Project Management Templates

PM Milestone 7000 Business Templates

PM Milestone Documents address the needs of each phase of your project, across each project management discipline. These economical tools have been developed, tested and proven in the project management of projects ranging from small, personal projects to multi-billion dollar international projects and are now made available to promote excellent project management practices across the industry. These documents are specifically suited for the contractual aspects of Businesses and the project aspects of Business Plans, Human Resource, Tender Management, Establish, Planning, Execution, Safety and Hand over covering the entire Project Life Cycle. Now you no longer need to mess around re-creating project documents with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Visio, just use PMMilestone to build all your Reports, Spreadsheets, Plan, Proposal, Registers, Logs and moreeffortlessly! More here...

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Using project management Preamble

Any construction work, from the smallest adaptation job to the largest new-build scheme will require some form of project management if the critical success factors (time, cost, safety and quality) are to be achieved. This form of management has become the main methodology used to administer major projects from space programmes to new car designs as well as large building work. It can also be employed in medium-large scale adaptation schemes that require careful administration and control because of the importance or complexity of the work involved. The three fundamental functions of project management and their application to adaptation work are 3. project review.

Components Of A Communications Plan

The most important determinant of a successful communications plan is whether the museum can motivate stakeholders to align behind the project. Doing this involves a great deal of input from staff and key external parties. The use of focus groups can be extremely helpful as the museum begins its rollout of the building project. Not only will these intensive interview sessions allow for good feedback in the planning of the programs for the museum, but they will also incorporate ideas on design and ways in which the building may impact the local community. In addition, if your museum building project visually impacts the architectural character of the neighborhood or creates traffic congestion, you will need to work with neighborhood associations, preservation societies, and local government agencies. Your communications plan should include a regular series of updates to your public and staff. For example, a monthly newsletter can be sent to members or posted on the website. Key...

Selecting Project Team Members The Museum Project Manager

The first person the museum should select to work directly on the project is the project manager, who will be the critical link between the museum (the board, steering committee, working groups, and the museum staff), design team, and construction team. Where can you find the right person If the museum is part of a university or a local or state government, the owner of the museum, the university or the government entity, may supply the project manager. In such cases, project managers tend to be excellent guides since they are experienced in working with a variety of university or public sector stakeholders. Most of the time, particularly in small to midsize museums, the project manager comes from the museum staff often a trusted senior staff member who understands all facets of the museum's operations and is fully committed to the mission of the museum. Options include the deputy director, high-level executive assistant to the director, or a senior staff member who will take this on...

Project management cost control and health and safety

Project management for such an innovative facility within a tight programme, a standard Department of Education budget, an innovative brief and a multiplicity of users has been a challenge. Early two-way briefing meetings were held to ensure full understanding by the team of the requirements, and by the users of what was being provided. Risk management and value engineering was carried out to facilitate maintaining the budget and programme, established by the cost consultant, the client and project managers. The client played a proactive part throughout, reducing decision time and providing early feedback.

Financial Planning and Cost Management

The purpose of this chapter is to identify the requirements for a financially successful building project and how to meet them. It will elaborate on the importance of a sound business plan and how to ensure its success the role and responsibilities of the financial or business officer the elements of total project costs and the resources and tools needed to plan for, secure, and manage project financing, including developing and implementing budgets.

Architectural Project Manager

BMK Architects, Inc., a rapidly expanding firm in Sarasota, FL, is seeking a highly motivated Architectural Project Manager with a minimum of 3 years of architectural design, production experience and AutoCad 2006 for work in all phases of commercial and or institutional projects. A strong emphasis on hospital and or educational projects would be very beneficial. BMK offers a pleasant non-smoking working environment and attractive benefits package. Sarasota, FL offers many amenities including its beautiful Gulf beaches, fine dining and a varied arts and cultural environment. Interested individuals should direct their resumes to William Tyle, Sr. V. P., BMK Architects, Inc., 323 Central Ave., Sarasota, FL 34236. Inquires held in confidence. EOE.

Project initiation

As a consequence of the scoping work carried out at the beginning of the project we knew that we wouldn't be able to do a whole-business EA within the 12-month period of the JISC pilot project. Our decision to focus on the Student Recruitment, Development and Support process was based on its strategic significance and its suitability for demonstrating the applicability of EA. In addition, existing work in this area also meant that the business process maps models required for development of the Business Architecture were in a mature state and available for incorporation into the project. Much of the work to incorporate existing artefacts, in terms of their being available for the project, was completed as part of the project initiation. 1. Project Management

Project Manager

Determine project scope, schedule, budget, procedures, staffing & allotment of resources. Outline work plan & assign duties. Direct & coordinate project activities. Monitor project progress. Review status reports. Prep & update master project schedule. Prep project reports. Communicate w client & local gov. B.S. in Architecture & 2 yrs exp req'd. Job Site LA. Send resume w this ad to Rothenberg Sawasy Architects, Inc., Attn Mitchell Sawasy, 953 E. 3rd St., LA, CA 90013.

Project review

It would also be helpful for the project manager to review the successes and failings of the project once it is complete. Such feedback can then be used to help improve the knowledge base for future projects of this kind. Some form of post-occupancy appraisal exercise can also help in this regard (see below). Project managers can also be involved in the final reconciliation of an adaptation scheme. They can advise on a range of diverse issues such as defects liability period, maintenance, landlord and tenant requirements, etc.

The Lean University project

At the same time as the MWE programme, a separate strategic initiative looking at key business process improvement was started. The Lean University project aims to develop and embed 'lean' thinking across the university to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of management practices, improve value to external and internal customers and release resource to achieve strategic aims. The benefits of such an approach are to reduce internal waste (for example reducing dependence on legacy processes that are not well integrated) and improve customer value (for example by freeing up staff time by streamlining inefficient administration processes). The project is being led by the Lean Enterprise Research Centre2 (LERC), based in the Cardiff Business School3 and is being delivered under the university's Project Management Framework. Although no formal links exist between the JISC LeanEA pilot and LERC's work, the 'lean' ethos was an important part of the strategic context in which the pilot...

Barbara Pille Rn Bs Mba Fache

Barbara Pille is a senior healthcare consultant with HDR Architecture. Her career includes serving as the chief nurse executive with Quality Living Inc. and Clarkson Hospital, as well as a management engineer with the University of Nebraska Medical Center. A 25-year veteran in the healthcare industry, Pille specializes in helping healthcare facilities in areas of product and service development, process improvement, project management, and team building. She is a fellow of the American College of Healthcare Executives and a member of the American Nurses Association and the Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International. She is Lean Healthcare Certified.

