Positive and negative technological change
Both types of change create urban redevelopment opportunities at stations. Positive changes— that is, ones that make station locations more easily accessible—include the expansion of highspeed train (HST) systems, and also of advanced regional, S-Bahn and RER/TER-type networks. The most notable negative changes—those that make space available for development—are the transfer of freight and heavy industrial activities away from stations and towards other locations. Among the cases analysed, the role of positive technological change is most evident in France (with the TGV), in Switzerland (with the S-Bahn systems), and in the Netherlands and again Switzerland (with massive national rail investment packages). Negative changes are of a more structural nature. While not explicitly mentioned in the national outlines that follow, they are ubiquitous at the local level.
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