Real Estate and Property Development

Property Renovation Secrets Revealed

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Property Renovation Secrets Revealed Overview

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The property development perspective the place

Traditionally, railway stations have been described in the first place in terms of their transportation functions, or through a transport development perspective as sketched earlier. More recently, because of factors cited in the introduction to the book (section 1.2), interest has arisen in the development of railway stations in combination with their surroundings. That is, railway station areas are increasingly perceived as urban districts with more than a transport function. This implies that they are seen as objects of property investment as well. In other words, the place dimension of the railway station area is becoming more central. In this section, the prospects for railway station locations are discussed in an urban context. We interpret the term property development rather loosely, as comprising any alteration of the physical fabric at and around stations that results from quantifiable investments made by one or more actors. The property development prospects of a station...

The property developer

This is true but untrue - when you work in a quasi-public realm, as we inevitably do, you can't just chomp cigars.' 'The other stereotype is fat cat developer, brash, knock up stuff quickly. They do not pay attention. They want to make money as quickly as possible.' 'They do make money when it works - but many fail - property development is vulnerable.' 'Many people working in the public sector think they are non-elected interlopers without a mandate who want to introduce hamburger joints. They're rapacious capitalists who would concrete over the city. And in reverse developers think planners are overly bureaucratic, hindering development, unable to make a decision The community sector is seen by property developers as wanting handouts and not understanding the needs of business they have a halo, sitting there cross-legged with a begging bowl.' 'The development industry has many layers. There are the traditionals - the PLCs. They make a point that...

Property development at Kings Cross railway lands

Table 9.2 Property development proposals for King's Cross (flot> r space in m ) Table 9.2 Property development proposals for King's Cross (flot> r space in m ) The most important question of all concerns the interaction with the CTRL works and its related developments, which L& C will be initiating. L& C maintains that its first priority is now the construction of the line and stations. It sought control of the land around stations essentially in order to support the firm's transport activities. Of course, the land has a potential value, but profits from property development would provide only a fraction of the revenues needed from CTRL ownership and operation to make the whole viable. Ownership of land is seen as necessary for reasons other than extracting profits from it. With an eye to CTRL development, property ownership ensures that infrastructure construction can proceed smoothly the projects would not be obstructed by fragmented ownership of the land. With an eye to...

Context railway station area redevelopment in Sweden

The real estate division of the Swedish railways was created in 1988, as a spin-off from the privatization policy. Its core business is the redevelopment of land holdings at stations in central locations. Property development has two main functions it is a potentially important resource in financing investment, and it provides the chance to make stations centres of urban activity once more. The first, largely completed, step in this direction was the Station Environment Programme, a massive investment entailing the refurbishment and modernization of some 100 stations. The second, current stage is the Travel Centres Programme, which forms the core of SJ's property development strategy. The aim of the programme is to turn stations into complete, modern travel centres at locations where train travel has potential. From a comparative European perspective, it is particularly important to underline the strong guiding role of this transport-centred concept. It applies to the whole...

Vacancy of nonresidential buildings

As a result of these financial crises of the 1990s, funding for property investments is now on a different basis. Investors are more cautious. Widespread, bold speculative developments in property are less common. The assumption that property will always be a good investment because of demand is no longer tenable. Instead, property development is usually restricted now to schemes involving either pre-letting or bespoke developments.

Social exclusion and the development process preliminary observations

Other researchers have highlighted the absence of strong regulatory controls, over the actions and operations of developers, as the key to understanding the design and development of disabling environments (Gleeson, 1999a Imrie, 1997). Indeed, most research has focused on the attitudes, values and operations of planning regulators, yet, in doing so, has generally ignored the socio-institutional dynamics of property development in contributing to, and ameliorating, the physical barriers that disabled people have to confront. To date, there has been little or no research of the interrelationships between property development processes and the production of disabling and disablist built environments. Such notions tend to confirm mainstream economic conceptions of property development and dynamics in suggesting that the provision of buildings and ancillary infrastructure is driven by the demand for property. It is also assumed that the requisite demand...

