Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary


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Receiving And Handling Solid Waste

Solid waste is delivered, usually during the day shifts, In several types and sties of trucks and vehicles. The vehicles are first weighed and then proceed to the lipping area, At large installations, the trucks unload into a storage pit whereas at small incinerators, the practice has been to dump the waste directly into the furnace charging hopper or onto the tipping floor.

Recycling hall Vienna 1981

This recycling center features a tent-like wood structure of 560 feet (170m) diameter that soars to a height of 220 feet (67m) above ground, supported by a central concrete mast. The suspended wood roof consists of 48 radial laminated ribs that rise from outer concrete pylons with wood compression ring to the mast top. The ribs follow the funicular tension line to carry uniform roof load in pure tension, but asymmetrical loads may cause bending stress in the radial ribs that are designed as semi-rigid tension bands with some bending resistance capacity. Diagonal boards form the roofing membrane and add shear resistance to the assembly of ribs and ring beams. The cylindrical concrete support mast cantilevers from a central foundation. It was designed to resist asymmetrical erection loads and to contribute to lateral wind load resistance. The rieriphsidl pylons are triangular concrete walls with metal brackets on top to ssouro ih.3 dial ribs.

Large Building Solid Waste Collection

Large apartment complexes fence in their garbage can areas to keep out dogs and other pests. This area is a good place for bins for recycling, and even a compost pile for landscaping. The solid waste storage area needs garbage truck access and noise control, and should be located with concern for wind direction to control odors. Both the building's occupants and the custodial staff must cooperate for successful recycling in a large building. Office building operations generate large quantities of recyclable white paper, newspaper, and box cardboard, along with nonrecyclable but burnable trash, including floor sweepings. Offices also produce food scraps (including coffee grounds) and metals and glass from food containers. Dumping this all into one collection bin saves space, but with high landfill use costs, separation and recycling spaces are becoming more and more common. The collection process for recycling in larger build- i( ings has three stages (Fig. 12-2). First, white paper,...

Recycling and greening

That the green agenda needs to rise up the priority list is obvious, but words and action remain kilometres apart. Statements of policy too rarely translate into imaginative incentives and innovative regulations to drive the green economy. Stringent guidelines for waste recycling, energy efficiency and green transport have been a start, but would create more impact if linked to incentives, such as central government giving a city a massive financial bonus for matching a green target. Cities should signal enthusiastically that they are in the green field - too few do at the moment. For example, the public sector owns thousands of vehicles. Think of the impact of hordes of green electric cars and perhaps even green taxis suitably moving around. The subliminal message would be strong. Many cities already have environmental initiatives and incentives. How about pulling them together into a designated area identified as an environmental zone, where clustering would make their impact...

Recycling Fibrereinforced Polymers

The recyclate powder can be blended with other recycled plastics to produce GRP plastics lumber, which can be used for lightly loaded piles, decking, fencing and similar applications. This material can be cut and worked like the natural timber which it replaces. Alternatively, ground GRP can be incorporated into particleboard to make GRP-reinforced wood particle-board, which has enhanced mechanical properties compared to the standard grade (P5) of particleboard used for domestic flooring. However, when energy costs, transportation and other factors are considered, the ecological balance towards recycling fibre-reinforced polymers may be dependant on future considerations of recycling at the initial design stage.

Recycling Solid Wastes

)- As part of the building design team, interior designers are responsible for making sure that the solid wastes generated during construction and building operation are handled, stored, and removed in a safe, efficient, and environmentally sound way. Whether we are designing an office cubicle to include a recycling basket or making sure that an old fireplace mantle is reused rather than discarded, we can have a significant impact on how the building affects the larger environment. and industrial by-products and radioactive and chemical wastes from laboratories and industries. All of this averages out to about 45 kg (100 lb) of waste per person annually in the United States. Some of these materials, such as food scraps and paper, are links in the biological recycling chain. Some, such as metals and plastics, represent nonrenewable resources. Many waste substances contain useful energy, but separation and recycling of the mingled refuse is a Herculean task. Solid waste is the main...

Solid Waste Collection In Small Buildings

Toilet System For Days

Most of the waste in a home comes from the kitchen. Finding recycling space within a pantry, air-lock entry, or cabinet or closet that opens to the outside makes daily contributions easier, facilitates weekly removal, and simplifies cleaning (Fig. 12-1). Figure 12-1 Residential recycling. Figure 12-1 Residential recycling. Garbage compactors are designed to cut down on storage space for solid wastes. They can be used to compact separated items for recycling, such as aluminum, ferrous metals, and box cardboard. When dissimilar materials are crushed together, recycling becomes difficult. In a single family home, a garbage compactor may not save more space than it takes up, but small stores and businesses may find one beneficial.

Planning For Recycling

The design of a building includes tracking the flow of supplies in and of refuse out. Solid wastes can take up more space than the water-borne waste systems we have discussed. The accumulation of solid wastes in a building can create fire danger, and their removal may present severe local environmental problems. The separation of solid waste to permit resource recovery has significant energy and environmental consequences. It is now common to install mechanical equipment for handling solid waste in buildings. High-grade resources are valuable materials that can be recycled. Paper and some plastics can be collected and stored within the building. Glass bottles can be returned for reuse or recycling. If recyclable materials are kept separate at the site of their use, resource recovery is much easier. Glass bottles should be washed for reuse, not broken and recycled. Recycled paperboard (cardboard or pasteboard) saves 50 percent of the energy required to process pulp from wood. Recycled...

Vegetated Filter Area

A grassed, gently sloped area may be used as a filter and infiltration area for wastewater (Fig. 8.17). Wastewater is piped to the filter area and spread evenly across the top portion of the filter. As it flows through the soil profile and down the slight slope, biological activity and adsorption in the soil matrix removes waste materials. Most biological activity occurs in the topsoil layer where aerobic (using oxygen) activity provides for odor-free treatment. Obviously, not all soils are equally suitable, as some provide rapid infiltration for limited treatment while others are rather impermeable and provide surface run-off. Frozen soil will not act as a proper filter. Get professional help from your Natural Resources Conservation Service or County Conservation District, for example, for proper filter sizing and design.