Planning For Communications

Ultimately the museum's governing board is responsible for an effective communications strategy for the building project. Senior management, the museum project manager, and the public relations staff will be directly involved in crafting and implementing the plan. Because all staff members have a stake in the project, the museum needs to give them as much information as possible. In addition, curatorial or public programs staff can serve as advocates for the project and therefore can benefit from communications and public speaking training. A primary official spokesperson is important to ensure that messages are consistent. That person should be the museum's director. The board chair or capital campaign chair can also be a spokesperson, but for the sake of consistency, the public face of the museum needs to be the director. Other players are involved, including the museum's public affairs staff and outside media or marketing firms. These individuals are directly involved in crafting a...

Crawford Notch New Hampshire

Ruined Orgasm Femdom

Dean Hofelich, Project Manager In keeping with its core mission, when the Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC) decided to upgrade its Crawford Notch campus, it commissioned a design team to generate a sustainable master plan that integrated the disparate program elements of education, housing, lodging, and offices into a coherent whole. This plan included a detailed analysis of program needs and existing historic structures an integrated and sustainable approach to site planning, architecture, and engineering and an estimate of project costs. Once this master plan was completed, the architects assembled a project team that included both AMC staff members and board members.

Marcia Vanden Brink BFA

Marcia Vanden Brink is director of product development for HDR Architecture and an interior designer certified by the National Council for Interior Design Qualification (NCIDQ). She has been responsible for the interior design, space planning, and coordination with multidisciplinary design teams for various projects. In addition to traditional healthcare projects, she has developed an expertise in the design of facilities for women and children. Vanden Brink has served as a designer and project manager for HDR's collaborations in product designs for Milliken's Soul and Sense carpets, Architex International's Remed and Remed II collections, Peter Pepper, and the award-winning SYNC by Nurture collection.

North Manchester Health NHS Trust requirements

Health Care Centre Design Requirements

Project manager to provide a design brief for their requirements which included consulting rooms, clinical area and facilities for physiotherapy. The project manager consulted direct with the Trust's users. During the end period of the construction period there were minor problems with the general layout of some areas which resulted in some minor changes to room layout. This was due to a change of mind in terms of desk positions, etc. It is important that such changes are avoided. There was an agreed 'cut-off' point but changes in staff can be problematic on any project. With the reception counter there was a lesson to be learnt. Sometimes it is worth monitoring a situation for an agreed period before making costly changes. It is vital that in the briefing process consultation takes place with the end users. The management does not always have the hands on knowledge of the day-to-day operations of services. Hindsight is always a wonderful thing but can be extremely expensive. The...

The Dilemma of Technology

Low Tech Reinforced Concrete

It is likely that this trend will grow the principal use of computers and computer technology will continue to be as a communication and analysis tool. Clients, architects, engineers and contractors will seek an integrated computer system which enables each to understand and monitor the others' work. This trend has already happened in the case of larger, powerful clients, who often require their design team to equip themselves with computers and software which can be linked to their own in-house system. This enables them to record and monitor the flow of information between professionals and to store and archive information for the future when they are occupying the building. All this sophistication means that the process of design and project management has become more complex but more responsive. The client, the design team and the contractors become a

Campaign Planning And Implementation

The first phase, called the quiet phase of the campaign, is an intensive planning period when the campaign committee along with museum staff and or consultants drafts a case statement, develops and integrates a campaign communications plan with all other communications planning, develops prospect lists, identifies potential key donors, determines the amount the campaign needs to raise, prepares a budget, undergoes training, develops operational policies, and oversees preparation of campaign materials. Communications Planning for Fund-raising and Marketing All successful fund-raising campaigns have a strong communications component. Case statements, brochures, advertisements, and excellent design and photo documentation underlie these campaigns. Attractive concept drawings and other project-related materials, including digitally animated flythroughs, are strong complements to the case statement. Phrases and images from the case statement will become themes repeated throughout the...

Completing Construction And Closing Out Your Project

As construction moves toward completion, there is a great deal of excitement as well as activity which must be coordinated by your museum project manager in order to bring construction to a close and your new facility online. Depending on the size of your project, your museum project manager may need additional assistants who can take primary responsibility for coordinating What kind of schedule should I create to manage move in activities and how do I know when I can start Depending on your local building inspector, fire marshal, insurance requirements, work rule jurisdictions (if you are in a union contracting environment), and your agreement with your construction team, you may or may not be able to take possession of parts of the building as each area is completed. It is important to understand these parameters well in advance in order to coordinate with the construction team project manager and schedule a host of activities that you now have to manage that are outside the work...

The Project Steering Committee Steering Committee Structure

If the project's financing depends on a capital campaign, a separate board committee with overlapping membership or a subcommittee of the steering committee may assume responsibility for campaign activities, and should maintain strong lines of communication with the steering committee. Staff joining the steering committee would include the director, the deputy director chief operating officer, the chief financial officer business manager, the director of facilities, and the museum's project manager. From time to time key program directors and the development officer may sit with the steering committee as well. The development officer will be the lead staff to the campaign committee or The steering committee should be large enough to have regular input from key stakeholders and small enough to meet frequently and dispense with cumbersome meeting protocols. Museums will need to examine their meeting management history and skills to determine the best number more than five and fewer than...

Impact Of Closing A Museum During Construction

In order to successfully recover from closing a building, museums must carefully plan and orchestrate the work of the museum in the name of the mission. Feasibility studies and strategic planning help to keep the organization on track while a marketing communications plan nurtures the institution's ongoing relationship with its constituents. Special events to mark the closing and opening of the building generate buzz and create fund-raising opportunities.

CADoxiadis and the Science of Human Settlements

Tema History

The Athens Technological Organization offered a rich program of lectures, cultural events, exhibitions of art and performance of music. A new dimension was added in 1959 with the City of the Future Research project, initiated by Doxiadis with John G.Papaioannou as collaborator and project manager. Additional opportunities for research presented themselves immediately thereafter and the need grew to train experts in ekistics and have Doxiadis share his expertise with younger people. This lead in 1963 to the creation of the Athens Center of Ekistics, which became a major project of the Athens Technical Organization to foster a concerted program of research, education, documenta

Green Rook At A Glance

PROJECT CREDITS Client Gxlifomia Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. Project manager owner representative dr Young Associates, San Rafael, California. Architecture Renzo Piano Building Workshop, Genoa, Italy Stantec, San Francisco. Structural, HVAC, and LEED consultant Arup, San Francisco. Landscape architecture swa Group, Sausalito, California. Civil engineering Rutherford & Chekene, San Francisco. Ecology consultant Rana Creek, Carmel Valley, California. Irrigation consultant Martin Dickson, Palo Ce-dro, California. General contractor Webcor Builders, San Mateo, California. Landscape contractor Jensen Corporation, San Jose, California.

Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church rc

An American assistant in Scott's 1920s office commented that, it was a small office, not more than 8 to 10 altogether, very Informal and apparently unbusinesslike, but it was our pride never to have delayed a job from lack ofdrawings. Sir Giles designed everything himself, down to the smallest detail, but did not do a lot of visiting' (surely a novel attitude to project management). Scott was elected RA in 1922, and knighted in 1924, awarded the Royal Gold Medal in 1925 and the even more prestigious Order of Merit in 1944. From 1933-35 he was President of the RIBA.

Process Of Production

Design management literature and construction project management literature can provide some useful guidance in this area. So too can the growing body of facilities management work. All three subject areas (should) share a special relationship based on feedback between processes, thus helping to achieve a more integrated approach.

Planning And Managing Project Financing

The chief financial officer or business manager is the management staff member responsible for the overall financial health of the museum before and during the construction and after the new space becomes operational. He or she is an integral part of the steering committee and works closely with the director, the museum project manager, and the development officer in the development and implementation of budgets for the construction project, the capital campaign and associated communications plan, and ongoing operations. The chief financial officer supports the steering committee in establishing policies for managing project expenditures, such as authorities for approval of payments or use of contingency funds. In addition to the financial statements, particularly cash flow statements, the primary tool for managing a building project and ongoing operations is a budget. The budget is a plan that grows out of the strategic plan and annual plans. It projects the museum's needs, where...

Bid And Construction Phase Management Bid Phase Management

During bidding, depending on the methodology, your museum project manager or your construction manager working with the design team will Once you have a signed contract, construction team mobilization begins where their staff is assigned, the project schedule is developed and materials are ordered. From this point on, the process follows standard procedures commonly found in other books and manuals listed in the bibliography. Prior to starting construction, you should make sure you understand the specifications stipulating certain activities and communication protocols that have been included to protect your interests during the construction phase. Sometimes the construction team may try to change the terms of the specifications directly with you, but you should avoid unilaterally giving permission without consulting your design team or attorney. More information on the general conditions of your specifications is covered in chapter 7. Specified...

Computeraided Drafting Cad And Computeraided Design And Drafting Cadd

Furniture Drawings Hatch Symbol

There is a wealth of CADD programs available on the market today. Some are intended for general drawing work, while others are designed for specific engineering applications. There are programs that enable you to do 2D drawings, 3D drawings, renderings, shadings, punch lists, space planning, structural design, piping layouts, HVAC, plant design, project management, and other applications. Today we can find a CADD program for almost every engineering discipline that comes to mind.

US Government Assistance in the Face of Competition

'The World Bank, regional development banks, and the OPEC countries remain the strongest possibilities as providers of overseas work , while the U.S. A.I.D. and military construction programs have been scaled down considerably' (American Institute of Architects, 1978, p. 1). The A.I.A. also found two noteworthy trends that presented targets of potential opportunity for American architects the growing number of 'turnkey contracts' (i.e., 'conglomerate packages that include planning, design, construction, materials and equipment, and initial operation management services'), and 'new types of architectural services, such as project management and management information systems design. Because of advanced U.S. technology and expertise, American architects are being sought out,

Coordinating detail design

Laing Construction is not alone in using virtual reality for this type of application. Another lead user is the project management and engineering group Bechtel. This company has a track record of using visualization techniques within the oil and gas sector. Though the particular software packages used are different in the different sectors, in-house skills and a reputation for using these techniques have helped the company become a lead user of virtual

Customized To Your Imagination

Hollander was born and raised in New York City, and he always loved the outdoors and nature. He studied horticulture at the New York Botanical Garden and the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, before earning a degree in landscape architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. While at Penn, Hollander formed a close relationship with environmental visionary and department founder Ian McHarg and even taught studios with him following graduation. Shortly after returning to New York, Hollander was offered a job with the firm of Clark and Rapuano as project manager of Westway, a plan to bury the city's crumbling West Side Highway and develop the landscape on top of it, Foracity kid to be offered Westway, says Hollander, was basically a dream come true. After many years and much rancorous debate, the project was canceled, and Hollander opted to leave the firm and go into business with a colleague, Maryanne Connelly, ASLA. Edmund Hollander landscape Architect Design...

Design development

For Newcastle City Council the idea of employing a designer with distinctly adventurous and artistic ideas to repave a road junction was a major departure and it required many of the other professionals involved to adjust their thinking. The competition brief had been written by an urban designer working for the Planning and Transportation Division, but the people Heatherwick would have to work most closely with were highways engineers. The idea that an 'artist' might not just want to produce an object to place in the new square, but in effect would want to design the whole place from scratch was difficult for them to accept and there was initially much scepticism and resistance. This mismatch of perceptions was also reflected in the unrealistic fee initially offered to the designer, which was based on the assumption that most of the detailed and technical design would be done by others. Fortunately it was possible to overcome these obstacles and Heatherwick found a great ally in...

Construction Document Phase

Drivetrain Components Freightliner

During this phase of the operation, all the necessary documents needed to execute the project are prepared, and upon getting approval for the design development submissions, the designer is responsible for preparing detailed drawings, specifications, and other documents necessary to construct the project. Products that vendors need to supply are also defined in this phase. The contract documents may include the work for both construction and furniture purchasing, or they may be developed separately so individual contracts can be let for construction and Furniture, Fixtures, and Equipment (FF&E). The AIA ASID standard form states that separate documents are to be prepared. This is usually preferred because interior construction contracts differ from furniture and equipment contracts. Nearly a third of the designer's costs normally go into producing these documents so it is vitally important to be as efficient as possible to maximize profits. Errors or omissions require changes, which...

Typical adaptation risks General perils of adaptation

The project manager of any adaptation scheme should take cognizance of the common problems associated with this type of work to avoid financial as well operational disasters. As highlighted in a short article in the journal Building (November 2001), refurbishment (i.e. adaptation) projects are notoriously risky. It listed some of the main problems in this regard

Design quality or buzz factor

The large commercial architectural practices in America are beginning to question the philosophy of creating very large hospital complexes, partly as a result of pressure on cost-fitting policies in the USA. The problems being experienced in the UK with the quality of the new wave of hospitals procured through the PFI process highlights the historical priorities given to functionality and cost standards in the UK building programme. The sheer size of some of the largest hospital projects invites comparisons with the grim environments of some large airport complexes, or even the new town developments of the 1960's. The government, fortunately, is now recognising the importance of good design and the limitations of a precocious project management profession which has mushroomed in recent decades. Perhaps the ambitions of grandeur on a larger scale would be better served by a more humble approach to meeting the smaller scale of human requirements of social interchange at a person to...

