The Biosphere Reserve Concept Promise and Limitations

Another model of regional environmental management is the biosphere reserve concept. This concept has been put into practice at more than four hundred sites in more than ninety countries since 1971 (UNESCO 1996). As of 2003, there were forty-seven designated sites in the United States. To date, the biosphere reserve concept has mostly been applied to wilderness or rural sites away from major settlements, although several reserves already exist in urban fringe locations. For example, the Golden...

Intense Green

This section reviews four specific examples of green architecture at urban densities, two in Europe and two in New York, where all three of the following aspects are in evidence 1. Sustainable architecture strives for a functioning building stock that does not impose a net environmental cost on future generations or elsewhere in the region or on the globe, minimizing ecological footprint effects in both space and time. Sustainable buildings encourage physical health through their design and...

Fortress America

It says stay out and it also says, We are wealthy and you guys are not, and this gate shall establish the difference. J af fe 1992 What attracts people, most, it would appear, is other people urban spaces are being designed, as though the opposite were true. W hyte 1978, 16 The ability to exclude is a new hallmark for the new public space in the United States. Fear created by a rising tide of immigrants and random violence ranging from the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, to the snipers...

Renewable Energy and Closed Loop Cities

A number of the cities seek to promote a more closed-loop or natural urban metabolism in which wastes become inputs or food for other urban processes. Stockholm has administratively reorganized its departments of waste, water, and energy into a combined ecocycles division. A number of actions have already been taken, including the harvesting of bio-gas from sewage sludge and its use as a fuel for the city's combined heat and power plants. A number of Swedish cities also are using bio-gas from...