The Scope of Concern of Public Sector Decisionmaking

'To what extent should the public sector decision-makers intervene in the property development process ' 'Should it be only to control development to ensure public health and safety ' or 'Should it be to promote public amenities ' In other words, should the public sector be concerned with the use of sticks or carrots or both in shaping the nature of human settlements, and their components 'How far can the public sector support, through legislation or subsidies, private profit making investment actions that are perceived to be in the public interest ' In the United States, recent court cases (e.g. Southwestern Illinois Development Authority versus National City Environmental, 2002) have limited the power of governments to use the power of eminent domain to acquire land to be sold on for private uses even though the public amenity of any ensuing development might have highly beneficial consequences. The case studies included in this book show a wide variety of roles of the government in...

Determinants of developers responses to disabled peoples building needs

In utilising and developing aspects of the SBP approach, in relation to developers' responses to the building needs of disabled people, it is possible to identify, at a general level, three aspects of the development process which are implicated in disabled people's estrangement from building and development projects and which are important in framing developers' attitudes and responses to the building needs of disabled people (see also Chapters 4 and 6). These are the economics of real estate the legal frameworks underpinning developers' actions and the technical discourses and knowledge systems of real estate. While these categories are not mutually exclusive nor exhaustive, they provide a broad base by which to contribute not only to an understanding of property professionals' attitudes and responses to the building needs of disabled people, but also to the limited stock of substantive research seeking to understand some of the specificities of property development processes (see...

Allofapiece Urban Design

The all-of-a-piece design process follows a set of steps approximating that shown in Figure 2.6. A prime developer, public or private, initiates the project through the acquisition of land and then decides on what to build (or vice versa) given either a local market demand and or some assumption as to what is in the public interest. Some private developers may forgo profit to pursue public interest goals but, in general, it is a public agency that sets the public interest agenda for a project. It is the property developer, public or private, who hires the urban designer, an individual or a team, to produce a conceptual design and to develop the design brief. In democratic societies this process benefits from and is buffeted by a whole set of public and private interests. Entrepreneurs Property Developers

East Union Streetle Washington

When former high-tech executive Liz Dunn decided to start a new career, she revisited her old dream of becoming an architect. After taking a few classes in architecture, urban planning, and real estate development at the University of Washington, she embarked on an ambitious project a real estate venture that would blend high architectural aspirations with environmental responsibility. Already a committed environmental activist, she was particularly concerned about the cultural causes of environmental degradation, especially the tendency for successful executives like herself, for example, to commute to work daily from Disneyesque McMansions outside Seattle.

Three essential requirements

Building conversion is basically another form of property development. Thus, as with any such venture there is an element of risk. The degree of risk will depend on a number of variables relevant to the proposed adaptation option selected. These variables include among other things

The Role of Real Estate in the Production of the Multicentered Metropolitan Region

To the present (Feagin 1983 Fishman 1987 Frug 1997). By attempting to validate the opposite emphasis, in order to valorize the work of a select group located in a particular place, the LA Schoolers miss the most significant research implication of contemporary real estate development patterns. Quite literally, the important theory of Henri Lefebvre and its refinement by subsequent writers on the ubiquitous use of real estate as a means to acquire profits, which is studied seriously by scholars from Singapore to Seattle, from Hollywood to Helsinki, from New York to Sao Paulo, and from London to Moscow, seems to pass over the heads of these LA School avatars.

The Neighborhood Unit

The title neighborhood unit is a term of reference given, for purposes of the study described in this article, to the scheme of arrangement for a family-life community. Investigations have shown that residential communities, when they meet the universal needs of family life, have similar parts performing similar functions. In the neighborhood-unit system, those parts have been put together as an organic whole. The scheme is put forward as the framework of a model community and not as a detailed plan, Its actual realization as an individual real-estate development requires the embodiment and garniture which can be given to it only by the planner, the architect, and the builder.

