Two distinct types of public policy
Both policies result in the promotion of urban redevelopment at stations. On the one hand there are policies to promote environmentally sustainable transportation and land-use patterns. Among the examples studied here, the most clearly formulated policies are those adopted by the national government in the Netherlands, and also by regional and local governments in Switzerland. On the other hand there are policies to regenerate local economies by restructuring the urban fabric. Such measures are also initiated or favoured by national governments (as in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) but most explicitly by local governments (as in France and the Netherlands). All the countries and cities mentioned here are confronted by largely similar pressures and trends. These include constraints on public expenditure, deregulation, a shift from social to economic and environmental objectives, the rise (and fall) of public-private partnerships, and an emerging centrality of infrastructure investments in public policies. Particular national and local planning systems, institutional contexts and local political cultures have resulted in responses to these challenges that are sometimes different and sometimes similar.
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