Project Construction

The small site made the extensive recycling program for construction waste a particular challenge. While some of the demolition debris was partially recycled on-site in the gabion walls, most of it was removed to a location where it could be sorted for recycling. Construction waste was also recycled using an off-site sorting process.

Recycled plastic lumber

Mixed domestic plastic waste is cut up into small flakes, melted at 200 C into a grey viscous liquid and cast into moulds to produce structural components. The product,polywood, has been used to create a 7.5 m span lightweight bridge with a capacity of 30 tonnes in America. Recycled plastic was used to construct the

Renewable Energy and Closed Loop Cities

A number of the cities seek to promote a more closed-loop or natural urban metabolism in which wastes become inputs or food for other urban processes. Stockholm has administratively reorganized its departments of waste, water, and energy into a combined ecocycles division. A number of actions have already been taken, including the harvesting of bio-gas from sewage sludge and its use as a fuel for the city's combined heat and power plants. A number of Swedish cities also are using bio-gas from household waste as a fuel for buses and other public vehicles (Swedish Ministry of the Environment, undated for a review of environmental vehicle programs in European cities, see European Commission 2001). Experience to date suggests that in addition to recycling waste there has been a dramatic reduction in conventional air pollutants as well as in carbon dioxide emissions in these cities. Another powerful example of the closed-loop concept can be seen in Rotterdam's Roca3 power plant, which...

Symbiosis Richard Horden

Richard Horden

On an ethical level, the built systems necessary to accomplish this were to be lessons in themselves, demonstrations of solar and wind power, waste recycling and water conservation, requiring the responsible participation of students and staff to close the consumption circle. On a pedagogical level, knowledge was recycled via electronic loops, which gathered it from the world and disseminated it through the world. Educationally, the central idea was to encourage 'environmental literacy' through direct experience. Students and staff would actively participate in a transparent system of energy consumption and waste recycling, enabling them to see what they consumed, and how this consumption could be rendered self-sustaining through their co-operation. An 'energy card', looking and working like a credit card, was to be introduced, so that individuals and departments could see how much energy they were using each day. To help with this, all high-energy equipment, like...

Cultivating Smartcities

Maquette Avion Design

In an economically sensitive climate, design needs to offer intelligent solutions that focus on need and demonstrate added environmentally sustainable value to regain public and political confidence. Cities are calling out for a new formal, textural and experiential exuberance with nature. At its most simplistic level, the design positions farming within the city, taking advantage of beneficial adjacencies between programme and function. Urban solid waste and greywater can be used as fertiliser and irrigation food transport and associated carbon emissions are removed from the equation. Urban agriculture is not a new phenomenon its popularity and adoption has waxed and waned over the millennia, from the recycling of urban wastes and tunnel irrigation networks in ancient Persia for agriculture, to the stepped cities and farming terraces of Machu Picchu that can be considered as a precursor to hydroponics. Proposed intervention sites vary considerably in scale and context. Within dense...

To The reader of Architecture In Europe

It Because the recycling of unknown materials is an impossibility. These are the sort of questions one may ask not only of ecological houses, but also of ordinary ones. A house is a complicated assembly of materials which are produced by methods involving a loss of energy and which produce pollution either when they are being made or after they have been used. Perhaps through cost benefit calculations of this kind we could develop an approach to shelters that would really be ecological.

The Dilemma of Technology

Low Tech Reinforced Concrete

This essay is not intended as a diatribe against modern technology. It is. however, important to understand it and its context. It is the reality of our life today, and tomorrow, and until or if there is some cataclysm which forces us to re examine everything. Such a dramatic change could be brought about by the Green Movement. Slowly, all technology is becoming subject to scrutiny. The explosion at Chernobyl, the greenhouse effect and a general awareness of the fragility of our Earth arc forcing us to reconsider the assumptions underlying our way of life. We are being asked to think about the long-terms effects of our decisions and to examine how the Earth's resources can best be used. The motor car. symbol of our modern way of life, is the first to be put to the test. Building cannot be far behind. No real analysis of the cost in environmental pollution, energy consumption and recycling exists for buildings. It will surely come, and when it does many of today's assumptions will be...

Networked Sidewalk Stormwater System

How Does Erosion Effect Stormwater

THE DELTA IN-CHANNEL ISLANDS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT TESTED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING BIO-TECHNICAL STRUCTURES AS WAVE AND EROSION CONTROL, AND THE FEASIBILITY OF USING INEXPENSIVE AND RENEWABLE NATURAL-BASED WASTE MATERIALS. 14 different bio-technical wave and erosion control structures were designed, including log wave-breakers, root wad walls, interlocked root-wads, brush walls, log boom, mulch pillows, ballast buckets, and vegetated stone dikes. Placement of the structures considered location, elevation, substrate nature, and exposure to dynamic forces of daily cycles of tidal flux and seasonal wind fetch. The

Supporting an ecological approach

These observations bring us to the subject of ecological sus-tainability, which is strongly related to inequality in the world. This means that we have to save our resources, especially energy, and make a greater effort to use materials and space much better than we do at present. We have to avoid deterioration, exploitation and pollution as side effects of manufacturing, producing, using and recycling buildings. The argument for designing buildings that are environmentally friendly over their entire lifetime is well established, but the philosophy has been slow to find its way into normal practice. The concept of a building as a generator of waste, in its conception, during its long life and in its death (and possible rebirth), is an important one. Too often we are concerned only with the completion of a project, forgetting that it is during its use that a building, aided and abetted by its inhabitants, is particularly wasteful of energy and resources. Decisions made early in the...