The role of consultative and participative processes

The design and development of the built environment occurs through a myriad of specialist tasks dominated by professionals deploying expert knowledge. However, as Monahan etal. (1998 1) note, 'it is not common practice for architects and designers to consult disabled people when creating buildings. Their clients do not have disabled access needs as a priority in the competitive, cost conscious nineties.' This is reaffirmed by our research which indicates that disabled people's participation in development and design processes is usually absent or never much more than 'arms-length' consultation (also, see the relevant parts of Chapters 5 and 6). In particular, property development and related building processes are, for Ventriss (1987 281), dominated by neo-conservative thinkers or those who argue that 'the virtues of participation have been taken too far'. As Ventriss (ibid. 282) notes, a popular viewpoint is that modern society is 'suffering not from a paucity of participation but...

Project team dynamics and interactions

While the procurement route can influence developers' responses to the building and design needs of disabled people, such routes are determined largely, as Chapter 4 intimated, by needs specified by the client. There is no singular type of client, yet much of the literature on property development fails to differentiate between different types of clients and their diverse building requirements. This is particularly the case with what Ball (1998) refers to as mainstream neo-classical models of the development process. As Chapter 1 suggested, these tend to either ignore the determinate role(s) of clients in influencing building design and development or reduces their influences to a cost-calculating rationality. However, the case and other material is characterised by a diversity of clients seeking contrasting outcomes, and operating under a variety of different constraints and opportunities. Such contextual variation is, we would argue, critical to the ways in which the access needs of...

Environmental injustice and the civil rights of disabled people

As a range of authors note, the form of the built environment is primarily driven by professionals' financial criteria users' functional demands are generally of less importance (see, for instance, Guy, 1998 Henneberry, 1988). Thus, as Edwards (1 990 1 75) suggests, 'private property development is driven more by investment demand and suppliers' decisions than by final user demand even less by any sort of final user needs'. Likewise, investment decisions by property professionals are connected to a particular way of conceiving of property development processes. For Fischler (1995 21), such perspectives are 'a direct function of people's background, in particular of their professional culture. One's professional culture gives one a pre-disposition to frame situations and problems in particular ways.' Similarly, Guy and Henneberry (2000 2415) note the difficulties in changing the value-bases of the development process, in These professional values and practices, underpinned by...

Project Development Analyst

Master in real estate development or related majors required, plus min. 1 year industrial experience. Project site analysis and architectural design. Conduct zoning research and initial yield study, analyze legal documents and monitor entitlement process. Jordan Architects, Inc. Orange County. Email resume to Lsheridan jordanarchitects.com

The Shanghai Waterfront Park Shanghai Peoples Republic of China a proposed integrated park and building urban design

Shanghai Waterfront Proposal

As often happens in large schemes, the client changed over the course of time from the one who initiated it. The Shanghai P. & K. Development Company joined the Shanghai Port Authority as the property developer. They became the investment, marketing and the coordinating authority for the scheme. SOM was responsible for the master plan while the Shanghai Urban Planning and Research Institute executed the local planning. The land along the river was rezoned and the area between the proposed new The scheme, if completed as now specified, would really be an all-of-a-piece urban design with a major total landscape architectural element. Guidelines have been written for the buildings that will line the park. The goal is to obtain a consistency in fa ade design with local referents. The buildings will require the investments of a variety of property developers and be designed by different architects. Whether the park itself should be considered to be an urban design is another matter. The...

The Sensory Landscape of Cities

Constricted, we understand and interpret the city through the technical rather than the sensory, yet it is the sensory from which we build feeling and emotion and through which our personal psychological landscapes are built. These in turn determine how well or badly a place works - even economically, let alone socially or culturally - and how it feels to its inhabitants and to visitors. Technical disciplines like engineering, physical planning, architecture, surveying and property development are important, but they are a smaller part of the urban story than their practitioners would wish to think.