Need for large nonlocal contractors

A concomitant of large-scale PPM programmes has been the tendency to let large contracts to large construction contractors. The underlying logic is that only the large, usually nationally operating contractors have the labour, project management and co-ordination skills required. Local authority staff or consultants called in to organise and undertake the stock condition survey and prepare the programmes and the associated tender and contract documentation are not generally willing to entrust such a large quantity of work to an assortment of small builders. These builders may be unreliable, poorly organised and unaccustomed to working to proper specifications. Professional surveyors' fees may be larger pro rata on smaller contracts and that will mean larger professional fees in total but there will also be more work involved more risks, more headaches. Herein lies a paradox. Although surveyors recommend, and local authorities commission, large, national contractors to carry out PPM...

Finishing Your Basis Of Design Report

While there is much more to be done, consider this predesign effort a good investment of your time and money. You would need to know this information sooner or later, but now you have it ready to use moving into the design phases. This book will not go into depth describing the subsequent phases of design in detail. There are other excellent guides for the nuts and bolts of design and construction process in the bibliography. Your project manager and design and construction teams should be executing those tasks as a matter of professional practice.

Private Versus Publicsector Construction

Significant amount of construction in the public interest and for the public use these projects are sponsored and paid for with taxpayer money (or funds borrowed based on the guarantee of a taxing authority). The state and federal statutes and rules regulating the procurement of construction and construction-related services mark the major distinction in private versus public construction. Professional services such as architecture, engineering, and construction project management are rarely selected by strict price competition or bidding. Typically the design professional responds comprehensively to a Request for Proposal (RFP), a detailed identification of the project program and its financial parameters. The selection process is often subjective, befitting the artistic and aesthetic considerations influencing the selection of the design professional by the government entity.

Design Phases Work Products

Schematic design and design development phases. As previously discussed, these design phases represent the realization of 60 percent of the project documentation as you and your design team develop the details of your building in the documents. As details are developed, continue to be engaged, although the intensity of your input will lessen. Review the design team's work at the end of each phase as discussed in chapter 6. General conditions contained in Division 1, which sets the terms of your relationship with the construction team project procedures, scope, schedule, cash flow, and other contractual requirements. As a rule of thumb, the costs for general conditions are approximately 15 percent of total project costs for a new building. These costs can increase to 25 percent if the contractor is working inside your building while you are open and you, of course, are placing restrictions on construction activity. Carefully balance these restrictions with the understanding that your...

Mirror Protective Window

It is difficult to project costs of CCTV systems because of the variety of system sizes and configurations and the range of equipment costs. Camera prices start as low as 200 but more sophisticated models, such as those sensitive to very low light levels, cost up to 510,000 each. Complicated accessories including zoom lenses, remote pan (side-to-side movementl and tilt (up-and-down movement) mechanisms, and low-light equipment can increase installation and maintenance costs tremendously. The cost of monitoring equipment can be as low as the cost of a conventional television receiver but more specialized and sensitive equipment is far more expensive.

Third Party Relationships

They can pay their workers and suppliers, cover their overhead, and make sufficient profit to remain in business. These needs are often mutually dependent, and therefore mutually thwarted by construction disputes. The owner must make all legitimate attempts under the contract to limit the infighting and disputes that occur between a contractor and his subs, and to prevent them from interfering with increasing his project costs or completing the project within his schedule. To accomplish this, the owner must make it clear that the firms providing goods and services to the contractor are not third-party beneficiaries of the owner-contractor agreement. This will protect the owner from direct suits by the subcontractors for breach of the contractor's obligation to pay under a claim that the owner benefitted from the work of the sub. Without this contractual statement, the subcontractors will attempt to collect from the owner directly if the contractor defaults. The agreement must...

Preconstruction Decisions

Well before project initiation, existing museums must decide whether to remain open, closed, or partially open during construction. The choice will have far-reaching consequences internally and in the community. All other operational planning will flow from this decision. Much depends on whether the museum is currently in facilities away from the construction site or whether it remains in the facility undergoing renovation and or an addition. See chapter 7 for consideration of the physical framework for making this decision. Drivers of the decision include public visibility, access for the public and staff, operability of building systems, highly site-specific costs, overall project schedule, staff morale, and ability to deliver programs and exhibitions. There are no right or wrong answers. Each museum must weigh all factors to determine the best course of action for its particular circumstance. Each museum must seek input from all its stakeholders staff, researchers, volunteers,...

Hiring The Construction Team

The board steering committee and museum project manager should review the proposals carefully and ask for advice from the building design team or board members with experience in construction to review the technical aspects. When the construction teams have been selected for interviews, questions will be quite different from those asked during Design Team interviews. See appendix E for suggested interview questions.

Project team dynamics and interactions

A range of respondents felt constrained by the financial strictures that they operate within and commented on the client's perceptions of disabled access representing a cost as a factor in disabled people's needs often being overlooked. Indeed, some clients see disabled people as literally a waste of space. For instance, one project manager commented that client and developer behaviour can be influenced by 'perceptions of increased costs, related to the loss of usable space seating capacity for a minority group which do not pay a commercial rate for benefits provided'. Others feel that the sheer ignorance of clients and or developers is critical to the lack of provision for disabled people, or, as an architect suggested, the problem is that 'clients generally are either unaware or uneducated in details of disabled people's problems of access'. Others considered clients to be minimalistic with a willingness only to provide the legal minimum or, as one respondent said, 'as little as...

Procurement programmes and contracts the case of design and build

That 'as long as people are clear where their responsibilities lie at each stage then it's a perfectly acceptable way of procuring buildings'. A contractor also added that 'I wouldn't say that design and build is flavour of the month but things do go in a cyclical nature it's just a question of how the client can tease out the best possible product within the design and build form that's where the expertise comes in.' For another, the GMP route was problematical because, as a project manager noted, 'they're not really set up for variations. The whole point is that there's a fixed sum of money and you have to do it for that. If you then have the client come in with a major variation the contract is just not set up for it.' The 3,000-seat Clyde Auditorium conference centre in Glasgow, colloquially known as the 'Armadillo', opened in September 1997. The development of the Centre, located adjacent to the existing Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (SECC), is a key part of Glasgow...