Sustainable Design Strategies

Sustainable architecture looks at human civilization as an integral part of the natural world, and seeks to preserve nature through encouraging conservation in daily life. Energy conservation in buildings is a complex issue involving sensitivity to the building site, choice of appropriate construction methods, use and control of daylight, selection of finishes and colors, and the design of artificial lighting. The selection of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and other equipment can have a major effect on energy use. The use of alternative energy sources, waste control, water recycling, and control of building operations and maintenance all contribute to sustainable design. Rainwater retention employs local water for irrigation and flushing toilets. On-site wastewater recycling circulates the water and waste from kitchens and baths through treatment ponds, where microorganisms and aquatic plants digest waste matter. The resulting water is suitable for irrigation of...

Boatemah Walk Lambeth London

Boatemah Walk is a three-storey block of 18 flats and is part of Lambeth Council's regeneration of Angell Town estate. The original design brief was for a greywater recycling system to a green roof and standard WC and taps specification. ech2o consultants were asked to design a rainwater harvesting system for the flats after the decision was made to abandon the greywater recycling scheme.

Cradletocradle Design

Cradle-to-cradle design was introduced in 2002 by architect William McDonough and chemist Dr. Michael Braungart as a method for evaluating products that could be safely used without any harm to people or the environment, based on known data. The evaluation criteria for products include material properties, specifically toxicity and carcinogenicity, persistence and toxicity in the environment, and use of heavy metals material reuse potential, either in recycling or composting efficient or renewable energy use, including use of 100 solar income in manufacturing water use, stormwater and wastewater discharge in manufacturing and instituting strategies for social responsibility as evidenced by third-party assessments and certifications.33 One of the early successes of this effort was creating a fabric for a chair manufacturer that was durable and attractive but that could be composted at the end of its useful life. Another product developed from this point of view is a commercial carpet...

Integration of type and topos

Cars will be exhaust-free, running on hydrogen, and the remaining crude oil will be processed into precious plastic products. Communication technology will globally network every participant with everything. This is the main difference compared to the visions of the 1960s. Then, in the 1970s, there was an unshakeable belief in technology. We believed that we could only control technology if we kept everything separate. In the cities, we separated pedestrian traffic from car traffic on different levels - even encompassing buildings - and in overpasses and underpasses. We separated living space from workspace, we invented centres for administration and banking, we separated old people from young people, etc. Today, we know better.

What is adaptation Definitions

Words such as 'recycling', 'remodelling' or 'renewal' are also sometimes used to describe major adaptations. 'Remodelling', for example, is commonly employed in the USA as an all-encompassing expression for these works. Such terms, whilst descriptive in their own way, only serve to blur the distinctions between the various interventions that can be done to existing buildings.


Sketches Animal Rescue Systems

The concept of sustainable development, and associated practices such as sustainable construction, lend themselves to investigation via the sketchbook. It is possible to use freehand drawing to explore aspects of modern green design, be it the use of solar energy, wind power or natural ventilation. Conversely, most of the buildings constructed before the Industrial Revolution utilised local renewable energy sources, building materials were from the immediate locality, transport and farming practices relied on human and horse power, and cities were located where natural resources demanded. There was little or no importation of energy, food, water or materials, and since there was scarcity all round, there was a great deal of reuse and recycling. In this there are lessons for the future, which can be recorded and understood through freehand drawing. So sketching can help reveal best green practice, whether old buildings or more recent examples are employed. There is a clear link between...

Photographs Alan Crumlish Photographs

Some of the main goals to be achieved in this project are developed by a great diversity of solutions through flexibility, revaluation of the shape, its building process and construction methods focusing on recycling or the lessons for promoters, insurance company, engineers, etc. with respect to sustainable design as something essential to take into account

Recycled materials or waste

Construction and other waste generation is a major issue in the UK and we lag far behind many countries in recycling and reuse. The creative reuse of materials is still a largely untapped resource despite the efforts of a few motivated individuals and organisations. Lowest impact options are non-polluting materials that can be simply reused. Recycling and reuse of polluting materials that would be destined for landfill is creditable, but ultimately the final destination must be a consideration and hence the manufacturing processes which create polluting materials must be challenged. It is important that the use, and potential for reuse, of benign materials is built into everyday detailing so that today's building materials do not become tomorrow's waste. Building with waste materials should not challenge us aesthetically or endanger our health. Building with the toxic waste of other industries is unwise (Photo the author) Building with waste materials should not challenge us...

Limited Energy Resources

In the year 2000, the earth's population reached 6 billion people, with an additional billion anticipated by 2010. With only 7 percent of the world's population, North America consumes 30 percent of the world's energy, and building systems use 35 percent of that to operate. Off-site sewage treatment, water supply, and solid waste management account for an additional 6 percent. The processing, production, and transportation of materials for building construction take up another 7 percent of the energy budget. This adds up to 48 percent of total energy use appropriated for building construction and operation.

Tanner Springs Park Portland

Natural spaces such as forests, meadows and wetlands are being consumed and displaced. Quietly and permanently, an insatiable appetite for land is destroying the living spaces of sensitive wild animals and plants. In contrast, the recycling of abandoned industrial land for new mixed downtown uses is space effectively and ecologically used. The City of Portland, Oregon, chose to go down this ecological path with the regeneration of an old, industrial downtown city neighbourhood, the Pearl District.

The Biosphere Reserve Concept Promise and Limitations

Another model of regional environmental management is the biosphere reserve concept. This concept has been put into practice at more than four hundred sites in more than ninety countries since 1971 (UNESCO 1996). As of 2003, there were forty-seven designated sites in the United States. To date, the biosphere reserve concept has mostly been applied to wilderness or rural sites away from major settlements, although several reserves already exist in urban fringe locations. For example, the Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve includes thirteen protected areas in the greater San Francisco Bay area, the Everglades National Park borders metropolitan Miami, and the Pinelands National Reserve in southern New Jersey is surrounded by urban and suburban development on three sides. The application of the concept to urban areas is formally under review by the MAB program (UNESCO 2000), and there is continuing lively discussion on the MAB Urban Group Forum (http Koichiro Matsuura, director-general of...