Housing estate Arkadien Asperg near Stuttgart

Western Europe is starting to see a trend in property development, away from mass quantity and towards quality and environmentally responsible construction. This is not through altruism on the part of development companies, but rather recognition of a market demand. Arkadien Asperg is an urban village nestled within the congested conurbation of Stuttgart, and responds to this increasing demand for high quality, individual living space. Commissioned by the property developer Strenger, the architectural concept was conceived by Eble Architects. As a harmonious compliment to the warm and consciously Mediterranean architecture, Atelier Dreiseitl designed an ensemble of outdoor spaces which significantly contribute to a healthy and pleasant living environment and the overall sustainability of the development. The project has been such a success that Arkadien Asperg was awarded the 2003 German Real Estate Award for housing.

Raleigh Park Sydney Australia a marketoriented suburban design 19822000

Australia Urban Parks Designs

The development was a joint venture of two property development companies Mirvac Ltd and Westfield Holdings Pty Ltd, designed in-house by Mirvac's HPA Associates (Henry Pollack Architects). It was named after Sir Walter Raleigh who introduced tobacco to Europe from North America. It consists of six residential towers of between eight and thirteen stories in height, three-storey walk-up housing units and 150 houses (well below the legally permitted number of units). The administrative buildings of the cigarette company were preserved as communal facilities and commercial rental space. The history of the development is chequered and the site went

Battery Park City New York Ny Usa a new town intown 1962 to 2002 but continuing

Conflict And Compromise New York City

The State and the City of New York) and battered by the fluctuations in New York City's economy and the corresponding demand for property development. Political and civic leaders and architectural critics (particularly Ada Louise Huxtable of the New York Times) wielded considerable influence on the proposals for the scheme. What we see today on the site is a product of the 1979 master plan, but the process of planning for Battery Park City began in the early 1960s. something that property developers could understand. The parcelization of the overall scheme had to be fairly standard.

Carrots and Sticks in Urban Design

The transfer of development rights from one site to another has been another tool that has been used to protect specific buildings and districts deemed worthy of maintaining in their present character yet being located where a property developer has the legal right to develop in a different manner. The incentive is to provide the developer with above legal rights in another location while buying out development rights in the original location at less than market value. All incentives boil down to assisting property developers with financing in some form or another. Lowering taxes is one. Another used to meet urban design ends is through tax increment financing. It is not a legal technique in most countries. In the United States, however, it is available in a number of states. In California it was made possible by a 1962 amendment to the state's constitution. The amendment allows property developers working in a precinct of a municipality that has a plan supported by its citizens, to...

American Building and Planning in China 19071937

Foreign Investment China After 1911

American architects, planners, construction companies and real estate development firms were among the growing cast of international entrepreneurs who sought profits from an ever-changing China during this so-called 'republican' period, beginning after the fall of the Qing empire in 1911. American engineers, however, were establishing their presence in China before American architects began to practice there. Among the earliest engineering involvement by U.S. professionals occurred in 1907, when an American import-export firm in Shanghai (Fearon, Daniel & Company) contracted with a new company established by two Danes (Andersen, Meyer & Company) to finance an engineering department on a joint-account basis (Far Eastern Review, 1931, 27, p. 151). That same year the President of Andersen, Meyer travelled to the U.S. and secured the exclusive right to represent the General Electric Company in China. In 1908 Andersen, Meyer parlayed that right into more bountiful cash when it...

Central Glendale California USA a traditional suburban downtown turned into an edge city 197590 1994 to the present

These actions encouraged a property developer (John S. Griffith Company, later Donahue Schribner) to build the Galleria, a shopping centre. It was constructed in 1976. The Galleria was then a catalyst for other development and the company insisted that later developers and their architects toe the line in meeting design guidelines in order to maintain a high level of aesthetic and general environmental quality in the precinct. The tax increment going to the Redevelopment Agency in 1985 was 5.5 million. This sum could be leveraged 8 1 in the bond market for financing public projects in the downtown area. This meant that the revenue from sales taxes could be spent on the remainder of Glendale. A number of urban design issues were addressed. These included how the street edge could be defined, how open spaces could be enclosed, how shelter could be provided for pedestrians, how the apparent bulk of tall buildings could be visually reduced, how street corners could be enhanced, how blank...