Vector Works and Vector Works Architect

Rotex Coupling

VectorWorks (formally MiniCAD), is a product of Nemetschek N.A., a recognized leader in CAD technology. The firm marked the new millennium with the release of VectorWorks ARCHITECT, its first architecturally specific add-on module and claims it is the CAD industry's first definitive integration of CAD and project management for architecture professionals. ARCHITECT is an add-on module, powered by VectorWorks, a general purpose, object-based CAD software engine. Together, the two maximize VectorWorks' general purpose functionality in four areas specific to architecture professionals drawing organization, project management, drawing notes management and design tools. This integration allows the architecture professional to be more productive, his her process workflow more efficient and his her designs more accurate (Figure 10.11).

Impact Of Remaining Open During Construction

Involve a broad base of constituents in your decision to close, carefully considering the financial implications, health and safety, public service ramifications, and effects on support base. Strong leadership is key. Planning. Use the feasibility study and strategic plan to benchmark performance, guide changes to the intellectual program, and inform the marketing communications plan and any necessary rebranding efforts. Planning is critical to ensure your project meets your own and your audience's expectations. Communication. Share, publicize, and connect effectively with constituents throughout the construction project using the cost-effective, creative, as well as traditional channels.

Scenario 1 fixup instead of replacement

DOT and the Town of Marion for total project costs of 481,088, 80 funded by the state through Federal T-21 grant money and 20 by the town . The reopening of the bridge was a cause for a community celebration that provided an excuse for owners of old wagons and cars to proudly parade their vehicles

Australian perspective

The last and probably most important element necessary to encourage innovation is a direct link between client and architect, fostering invention and creativity within the confines of budget and programme It is within the area of building procurement that Australia has changed radically over the last twenty years, pursuing the various paths of design and construct, project management and construction management, which have resulted in a separation between client and architect. This is particularly the case in medium to large building projects.

Advertising and Promotion

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Using professionals effectively

Managing all of your professionals in today's world requires an understanding of the complex requirements and relationships which will affect each professional's work. It requires an understanding of their skills as well as seeing to it that all the required tasks are accomplished. This is where a development consultant or project manager may be helpful for your project.

Contractor Delays in Maintaining the Schedule

Few projects maintain perfect schedules. Weather, strikes, acts of God (and labor unions) can hold up the best prepared schedules. The design professional should be vigilant in watching for a contractor's consistent failure to meet project milestones. His first step should be to determine the reason for delay. Was it several days of bad weather or simply a failure of the contractor to have enough men or materials on site Was the project delayed due to a recognized circumstance beyond the contractor's control, or the result of a failure to pay subcontractors on time or schedule follow-on trades closely enough Any of these shortcomings are signs that the contractor needs reminders of his contractual obligations to get the project done within the time frames set in the contract documents. It is also a good time to reinforce with the contractor that the owner will not tolerate suggestions that holding the contractor to this obligation will be deemed an acceleration of the project schedule.

Preconstruction Conference

Near the beginning of construction, the architect should organize a pre-construction conference at the site. The pre-construction conference is an ideal time to set up lines of communication, discuss project documentation and meeting procedures, review submittal and project schedules, and discuss payment application and payment timelines. Here is an all-encompassing agenda for a pre-construction conference

Timeliness And Scheduling Issues

During construction, the architect and contractor should review schedule conformance at each project meeting. It is common for portions of the work to vary from the project schedule. Subcontractors can appear late or not fully staff the work. Complications arise that take time to resolve before the work can proceed. Code inspections can be delayed, or work that has failed inspection must be corrected and re-inspected. All of these occurrences are common and result in periodic fluctuations in the construction schedule. The contractor is usually well aware of why he is behind in the schedule, and should have a plan to recoup the time. But when the architect finds, over the course of several project meetings, that the contractor is chronically behind schedule and appears to have no well-defined plan to make up the lost time, he should report this to the owner and express concern to both the contractor and owner that the project completion date is in jeopardy. If the owner agrees, the...

Effective Document Management

Contractors handle huge amounts of paper. Not only do they generate all the information that crosses the architect's and his client's desk, but they receive volumes of information from subcontractors and suppliers, and yes, from design professionals as well. Some handle this deluge better than others, but the best of them are truly masters of document management because they have overhead available for staffing a project, often employing a dedicated project manager,

CE Protecting the aspiration

This is the point at which to achieve a truly sustainable project. All of the design team will be required to negotiate and agree to resolve cross-cutting issues. The client, quantity surveyor, environmental engineer, services engineer and project manager have to take on board issues of design for manageability and life-cycle costing the indoor environmental impact of materials needs to be discussed the design quality and energy aspects of lighting strategies need to be agreed a biodiversity strategy and a transport plan may need to be placed firmly on the agenda and the importance of construction details and build quality, such as airtightness detailing, and eventual deconstruction need to be considered. Failure to make these a core aspect of the detailed design will have already undermined the aspirations. It is not possible to overestimate how difficult it is this is why I wrote this book However, the industry has already moved a very long way and this trend is not reversible. This...

Construction Schedule

The contractor is responsible for preparing a construction schedule of how he intends to perform the work. This schedule is important because 1) It sets a regular series of milestones against which the architect and contractor will measure progress, and 2) It is useful in assessing the rough percentage of work complete for line items on the schedule of values. If the architect had been keeping a project schedule for the owner prior to the contractor coming on board, his schedule is now subordinate to the contractor's. All progress

Preparation of a Scaffold Design

Scaffolding costs represent a significant part of the project costs and can vary considerably depending on the way in which scaffolds are constructed. For a contractor to accurately cost scaffolding provisions they must be fully informed of any restrictions that will be placed upon them when working on a site protected as a scheduled ancient monument. English Heritage normally requires scaffold structures to be free standing without relying on support or restraint from the scheduled monument. To ensure that each contractor prices a similar proposal and that pre-agreed scaffolding arrangements are followed, it is recommended that an experienced scaffold engineer be appointed to prepare a suitable design for inclusion in the tender document. Advanced preparation of the scaffold design will also minimise any risk of delays at the start of the project whilst scaffolding issues are resolved.