Hot Water Distribution

Until the advent of indoor plumbing, wastes were removed from the building daily for recycling or disposal. Historically, table scraps were fed to animals or composted. Human wastes were thrown from windows into the gutters of the street, or deposited in holes below outhouses. Urban inhabitants continued to dump sewage and garbage in gutters until the 1890s. Rural people dumped wastes into lakes, rivers, or manmade holes in the ground called cesspools, which were fed by rainwater or spring water. These cesspools generated foul smells and created a health hazard.

Process Of Production

When we look at the building process in its widest sense it becomes clear that it is a never-ending journey. Apart from the obvious design and construction phases the processes continue as the building is changed to reflect different user requirements, maintained, refurbished and upgraded (Fig. B4.1). It is only at the end of this journey that we become concerned with disposal via disassembly and recycling of materials and components. So the process of production needs to be seen within a whole-life context in which the initial realisation of the building is a short period compared with its overall lifespan. This must be recognised during conception to enable decisions to be made that assist and enhance the health of the finished structure as it ages, that is, we need to take a long-term view of Recycling

Case Study Metro Health Hospital Wyoming Michigan

Address the needs of an underserved part of the community. Their vision for the hospital was to create an environment that was healthier for the patients and environmentally friendly. Primary design concepts included right-sizing the building to maximize space, installing a green roof for patient viewing, preserving and taking advantage of the wooded areas on site, encouraging recycling, and implementing a green housecleaning program. In addition, the careful site selection resulted in reduced travel time by patients, employees, and medical personnel to the facility.

Onsite Power Generation

Today, fuel-fired generators are used on site for emergency and standby power in hospitals and other critical processes. Larger, modular integrated utility systems (MIUS) link electrical energy production, heating and cooling, solid waste and sewage, and potable water, so that waste generated by one part of the system can be used as input by another. Such systems are often used with cogeneration plants that use one fuel source to produce more than one type of energy. Moderate-sized communities or large building complexes use MIUS to provide utility services at lower installation and operating costs, save natural resources, and minimize environmental impact.

Onsite Sewage Treatment

Urban sanitation systems, with secondary and even tertiary sewage treatment, still burden many rivers and coastal waters with excessive amounts of sewage sludge and industrial waste, even in modern societies. In older cities, combined sewer overflows during rainy periods still pollute local rivers. Therefore, green building designers are increasingly considering treating sewage onsite, rather than sending it offsite. Engineers are developing new ways to treat sewage in confined spaces, such as building basements, using both aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes as well as a final polish with ultraviolet radiation to kill any remaining microorganisms.

Property development at Kings Cross railway lands

The Interim Uses Initiative elaborated by the KXRLG (Parkes and Mouawad, 1993), while formalized at a later stage to fill a vacuum in the development process, is possibly the best representation of the different sort of environment envisaged by the local groups. The proposals (Figure 9.5) include a City Garden Festival, anticipating the creation of permanent park and other 'green' initiatives areas and facilities for sport and recreation a documentation centre on the environment and on local history, with connected commercial and tourism facilities space for events in the arts and entertainment spheres and temporary housing. Other proposals call for a market, craft workshops, the rationalization of existing storage and distribution activities, the expansion of production (both existing and to be promoted, such as a recycling centre), and a job training and employment promotion centre. Most of these are temporary uses, in the spirit of the Interim Uses Initiative commissioned by...

Sustainability Programs in the South Bronx

The New York City Department of Sanitation, with funds provided by the New York City Council, coordinates free drop-off electronic recycling days in the five boroughs. The electronic waste recycling project was managed by INFORM, an organization involved with projects citywide. In the spring of 2003, SSB was charged with coordinating electronic waste recycling days within each of borough. SSB coordinated with Per Scholas, a company in Hunts Point that has onsite computer recycling, and Supreme Recycling, a computer recycling company out of New Jersey. The project was an overwhelming success. Electronic waste, by the tons, was saved from going to the landfill. The project, however, was a one-time venture for SSB. To date, the city funding for the borough-based waste coordinators that made it possible was for ten months. Groups are working throughout the city as part of the Zero Waste Campaign to re-create the conception in a bigger, better, and more sustainable way. Solid waste...

Can we afford sustainable buildings

There is pressure on everyone concerned to work towards a more sustainable construction industry with a better process and product. Environmental concerns are at last being viewed as socially and economically responsible. Clients are more aware of the political and fiscal trends, and are looking to life-cycle implications of design choices. Waste minimisation and energy efficiency are increasingly seen as good sense, while healthy

Green Urbanism Compact and Ecological Urban Form

One of the boldest ecological restoration and land recycling initiatives has taken place in the industrial Ruhr Valley of northwestern Germany, consisting of former coal mines and steel mills. Here a regional regeneration strategy has been implemented, including seventeen municipalities and an urban agglomeration of two million people. The bold effort involved formation of IBA-Emscher Park, an international exhibition, comprising some 120 different reuse projects over an eight-hundred-square-kilometer area. The projects range from the conversion of a large gasometer to exhibition space, to transforming slag heaps into parks and public art. In the process, these bold initiatives have fundamentally reshaped the local perception of this formerly bleak, industrial landscape. One spectacular example is the Duisberg-Nord Landscape Park, where a former steel mill has been miraculously transformed into a unique city park (figure 2). Formal gardens have been carved out of coal and coke storage...