Investing in Green Buildings

In 2006 real estate investment in green buildings grew dramatically with the announcement of a joint venture by the California Public Employees Retirement System (CalPERS) to fund future commercial real estate projects by the Hines development organization. A large national real estate developer, Hines is well-known for its commitment to Energy Star and LEED certification for its buildings.80 The Hines CalPERS Green Development Fund (HCG) was capitalized with over 120 million of committed equity and, with leverage, will have the ability to invest up to 500 million. HCG will concentrate on developing high-performance, sustainable office buildings certifiable through the LEED for Core and Shell Program.

Heliopolis A European Vision of the Orient

Henry Ernest Jasper, the son of one of the principal architects of this new city, tells us that one day Baron Empain took his father for a horse ride across the north-eastern desert of Cairo, where the land designated for his real estate development was assigned. Empain exclaimed What were these ideas, and how were they implemented in the new development Why did Empain want the Arab style in his new city (figure 7.1) And if he admired so much the Arab architecture of the mosques, why did he build his own palace later in a Hindi style Once again, there are many strands to the Heliopolis story. Each one could be pursued in our investigation of how this particular real estate development was linked to the 'global' forces of its time and how it reflected this growing fantasy with the orient. I want to pick up a particular strand and proceed by commenting on an observation Robert Ilbert has made concerning the original source of design and character of the new development, Ain Shams, or...

Threshold Effects Highly Conditioned Buildings

In 1957 the head of the Carrier air conditioning corporation observed that whenever 20 percent of the office buildings in any one city include air conditioning, the remaining buildings must air-condition to maintain their first class status.38 That process had apparently taken about ten years, and after the late 1950s it was largely assumed that a high-quality office building in an American city would be conditioned to some degree. The technology had been available for many decades, but it took the particular arms race dynamic of post-war real estate development to change it from a desire to a need. A similar process had occurred among movie houses in the 1930s, which along with luxury hotels had rapidly adopted air conditioning in the pre-war period once its competitive advantage had been

Rd Avenue Housing Group 800 Block 18921893

These row houses are located in Seattle's Central district, an area that underwent tremendous real estate development during the late 1880s when a cable car line connected it to Lake Washington. The houses occupy part of a twenty-two block subdivision, commonly called the Walla Walla Addition, platted by H. H. Hungate, Charles A. Hungate, and James F. Cropp. The developers of the addition were eastern Washington investors. Dr. James F.

Background Rationale of adaptive reuse

Funding of property development these days is on a different, more cautious basis. Instead of speculative projects - whether new build or adaptation schemes - developers and builders are tending to focus on securing pre-letting arrangements or bespoke buildings for specific clients before major investment takes place. This is also applicable to commercial adaptation schemes.

The Market

The market and its values are not static. Fashions change. All-of-a-piece designs that evolve over long periods of time thus often undergo substantial changes not only in the facilities provided but also in aesthetic qualities in order to be up-to-date. The market is segmented into many parts in terms of the culture, stage of life cycle and socio-economic status of the people who form it. Each urban design project described in this book has been aimed at a particular segment of the market. Each property developer feels comfortable in targeting one sector rather than another. One of the urban design questions is 'How can developments be shaped so that private developers will provide public interest facilities when the market is incapable of supporting them '

Further Reading

The Urban Land Institute has produced the excellent Residential Development Handbook which includes very useful chapters on the development process, project feasibility and financing (Schmitz, 2004). Further advice about costing developments can be pieced together from a number of sources including Darlow (1988), Cadman and Topping (1995) and Isaac (1996). These books tend to focus on commercial property development but residential schemes do get a look in. A useful introduction to the house development industry in the UK is Golland and Blake's (2004) Housing Development Theory, Process and Practice, whilst Delivering New Homes by Carmona, Carmona and Gallent (2003) offers a valuable insight into the tensions that emerge between house builders and the UK planning system. These include factors affecting other planning systems such as the availability of suitable land the effects of delay in making planning decisions the requirement to provide affordable housing and the concerns that...

