bibliography whilst the definition of bypass diodes come from Stand alone PV systems Guarantee of Results, ETSU S P2 00237 REP. 2. Light is used in common speech and in the text in a number of...