Photovoltaics and Fuel Cells

The 48-story office building constructed in 1998 at 4 Times Square in New York was designed by Fox and Fowle, Architects, P.C. to integrate a variety of energy-saving features. Photovoltaic cells in the building facade along with fuel cell power packages generate power for hot water heating and electricity. A high-performance low-emissivity (low-e) glass curtain wall and efficient lighting with occupancy sensors and controls reduce the heating and cooling loads. Fresh air is increased by more than 50 percent above the usual amount for improved indoor air quality (IAQ), and a dedicated exhaust shaft rids the building of tobacco smoke and other pollution along with excess heat. Waste chutes and storage facilities expedite recycling. Centralized, automatic building management monitors air quality floor by floor to filter air and purge the system of pollutants. Environmentally friendly building materials and maintenance feature recycled and recyclable materials and supplies, further...

Highperformance Buildings

Many people have begun using the term high-performance buildings instead of green buildings or sustainable buildings because they want to emphasize what is gained from these projects, not what is given up.68 High-performance also appeals to Americans we want everything turbo-charged and super-sized. A high-performance building is one in which energy and water efficiencies are high, indoor air quality is high, recycling rates are high, etc. This is a much easier concept to explain to most executives than a green building, which still sounds vaguely like a tree-hugger term. In my view, high-performance buildings are those that save at least 50 of the energy use of a standard building, compared with a database called the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Database, last updated in 2003.69 (The next survey will be conducted in 2007.) The table below shows an example of the information that's available from this database.

Furniture and Finishes

One of the easiest ways in which companies can start on the journey to sustainability is to evaluate their furniture and furnishings purchases and to incorporate such criteria. The LEED for Existing Buildings system explicitly incorporates environmentally preferable purchasing policies into the rating system. LEED for New Construction also rewards furniture made from salvaged and reclaimed materials recycled-content materials, rapidly renewable materials, certified wood products and composite materials that are free of urea-formaldehyde resins. Consider the new Steel-case Think chair, which is up to 99 recyclable by weight. Disassembly for recycling takes about five minutes using common hand tools. The chair has up to 44 recycled content. It holds the NF Environnement label in France for environmental quality and is Greenguard Indoor Air Quality certified in the US.

Custom Play Environments

Nearly all aspects of campus life and often includes targeted goals for carbon neutrality, procurement services, building efficiency, transportation, green design, and recycling, waste, and grounds management. The translation of this on to the campus landscape has created an i nterest-ing paradox between the past and the future, as institutions are balancing a need

Recycledcontent Materials

When you think of a green building, if you're like most people, recycling and building with recycled-content materials would likely spring to mind as a key characteristic. In the LEED system, credit is given to projects in which recycled-content represents more than 10 of the total value of all building materials (excluding equipment). This includes structure roof, floors and load-bearing walls rough and finish carpentry insulation (sometimes cotton-batt insulation is made from recycled jeans) doors and windows architectural metal, rebar, fly ash in concrete, steel structural beams, internal walls and floor coverings. The purpose of the LEED standard is to encourage the development of a local and regional economy that values recycling and that creates new materials with the same performance characteristics (strength, weight, durability, etc.) as virgin materials. In that way, we will begin to close the loop of resource flows in the economy and not incur the energy and pollution costs...

Operations and Maintenance Practices

JohnsonDiversey's global headquarters in Sturtevant, Wisconsin, is a three-story, 277,000-square-foot mixed-use facility, 70 office and 30 labs. It received a LEED-EB Gold designation in 2004. At an implementation cost of 74,000, or 0.27 per square foot, the company has documented annual net savings of 137,000 ( 0.49 per square foot), with a life-cycle net present value of 1.35 million, a return (in today's dollars) of almost 20 to 1 on the initial investment Energy savings were documented at 90,000 per year, potable water use was reduced by two to four million gallons per year, and more than 50 of site-generated solid waste was documented as recycled. The program has renewed the company's focus on using integrated pest management, training cleaning workers and developing an integrated program of green cleaning aligned with LEED re-quirements.106 In 2006 Adobe Systems, Inc., a software maker in San Jose, California, certified three of their headquarters buildings at the LEED-EB...

The next step taking fans out of the ventilation system

Wherever possible reclaimed materials salvaged from the Doncaster area have been resourced, thus recycling unwanted urban infrastructure to create a useful new building. Reclaimed joists are resawn to create floorboards and ceilings, and a lamella (grid shell roof) in the entrance foyer uses this reclaimed timber to create an advanced long span structure. Energy intensive metals such as aluminium are used sparingly, often where strength and a low weight are important in the rotating wind cowls - or for glazing bars and roof surfaces where longevity and low maintenance are important. All steel sections are reclaimed directly from local demolition sites and fabricated into new components on site.

Environmentally benign development and design

Initially, this chapter will discuss the main environmental problems that could be confronted through the design of residential schemes. There are four main themes reducing pollution and limiting the production of gases that are fuelling climate change waste reduction and recycling conserving water and promoting biodiversity. There will then be a brief discussion about the features of a more environmentally benign lifestyle and the relationship between this and the design of residential areas. Approaches to design and layout will then be introduced and explained. This will start with a discussion about the role of existing and new green spaces and the need to promote biodiversity. The role of density is then considered, and in particular how higher densities might reduce the need to travel, create more energy efficient residential forms and create large enough catchments to support public transport, local shops and other facilities. Approaches to layout which support more...

Particle Boards Chipboards

Particle boards are heavier than most other wood materials (33 to 40 lb per cu. ft or 528.609 to 640.739kgpercu.m according to the density) as the glue content is relatively high moreover they have no long fibres and thus have little bending strength and tend to crumble at the edges if roughly treated. Always provided that these boards are not treated merely as substitutes for solid timber and forced to conform to long-established constructional methods, but regarded as valid materials in their own right, well worthy of new methods and applications, there is no doubt whatever that their use will continue to expand, and indeed they will become the standard material for furniture-making. With their obvious advantages this is almost inevitable, for not only do they make use of what is virtually waste material (forest thinnings, bough wood, etc.) but the very fact that they are man-made materials means that there is always scope for research and development in the production of lighter,...