Brownfields

In 2005 I visited Atlantic Station, a 3 billion real estate development in the mid-town area of Atlanta, on 138 acres at the site of the former Atlantic Steel manufacturing plant. The residual contamination had been cleaned up and in its place was a thriving urban village of homes, shops and offices. The developers took a green approach to the overall development, starting with site remediation, and the value of the real estate was many times what it had been.15 At this project, the 171-17A Street office tower received a LEED for Core and Shell certification at the Silver level, the first such designation for a high-rise building in the country. For the

Case Study

The actual functioning of centres of this type (e.g. the similar one at the last of the British new towns, Milton Keynes) has led to the abandoning of such designs as a prototype for town centres (Francis, 1991). The limitations of such 'functional' designs have given rise, sensibly or not, to the Neo-Traditional movement in urban design. The standard suburban shopping mall in Columbia, Maryland operates more successfully as a centre than that at Runcorn being tied into an automobile-based transportation society well understood by property developer James Rouse.

Downplaying History

Most significantly, it was the network of trolleys, which in the early 1900s extended from San Pedro harbor, the westernmost part of Los Angeles, to Lake Arrowhead in the San Bernardino mountains, high above the expanding region, that provided the infrastructure for real estate development. Much later, many of the automobile routes simply paved over these tracks and followed them to create the present-day system of freeways (Gottdiener 1994 69). Evidence from other metropolitan areas also supports the view that suburbanization is a phenomenon characteristic of every city and that the highly centralized, bounded city that was the model for the Chicago School and is the convenient strawman for the LA School simply never existed (see, for example, Warner 1962 Walker 1981 Jackson 1985). Processes of real estate development, capital flows, factions of capital, returns to capital, local politics, decentralization, recentralization, agglomeration, and dispersal are the...

Quantitative Results

In return for more than sixteen million square feet of bonus floor area,9 the city obtained 503 privately owned public spaces at 320 commercial, residential, and institutional buildings. Categorized by the twelve legal typologies enumerated in the Zoning Resolution, the public space inventory includes 167 plazas, 88 arcades, 57 residential plazas, 32 urban plazas, 15 covered pedestrian spaces, 12 sidewalk widenings, 9 through-block arcades, 8 through-block connections, 3 through-block gallerias, 1 elevated plaza, 1 open-air concourse and 110 other spaces located in special zoning districts or uniquely defined by other legal means.10 Not surprisingly, the production of public space corresponded with cycles of real estate development that flourished from 1968 to 1974 and from 1982 to 1989. The total area of

Fear of creativity

Quite rightly people argue, 'Why should people want to be creative, as being so involves adjustment and change ' It is painful. Better to leave things as they are. The desire to be open and inventive depends on what we do. For the artist exploration is a raison d'etre, for many scientists too. For the traffic engineer continuity and predictability are at a premium, as they are for the property developer. Ideally even certainty. The lawyer thrives within a plethora of rules to be nit-picked to achieve clarity. Planners can project a future only with clear guidelines they would prefer less instability. In fact most people and professions prefer order. Individually, though, we may wish to explore, to find ourselves and to make our life more interesting. We may want stimulation.

Triple Bottom Line

In the past few years, the green building movement has pushed many companies to rethink their entire approach to development, emphasizing energy efficiency and LEED ratings in their real estate offerings. Good examples of this movement abound. At the 2007 Green Cities conference in Sydney, Australia, the entire large property development industry in Australia appeared lined up behind the idea that green buildings promoted higher property values and enabled them to acquire better tenants and buyers. Late in 2006 prominent real estate consultant Charles Lockwood claimed that trillions of dollars of commercial property .around the world will become obsolete and will drop in value because green buildings are going mainstream.146

Unbridled Enthusiasm

David Gottfried was a successful young property developer in Washington, DC, when he got the urge to found the US Green Building Council in 1993. He later founded the World Green Building Council in 1999, which now numbers ten member countries, US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, United Kingdom, Mexico, Taiwan, the United Arab Emirates and Japan. David's enthusiasm for green buildings is infectious as a result of his leadership acumen, persuasive skills and incredible drive, the USGBC is now the most dramatic force for change that the building industry has seen in decades.