Working Groups Of The Steering Committee

Project Manager Project Manager the attention of the many stakeholders. Each working group will also need a position description for each of its members with clearly articulated expectations for each role. The number of working groups and the focus of each will depend on individual museum circumstances. For convenience and illustrative purposes, we have identified six working groups reflecting the array of stakeholders and the nature of input required from them. Note from the graphic (figure 3.1) that the critical link is the museum project manager. This working group includes the development officer, discussed earlier, and individuals responsible for public relations, government relations, marketing, and membership development. This group must maintain an outward focus, keeping the world beyond the museum abreast of the capital campaign and progress of the project. Communications planning is an important part of its charge. This working group will coordinate, guide, and be...

Dealing With People Effective Communication

Phone calls to the architect from the field are a necessary aspect of construction in any project. But they should not become the norm, because when they do this indicates that the field superintendent or his subs are not spending time looking ahead and planning the work. Each phone call should be followed up with a field instruction or RFI response from the architect. It is appropriate to ask the field superintendent or project manager to generate an RFI for any phone request he makes, even if the architect is able to respond immediately to the request. This is for the benefit of both parties. Project meetings need to begin promptly, follow a regular agenda, and move briskly. The leader of the meeting (typically either the architect or construction project manager) needs to keep the meeting on task and hold parties accountable when promised responses or documents are not available. A task list is a useful addition to the meeting minutes to remind parties of commitments. Issues that...

Application for Payment Strategies

Create this schedule, but it must be approved by the architect or engineer. Contractors typically employ a simple strategy called front-end loading to get money flowing into their coffers quickly. Front-end loading is characterized by using heavier than normal mobilization, demolition, general conditions, site grubbing and clearing, and similar early project costs to establish working capital early in the project, often in excess of the actual costs incurred. In defense of the contractor, there are significant start-up expenses in mobilizing to start construction. Requirements such as a field office, permits, bonds, builder's risk insurance, and temporary power add up quickly. A general contractor is certainly entitled to reflect these costs on a schedule of values and seek payment for them. The architect should keep in mind as well that on a typical project a contractor will perform work for 30 days, make his first application for payment, and typically wait another 30 days for...

Project Cost Analysis

Cost estimating is one of the most important aspects of project management, as it determines the base line of the project cost at different stages of development. Establishing a budget early in the programming or design process can be critical to the project because it influences many of the design decisions and assists in deciding whether the project is even feasible.

Scenario 2 Using The Bridge In An Amenity Package

After years of lobbying and fund raising, the bowstring was and rehabilitated in 2004 and the grand reopening covered by the New York Times. The project costs of 77,000 were contributed by the county with funding from Historic Ithaca, the local historic preservation organization . As a follow up, a local land owner has contributed property next to the bridge for a new village park.

Phasing Or Closing Down Sequence Of Implementation

Phasing diagrams consist of plans which show the sequence of construction and departmental moves needed to complete your building project. Unless you are adding new space, swing space will be needed off-site or in trailers to house functions displaced for construction. Make sure you coordinate your phasing plans with a detailed schedule for each move, and a cost management plan identifying the additional costs associated with swing space, moving, downtime, and the reinstallation of exhibits, furnishings, and staff workspaces.

Simulating dynamic operation

Many activities that must be considered in the design of the built environment are already being simulated. For example, the project management and engineering company Bechtel is testing the environmental performance of airports, using virtual reality for sound simulation. Work with a VR model was conducted for Atlanta airport, which was having a commuter airport runway added to it. The team involved in this project met in the nearby Sheraton hotel so they included this in the model as well to facilitate their understanding. The model was used to visualize noise contours, and was generated from engineering data. It took two weeks to create the model.

Implications for building owners and users

Maybe purchasing decisions for the intelligent buildings of the future will be similar to those relating to today's computing, where hardware, software training and support need to be considered very much together. This implies a high level of technical, project management and financial skills in the building, property or facilities manager or surveyor of tomorrow (Stacey & Wood, 1996).

What professionals will you need

The appraiser determines the value of your project and each private unit by comparing your project to actual sales in other comparable projects. In addition, they usually consider project costs and rental value. This provides the lending institution with assurance that they have reasonable security for the construction loan they are supplying. Since all future financing is based on the values established by the appraiser, it is important that your unit selling prices correspond closely to the values identified in the appraisal.

Nontraditional approach to communication and interaction among the disciplines

The team organizational structure for a residence hall at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, USA (1999-2002, architects Steven Holl Architects figure 3.5) fostered a multidisciplinary, non-linear process that required feedback. The owner community had four distinct constituents, each with its own driving mission. The MIT President desired a landmark building in terms of architecture and sustainability one goal was to develop the building without traditional air conditioning. MIT's project management team had a clear mission to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facilities group needed assurance that residents would be comfortable. Members of MIT's Building Technology Faculty did not want to be associated with a naturally ventilated project because they did not believe the goal could be achieved. The design team included two architectural firms, two structural firms, two Arup offices and a host of other consultants.

Owner as General Contractor

General contracting can demand as much of your time as a full-time job. You must juggle the needs and schedules of many different professionals and are responsible for seeing that all work is done correctly and on time. It takes organizational skills, planning, and crisis-control abilities to keep a project running smoothly. The process can be rewarding, however, and allows you to be closely involved without requiring that you actually undertake the construction yourself.

Influence of the public sector

In the 1970s, planning and project management approaches and techniques developed in the public sector for housing construction by the thousands were transferred almost seamlessly through organisations like the UK's then National Building Agency to massive programmes of housing rehabilitation. 'Housing rehab' schemes, following the model of the Ministry of Housing and Local Government's Deeplish Study (MoHLG, 1966), were developed for pre-First World War housing across the country. Repair and improvement priorities were determined by surveys using the English House Condition Survey methodology. This was coupled with legislation which over subsequent years has allowed for the designation of Comprehensive Development Areas, Improvement Areas, General Improvement Areas, Housing Action Areas and, most recently, Neighbourhood Renewal Areas and accompanied by the availability of financial assistance to building owners. With each new government came a new Act and new, usually more...

Opportunities for Nurses

It is usual for a client (owner) project manager to work closely with the design firm project manager for the duration of a project no matter how large or small the project. The planning and design process is composed of several phases. The planners designers work with the owner as a team to develop the plans for the facility in a logical progression of detail, with regular breakpoints for review and approval before proceeding to the next level of refinement. The project phases typically include strategic planning, project visioning, functional and space programming, schematic design, design development, construction documents, contract administration, and transition planning. Most organizations use a multidisciplinary team process to realize the vision of the project. New healthcare construction projects create new opportunities for nurses in planning, coordinating, and managing roles. These new roles may include leading

List of contributors

Graham Abrey is a chartered building surveyor accredited in conservation by the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors. He gained considerable practical experience in the repair of historic buildings as a supervisor and project manager for a UK stone masonry company. He obtained a Postgraduate Diploma in building conservation and subsequently worked as an independent consultant in the repair and conservation of masonry buildings before co-founding Ingram Consultancy Ltd in 1999. Graham uniquely combines an extensive knowledge of traditional building materials and repair techniques with essential professional project management and documentation skills. He has travelled widely in the Himalayan region and has a passionate interest in its cultures. Sara Ferraby is a chartered building surveyor with a background of project management in Historic Royal Palaces in England. She has considerable experience in conservation contract procedures and documentation, and of using these coupled with...