Design development The harbour

The park consists of different elements which are described and analysed separately below. Many different approaches towards design have been combined. In the design of Vestmanna Plads, the Lawns and the Playground, the designers listened carefully to the wishes of the residents. The design for the Waterfront, the Festival Place, Halfdan's Passage and the Market Place were informed by respect for the history and character of the place, as well as a positive attitude towards the recycling and reuse of existing features. The diagonal paths crossing the lawns, the curved walls at Reykjaviks

Think global act local

All attempts to secure a social and ecological balance on the basis of traditional environment protection measures only increase the imbalance. This means that even greater problems will have to be faced in the future. Changing patterns of employment and social structure can rapidly lead to the decline of cities, to unemployment with all its social consequences and to an inability to cope with toxic industrial waste that has been improperly disposed of.

Reducing pipe fitting

Recyclable material Waste materials or byproducts processed and then returned to the economic mainstream in the form of commodities or products. Recyclable materials include metals, glass, plastic, paper, wood, etc. recycling plant A facility that recovers resources, such as paper products, glass, metal, etc. to return them to use.

Demolition of an office block

These were all subjected to a pre-tender site visit with minimum notice and as a consequence only two were invited to tender. A further interview covered disruption and recycling. The contractor proposing separation of materials at the workface was successful and they brought with them experience of recycling. Markets for most of the materials were identified prior to the start of demolition. This relied in part on existing knowledge, but also on new information gathering.

Circuit Disconnects and Decay

Initially, the new media were lauded for recycling property abandoned by other industries. However, as their expansion accelerated the new media began to displace clusters of firms from their traditional districts in Lower Manhattan, Chelsea, the Garment district, Chinatown, and other areas. A notable example in Chelsea is the Starrett-Lehigh Building, a 2.3-million-square-foot former railroad terminus. New media firms, paying 30 a square foot in rent, displaced mattress firms and warehousers who had been paying rents in single digits (Aron 2000b 26). Displacement is taking place in the Garment district even though much of it is supposed to be protected by zoning (Flamm 2000 24). In the Hudson Square area Trinity Real Estate owner of twenty-four buildings (50 percent of the area) - refused to renew the leases of dozens of printers, who had paid as little as 7 a square foot in rent new media and telecom firms are paying up to 38 (Aron 2000b 26). The new media push into Chinatown, the...

Lowdensity Sustainable Development

Closer to the mid point of this continuum of urban forms that purport to deliver sustainable development is the very British Garden City and its offshoot, the garden suburb. Those who advocate these forms of development point out that low densities have many advantages for sustainable development, such as the ease of installing solar heating for each home, the possibility of extensive vegetable gardens and allotments, and the recycling of organic domestic wastes. It is argued that, while the compact city may result in urbane landscapes, it does little to meet the cultural preference of the British public. The argument develops further by pointing to the centrality of public participation in the delivery of sustainable development, and surely the voice of the British public could not make clearer - both through the findings

Other Sewage Disposal Alternatives

At the other extreme, systems have been developed that allow normal washing, flushing, etc., without normal water supplies or normal wastewater discharges the systems accomplish this by recycling and treating washwater within the building, and then using the filtered washwater for toilet flushing, etc. These systems are very costly and complex, and they require unusual amounts of space within the buildings.

Importance of sustainable adaptation

Adapting a property as opposed to constructing a new building not only helps to reduce energy consumption, pollution and waste. As pointed out by Edwards (1998) 'recycling buildings and giving them new uses is as important as recycling bottles,' mainly because 'the UK construction industry generates about Designing extensions and conversions for easier reuse recycling demolition.

Building Components And Structure

B2.4) give shape to the whole building and each component has to be judged in the light of its overall contribution to the building as a whole, its place and meaning. Creative and innovative solutions combined with gradual and incremental innovations in component design and manufacture will continually bring new products to the market. New product development is an important driver in the ability of designers to specify more environmentally friendly products. New product development must, therefore, embrace ecological principles at all stages of design, production, use and eventual recovery. Some countries have introduced legislation that makes the producer responsible for all waste associated with the products they produce, and so a recycling and recovery management strategy must be in place for building materials. Elsewhere manufacturers are starting to shift their emphasis towards a life care programme for their products and components, which should be...

Stormwater Management

A basic principle of sustainable design is that buildings should be able to supply all their water needs from the annual rainfall on the project site and from recycling the wastewater generated by a project, effectively getting several uses out of the same amount of rainwater. At the present time, it's not always possible for projects to use all of the rainfall on a site, so they need to reduce the impact of new development on downstream flows from stormwater running off a site.

Environmental Sustainability By Design

Will be occupied by people that work there. Neither of these things can be guaranteed. Good paths and cycle routes may not dissuade people from driving, just as the provision of recycling facilities will not mean that residents will see the value of recycling their waste. Design can only create the conditions in which a more environmentally sustainable lifestyle becomes possible, although through its form it might also promote the opportunity to live in a more environmentally sustainable way. The lifestyles remain, however, the choice of the residents.

Springhill Stroud Cohousing

Recycling, community composting, high-intensity insulation, a Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) and a car-sharing scheme all contribute to an environmentally sensitive scheme. The project also has the largest array of photovoltaic cells on private housing in the UK this was achieved with help from a 400,000 government grant for the installation and monitoring of the tiles.

Provide Facilities That Allow Residents To Recycle Their Waste

Localities have very different approaches to the management of waste, and it is important that schemes should dovetail with local collection schemes. Within a layout, however, the design implications of supporting recycling need not be complicated. For example, within some schemes it might be possible to have collection points for sorted waste within walking distances from people's homes in other areas, where doorstep collections occur, it might be desirable to provide more space for the separation and temporary storage of waste within and around the home (Figure 4.48).

Embodied pollution what has been done to it and by whom

This includes concrete, PVC, MDF, most glues, paints and finishes. This embodied pollution can impact throughout the product life on employees in the manufacturing process, to building occupants through off-gassing or leaching in use and eventual pollution through recycling or disposal.