The Megaprojects

In discussing the major projects in Dubai - in essence the spatial characteristics of its recent expansion - it will be useful to group them according to certain themes. In other words some projects are geared towards the communication industry with its emphasis on Information Technology and the 'New' Media another group falls within the domain of traditional mixed-use real estate developments some projects provide a setting for an emerging financial industry, and of course the ever growing hospitality leisure industry. The retail sector, with its accompanying shopping malls is the most visible among this group. Cultural projects such as museums, cultural centres and the like are, interestingly, lacking. Many of these projects are located along a stretch of highway linking Dubai to Abu Dhabi known as Sheikh Zayed Road, a spine which will form the centre of the 'New Dubai.' Financial Centres. An initiative announced in 2002 was the creation of a financial centre. This entails a...

Historic buildings

The retrofit of historic buildings invariably requires a variety of conservation approaches. Any retrofit scheme must be consistent with, and fully integrated with, the chosen approach. For example, if the form and materials of an existing building are to be preserved, retrofitting techniques might need to be concealed. This may require the use of more innovative and sophisticated retrofit methods than normal. On the other hand, full or partial exposure of retrofit systems and details may be acceptable where a building's rehabilitation involves more general preservation of architectural, cultural and historical values, possibly including former alterations and additions. Total concealment of retrofit structure may or may not be required when restoring a building to its original condition.

Plugin Urban Design

Sometimes the process of building the infrastructure and then the fabric of a city or suburb is heavily controlled. Building uses are specified and design guidelines are created for each developer to follow. In this case, the process is really a variant of all-of-a-piece urban design. In other cases those property developers plugging their projects into the provided infrastructure are free to respond to the marketplace, as they will. The assumption in this case is that the market knows best what is in demand and thus appropriate to build. The second type of plug-in urban design refers to the situation where elements of infrastructure are plugged into an existing city in the hope of spurring new developments or providing some public amenity. The elements of infrastructure may be links, places or buildings providing for special uses that will, it is hoped, have a catalytic effect on surrounding property development (Attoe and Logan, 1989). The skyway system in Minneapolis began in this...

Total urban design

Total urban design occurs when an entire project is carried out under one auspice and under the direction of an individual designer or a group acting as an individual. It is completed as one piece of work from property development to design to implementation. The concern is from the broadest policy issues, to the architecture, to the landscaping and to the details of street furniture. Total urban designs include a wide variety of product types new towns, urban precincts of various descriptions (either as cleared site projects or as partial redevelopments), new suburbs, housing developments, campuses and historical revitalizations. Some projects are mixed types.

Tuned Instrument

Since the 1960s, real-estate developer Raymond Nasher and his late wife, Patsy, amassed an outstanding collection of modern art, concentrated mainly on sculpture. Now totalling some 350 works, these were displayed in their house and garden - and some, so the public might encounter and enjoy them, in Nasher's North Park shopping centre. The sculpture centre now allows the public to view these works displayed on a rotating basis, which, along with visiting exhibitions and other events, should encourage regular revisits in a contemplative verdant oasis on the edge of the city centre. Nasher, having met Renzo Piano at the Beyeler opening, entrusted design of the museum to him and the garden to Peter Walker.

Alexander J Reichl

As these and other cultural analyses demonstrate, the cultural realm is not simply an epiphenomenon of economic processes that provides an ideological support for the capitalist order rather, culture has become an important factor in the production of wealth. This is certainly evident in the industries of tourism and real estate development, where value may be conferred upon a place through the symbolism and imagery that circulate in public discourse. What remains less clear, though, is how new cultural forms of urban development might serve as an instrument of political power. The idea that the nature of the built environment can affect the possibilities of political action appears far removed from structuralist political economy. But the issue is particularly relevant today, as we seek to make democracy work for historically disadvantaged groups while recognizing the limitations of formal political processes - a reality made painfully clear in the 2000 US presidential election. In...

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