Micro Station

Microstation Rendering

The program gives users the ability to create 3D models of permanent assets the models and all of their components are electronic simulations of real world objects. Whether it is design and engineering, or construction and operation, created models hold all information about the asset and its configuration, simplifying project management and making the operation of the facility more efficient and cost-effective. The program supports and automates the workflow from project management though schematic design and automatic 3D model creation to construction documentation. It also automatically extracts schedules, quantity reports, sections, elevations, and models from the building database, ensuring total coordination with floor plans. This dramatically increases an operator's productivity over generic CAD or manual drafting design, and is ideally suited for architectural environments of all sizes, from single-seat design studios to large multi-discipline architecture and engineering...

Quality control

Interviews with architects and project managers and a number of case studies, Van Doorn (2004) argues that design management needs to be the collective responsibility of everyone involved. The firm of architects or project manager will often play the leading role. In practice, it will often happen that the architect concentrates mainly on the design and the architectural concept, leaving the control of the process to others. An interesting example is the design process for the Arnhem and Nijmegen Polytechnic. For this and various other projects use was made of the services of MVDRV architects and the Bureau Bouwkunde partnership. The design task was handled collectively. There was a single contract with the client. MVRDV was mainly concerned with the overall concept and working out the architectural details. Bureau Bouwkunde was mainly responsible for managing the design process, technical details and cost control. Arcadis handled the management of the project as a whole (Pos, 2000).

The timeline game

The cohousing timeline game uses a series of cards defining specific events in the development process. It utilizes the CPM method of illustrating a project schedule and makes it fun to create. It was developed by Bruce Coldham for use by Pine Street Cohousing in Amherst, Massachusetts, where he now lives. It was designed to illustrate the scheduling process in the form of a CPM chart. For more information, go to .

A question of detail

It is often difficult to find evidence of long-term thinking in the construction sector because of the focus on short-term project objectives. Attention tends to be on lower initial cost and ever-faster completion times, working with outdated economic models and project management tools that fail to adequately address quality and environmental concerns. Indeed, with some notable exceptions, we have yet to embrace a whole-life approach to the construction and use of buildings. Clients, their professional advisers and politicians all share a responsibility here we could and should do more.

Further Reading

The Urban Land Institute has produced the excellent Residential Development Handbook which includes very useful chapters on the development process, project feasibility and financing (Schmitz, 2004). Further advice about costing developments can be pieced together from a number of sources including Darlow (1988), Cadman and Topping (1995) and Isaac (1996). These books tend to focus on commercial property development but residential schemes do get a look in. A useful introduction to the house development industry in the UK is Golland and Blake's (2004) Housing Development Theory, Process and Practice, whilst Delivering New Homes by Carmona, Carmona and Gallent (2003) offers a valuable insight into the tensions that emerge between house builders and the UK planning system. These include factors affecting other planning systems such as the availability of suitable land the effects of delay in making planning decisions the requirement to provide affordable housing and the concerns that...

Managing Schedules

Blake Golland

The predesign schedule is prepared around major milestone dates which are timed to obtain approvals by the steering committee and coincide with scheduled board meetings. The museum project manager with the predesign team should be responsible for filling in the intermediate dates. The fundamentals underlying the development of a schedule recognize that project stakeholders (working groups) must make decisions which allow the predesign and design teams to proceed through a series of timely decision points to the next steps. These critical decision dates and document review periods need to be clearly defined as part of the schedule. Failure to provide adequate time to develop information and reach consensus will cause the schedule to fail. Design phase schedule. This schedule is generally developed by the design team project manager to outline all major design phase deliverables, reviews, and sign-offs by the steering committee. Recommendations for effective...


Learnng Teach Model

Because faxes come in writing and are delivered in hard copy form, they may be the easiest to maintain intact. Even e-mails are preservable with the click of the print button. While it may seem quaint, and even wasteful, to keep a paper copy of electronic communication, the need to preserve documentation on a project where an architect suspects trouble is brewing is so great that the redundancy of keeping records in two forms is a reasonable precaution. Project management software, some designed specifically for architects, is also available to provide integrated record-keeping for busy professional practices. See Figure 10-2 for recommended project documentation.


A common dispute in pay applications is a disagreement with the contractor on the relative percentages he has completed for various line items in the schedule of values. Although a design professional can certainly take the time to estimate the quantity of work complete in the field versus the scope represented on the drawings, in reality it is more art than science. Contractors often offer to prepare a pencil copy, or draft markup of the application for the design professional to review at a job meeting. The contractor's project manager and the architect engineer typically walk the site together to roughly assess the percentage claimed as complete. Sometimes, the challenge to a clearly heavy percentage will be answered with We're pouring that tomorrow, or That'll be installed by the time you get the final application. These are judgment calls on the part of the design professional. It requires a balance between the realization that the owner is normally 30 days ahead of the general...


Although this chapter appears near the end of the book, you must heed its message at the beginning of the project planning process. Once again we begin with planning an effective operations plan depends on engagement of the full staff during its development and on a strong communications plan throughout the life of the project. Going from the planning of a museum construction project to occupancy and shakedown of the new space may take years. Players will come and go, loyalties will be tested, and much will be demanded of the museum's staff and supporters.

Unit pricing

The cost of awarding a 200 credit for the first 20,000 contributed to the project by all members (not per member, but all members together), amounts to an additional 20,000 in financing costs for the project. The cost of a 150 credit for the next 30,000 amounts to an additional 15,000 in project costs. Therefore, the cost for the first 50,000 in project monies and implementing the attached incentive program is a total of 35,000, assuming all initial contributors eventually purchase dwelling units in the completed project. Normally, some will drop out and ask for their money back. These members will not receive the benefit of this incentive because they have not followed through with closing on a purchase.