Coating existing roof coverings

Applying a bituminous coating to a roof, however, is a risky venture. It effectively traps any moisture in the roof space, which could lead to condensation problems if there is inadequate background ventilation in the loft area. Black- and other dark-coloured coatings increase the thermal absorptivity of the roof in very hot summer conditions. This could cause an excessive temperature build-up in the roof space as well as cause the coating itself to melt. The coating has a lifespan of between 5 and 10 years, which necessitates its re-application on a regular basis. Moreover, 'Turnerization' obviates the possibility of recycling the slates at a later date because of the difficulty in removing the bituminous coating.

Recapturing centrality

Distinctively the values a city wishes to reflect. This can have downstream benefits in terms of economics and culture and should be part of a city's foreign diplomacy. For example, Freiburg in Germany, with a population of just over 230,000, is renowned as an innovator. Car use has remained stable over 30 years and eco-housing, recycling and the use of alternative energy sources are an everyday part of life. This has attracted a cluster of high-level environmental research institutes and networks, such as ICLEI,16 whose innovations reinforce the town's position. The broader region, including wealthy northern Switzerland, acts as an innovation hub, rather like a Silicon Valley with a sustainability twist, with cities competing with each other on the environmental front. This alternative view of city development acts as its drawing power and is the region's source of competitiveness. It is the region's eco-aware, IT-savvy, anti-guzzling perspective and alternative Silicon Valley idea...

Social Justice after Apartheid

Start the day with a visit to the base of the statue to apartheid architect Hendrik Verwoerd, toppled last week rather like Lenin in Soviet cities. Then visit to informal settlements in the city before driving fifty kms to Botshabelo one of the most distressing monuments to apartheid urban planning. Laid out as a new town for blacks suitably distanced from the white city, it now houses 250,000, many of them in self-built shacks. Visit employment generation project where people are making building blocks, and such things as candles, furniture and toys by recycling materials found locally. The formal job prospects here are limited and uninviting foreign firms pay R1.5 approximately 25 an hour, at which rate a day's wages would just buy a hamburger at the Thaba 'Nchu Sun resort built for white holiday-makers nearby. Dinner with the Provincial Minister of Housing (former freedom fighter with a spell in prison to his credit), who says that upgrading...

Making sweat equity practical

Typically cohousing groups can talk their contractors into letting them assist with the installation of the required landscaping. They can sometimes arrange to come in on weekends and clean up the site, managing the recycling of materials, for instance. This can save the contractor money and they may be willing to give you the credit. But remember, they are responsible to the bank for getting the project done on time and on budget. If you arrange to provide any of the work the contractor will still be responsible for making sure it gets done and doing it if you don't.

Watercourses And Sustainable Urban Drainage

Previously it has been suggested that greater concern should be shown for the conservation and management of water in residential areas. Architecturally it is possible to introduce, for example, water efficient household appliances or grey water recycling into the design of individual buildings. Such matters are beyond the scope of this book (see Howarth 2000 or Kennedy 1997). In terms of site layout and urban design, however, it should be possible to maintain existing watercourses in a naturalised state, as well as introduce a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS).

Goals And Performance

Research and practical experience teach us that building users are never satisfied with their artificial environment for very long. We have examples of buildings that are perfectly sound and functional, yet have been demolished after only five years because they no longer fulfil the wishes and demands of the building users. This invariably liberates materials for reuse and recycling, and a quantity of waste material that has to be disposed of by incineration or landfill. It follows that we should seriously consider the durability of our designs and include as much flexibility as possible within the containers that we construct to allow for changing user demands. Such a goal will influence our design approach and in particular the manner in which joints are designed to enable flexible systems and alignments.

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment WEEE Directive

The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive aims to minimise the impacts of electrical and electronic equipment on the environment during their lifetimes and when they become waste. It applies to a huge spectrum of products. It encourages and sets criteria for the collection, treatment, recycling and recovery of waste electrical and electronic equipment. It makes producers responsible for financing most of these activities (producer responsibility). Private householders are to be able to return WEEE without charge.

Case Studies Owner commitment

A client from the University of Texas proved his commitment to environmental issues by replacing a project's first architect when he felt that not enough was being done to incorporate environmental features. While the resulting building is not outwardly remarkable to look at (figure 3.2), it offers a series of interesting features in terms of water recycling, solar harvesting, appropriate orientations to minimize solar heat gain, and superb use of daylight throughout. This building is going to achieve a LEED Platinum rating and the client is now pleased.

Birmingham City University Leads the Way in Reducing Construction Waste

The project team are currently working with WRAP to identify what levels of waste are sent to landfill on similar projects and will then set targets for reducing waste for the City Centre Campus. The initial design and specification of the buildings will focus on how to avoid the potential for materials to be wasted. By setting targets and including these in any procurement documents, the project will also ensure that the contractors managing the construction will focus on re-use and recycling of all waste created.

Urban acupuncture and Curitibas creativity

The aim of city-making and acupuncture is to create this solidarity. Usually this is achieved by acts of what Lerner calls 'urban kindness', which act like acupuncture. Examples can be either small and seemingly trivial or large. They can be the acts of individuals, the municipality or a business. For instance, after finishing his daily work, a Curitiba dentist used to go to his office's window and play the trumpet for anyone walking past. It can be the planting by the city of the first tranche of what later became a million trees in less than two decades. In the beginning it was a true gesture of urban kindness. To ensure that all the seedlings planted in the streets would be watered regularly, Curitiba asked people to help. The local authorities rolled out a campaign 'The City provides the shade and you the fresh water.' And they water them. It can be Lerner's innovative recycling programme, where the city exchanged recycled materials collected by citizens, especially the poor, for...