The Revolving Door

Contractors rely on their project manager (PM) and field superintendent to learn and manage their projects. It is very difficult for a new PM or field super to come into a project mid-stream, learn the details of the work, and carry it through to a successful completion. When a contractor changes personnel mid-stream, particularly a field superintendent, it could be a bad sign. High turnover among key construction staff is a sign of dissatisfaction and perhaps disorganization. Even when turnover occurs for innocuous reasons, the project may suffer as the new principals work to learn the project.

Bicycle Commuting

In addition to giving access to public transportation, green buildings very often provide accommodations for bicycle commuters, since the cost of doing so is typically small relative to overall project costs. In many cities that are bicycle-oriented, increasing numbers of people are commuting to work in this healthy, friendly, non-polluting way.3 In my former home of Portland, buses and light-rail cars were outfitted to hold bicycles for the long trek home, especially in darkness (evening commutes in the winter) and rainy weather. Madison, Wisconsin, has the most mileage of bike trails for a city of its size. Over the past 30 years, the city has instituted more than 30 miles of bike paths and 110 miles of on-road bike lanes. For trips under five miles, it's faster to pedal than drive in many cases.


MUSEUM PROJECT MANAGER DESIGN TEAM PROJECT MANAGER DESIGN TEAM PROJECT MANAGER Who's in charge Communication flow between the museum and design or construction teams should always go through your museum project manager (PM) to the design or construction team project managers (figure 6.1). The reverse is true of subconsultants and subcontractors through their respective project managers to yours. Each of those individuals should be the point person for their team or organization to disseminate and expedite the flow of information to stakeholders and avoid any end run and costly ill-informed decisions. preliminary project work plan is often developed and submitted as part of the request for proposal by the design team to you in order to describe their services and activities. (A similar work plan is prepared by the exhibit design and construction teams.) It is, in effect, a work scope description which outlines each task, the numbers of meetings, major decision points, review periods,...

Managing Decisions

Your museum project manager who has been tasked with coordinating the building project will work closely with the design team project manager throughout the design and construction process. You should expect collaboration in using a range of tools to expedite the flow of information. Project man-

Possible Approaches

Notwithstanding the above speculation as to actual risk, it would seem reasonable to conclude that any stone element that might require the force of a lump hammer to remove it would be in little danger of becoming sufficiently loose - even on exposure to severe weather conditions - (and it should be noted that the City of Sydney never experiences frost) - to fall to the ground of its own accord within the 12-month period following inspection. It might therefore be an appropriate measure to remove only pieces of stone or previous repairs that are actually loose and can be removed with ease by hand as the principal act of a make-safe inspection. In this way, when a commitment to properly conserve the building is made and full access provided, those stones that require work that is not structural in nature can be appropriately conserved and the architectural aesthetic of the building preserved. In short, the introduction of new stone elements could be limited to those of structural...

CA Anecdote

When the bi-weekly job meeting was over, the contractor's field superintendent and project manager asked Tom to look at a situation with them. We're thinking every one of these should be demolished and re-framed, said the project manager. If the rest are this bad, we're looking at a substantial amount of extra work. How do you figure said the project manager. I didn't see the estimated quantity in the bid documents, said the project manager. We didn't include it in our bid. The project manager reviewed the documents and agreed that his company owed the owner ten reframed canopies within their agreement. Their change order value for reframing the balance of the complex's canopies was much higher than the Tom anticipated. It appeared evident that the contractor was trying to recoup some of the money lost on the unexpected framing through the change order. Tom regretted not including a unit price bid for the canopy reframing as part of the bid documents. A unit price would have provided...


The work has been progressed proactively between the client, design, construction, cost consultant, and site and project management teams within a partnering charter. Subcontractors were brought on board early to obtain their input and to iron out any co-ordination issues.


Despite their differences adaptation work and new-build schemes share many similarities. These two forms of construction work are procured using building contractors employing tradesmen, as well as semiskilled and un-skilled operatives. Both involve the expertise of consultant representatives such as surveyors, architects, engineers and other professionals. A project manager may be appointed for a large Project management A general term that embraces many of the management functions listed.

Do Your Research

Architects are trained to work from the general to the specific. They are taught to gather basic information about their client's needs, project resources, and restrictions, and move toward a solution in ever-tightening circles of detail. This time-tested process works. What seems to have been forgotten in the rush of busy offices and tight schedules is the importance of understanding that a successful project occurs when the professionals involved focus on two simple aspects 1) The resources, and 2) The goals. There are innumerable ways for architects to get on the wrong side of clients, but perhaps the easiest is for the client to realize that the architect has forgotten why he was commissioned in the first place. This section is an argument for spending some time at the beginning of a project to lay the groundwork a foundation if you will for what the end goal is and what resources are available to get there (see the Risk Reduction Tools).

Steve LaHood BS

Steve LaHood is vice president and director of Signage and Wayfinding and product development at HDR Architecture. He has provided leadership for the Signage and Wayfinding group and its integration into a variety of architectural project types. LaHood also serves as designer and project manager for HDR's collaborations in product designs for Milliken's Soul and Sense carpets, Architex International's Remed and Remed II collections, Peter Pepper, and the award-winning SYNC by Nurture collection. He is a member of the Society of Environmental Graphic Design.

Evaluating TOGAF

A useful analogy is that TOGAF in relation to practical EA development in a university equates to PRINCE2 in relation to project management best regarded as a toolkit from which, in the context of an understanding of the overall approach, you select what is useful and disregard the rest. As we work through our EA development we'll take the bits that are useful or add value, but feel no need to adopt the whole thing lock stock and barrel and put huge effort into producing a comprehensive EA model (which will change anyway).


The standardized kitchen is the most common and generally accepted way of achieving this economy. A well-designed, modest kitchen that can be modified to suit individual needs after moving in, will go a long way toward reducing project costs. Also consider standardizing hardware and equipment where possible. Common plumbing fixtures, moldings, windows, etc., all add up to cost savings.

LeanEA governance

The original intention was for the LeanEA project to sit within the governance structure of the MWE programme. At the time this was seen as a positive move because it was utilising the norms of the university's project management methodology but it was also, because of the impetus behind the MWE, seen as a way of supplementing the project management framework. In this way, EA had the potential to be the 'missing link' that could encourage experimentation with new governance structures without undermining the pre-existing methodology. However, by the time the LeanEA project had gained momentum, the agenda for the MWE programme had become sizeable and critical, and was focusing predominantly on deadlines for implementation and roll-out of the MWE version 1.0. In hindsight, this had a detrimental effect on the EA pilot by, through necessity, concentrating on operational tasks, leaving little room for interaction or development of the EA pilot.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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