Significance of sustainability

Sustainable practices are an investment in the future. Through conservation, improved maintainability, recycling, reduction, reuse and other actions and innovations, we can meet today's needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own. (US Air Forces Facilities Guide 2005, cited in http renovation. )

RoHS Restrictions of the use of certain Hazardous Substances

The aim is to reduce hazardous waste from the industry and encourage an increase in recycling and sustainable production. Some of the most hazardous products when landfilled are electronic and electrical. The directive states that manufacturers must retain responsibility for their products throughout their life cycles. It came into force in 2006 and encourages manufacturers to look at more benign materials and processes if their long-term management is ultimately their responsibility. Take-back and collection schemes for obsolete products will be more commonplace, as companies recycle their branded goods.

Stall Waste Production And Characteristics

Soiled bedding removed with the manure during stall cleaning may account for another 8 to 15 pounds per day of waste. The volume of soiled bedding removed equals almost twice the volume of manure removed, but it varies widely depending on management practices (Fig. 8.2). So for each stall, about 60 to 70 pounds of total waste material is removed daily. This results in about 12 tons of waste a year per stall with 9 tons being manure from a 1000-pound horse (Fig. 8.3).

Newspaper Nitrate Treatment

Interestingly, shredded newspaper, a synthetic waste material, has proven itself as an effective source of carbon for denitrification. In laboratory research Allen Davis found that it performed best in comparison to a number of other organic materials, including straw and sawdust. In order to test its capacity in the field, Davis and his team modified a standard bioretention system. Shredded newspaper is mixed with coarse sand to create a new layer under the soil media. This layer is kept continuously saturated with water by keeping the underdrain elbowed upward, thus maintaining an anaerobic condition. The field test uses a ratio of 17g (0.6oz) of newspaper per 1 kg (2.21 bs) of sand. Future measurements and monitoring will determine the effectiveness of this modification in improving the nitrate levels of the adjacent parking lot stormwater discharges.

Earthsheltered buildings

The Hockerton Housing Project at Southwell, Nottinghamshire (Fig. 15.5) illustrates an ecological development of earth-sheltered housing in which the residents generate their own energy, harvest their own water, and recycle waste materials eliminating pollution and carbon dioxide emissions. Only the south elevation of the development overlooking the reed pond is visible, as grass covers the majority of the construction.


Some materials, particularly those related to agriculture, may only be available, or only available at a reasonable price, at certain times of the year and it may be necessary to arrange appropriate storage until the right time in the construction programme. There may be no obvious price strategy for some otherwise waste material. Straw bale construction originated in the use of a waste material but it is no longer conveniently packaged as building blocks (Photo Michael Wolshover)


It has been suggested that disposal of sewage sludge and solid waste to landfill may be a route by which contaminated products enter the environment. They can also be formed in combustion processes such as municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion incineration of clinical waste industrial coal burning sintering iron and steel production. Brominated dioxins and furans are chemical compounds formed during the burning of materials (printed circuit boards, plastic-encapsulated integrated circuits and certain thermoplastic housing materials) which have been treated with certain flame retardants.

Landscape Architect

Herrington accepts anti-naturalistic assumptions as unquestioningly as she accuses traditional designers of swallowing the English Landscape Style. J. B.Jackson's linguistically inaccurate definition of'landscape' as synthetic, time-falsifying space is repeatedly invoked (for detailed critique, see Naaire Culture Wbrds Landscapes in Lam scape Journal vol. 21, no. 2, 2002). All-or-nothing argumentation muddles potentially useful points A wildflower garden is just as contrived as Versailles Native American burning of prairie to favor grassland is no different than, say, poisoning the Great Lakes, clear-cutting Brazil, or filling the Pacific with plastic waste. Glossing over issues of scale, persistence, irreversibility, and resource consumption in this way makes meaningful comparisons impossible.

Composite Plastics

By the demand for product diversity and in some cases recycling. Wood plastic composites for outdoor products such as decking, fencing and garden furniture can be manufactured using a proportion of recycled polymer and scrap wood, which potentially will reduce the quantities of these materials in the waste stream.


An incinerator scale weighs incoming solid waste and outgoing residue, including fly ash and sittings. It may also be used lo weigh salvaged materials. Accurate and meaningful weight records can bo used to improve operation, to osslst management control, to facilitate planning, and to provide an equitable means for assessing fees, Weights are needed for cost accounting, rating the effective capacity of the incinerator, testing air pollution control dovicoH. and making a materials balance for tho facility. A management system making use of weights can serve to regulate and control solid waste collection and disposal, Good collection scheduling and routing may depend on such a system Distribution ol waste deliveries among available plants requires prompt access to weights of incoming material, Cost control Observation of the trend in quantity, sources, and types of solid waste collected will assist in planning for future disposal needs Weight records of residue assist In determining the...


Hocking grates are arranged in rows across the width of the furnace, at right angles to solid waste flow. Alternate rows are mechanically pivoted or rocked to produce an upward and forward motion, thus advancing and agitating the solid waste (Fig. 9). Rocking grates have also been arranged in series. The rotary kiln has a solid refractory surface and is commonly preceded by a reciprocating grate. The slow rotation of the kiln, which is inclined, causes the solid waste to move in a slowly cascading and forward motion.

Vestibule pods

These vestibule pods can be made from a polymeric cladding with a core based on recycled glass and refractory waste material. They are attached to the face of the building using bolted stainless steel angle brackets. The abutment at the sides is then pointed with a bed of polysulphide mastic, whereas the junction between the duo-pitched roof and the existing wall is sealed with a lead flashing step dressed into the masonry.

Aspects to consider

LCCA examines all the energy and raw materials used, as well as the emissions to air, water and solid waste over the entire life cycle of a product or material. This takes into account the extraction of the raw material through its production, distribution, use and disposal. We suggest that the full life cycle assessment of a stadium should be taken into account at an initial design stage. Unfortunately there is very little historical information available to be able to establish rules of thumb or good practice, or even best practice examples. It is only by applying our minds to new developments, quantifying these factors and publishing the results, that we will start to achieve truly environmentally sustainable stadia.


Cardboard is potentially vulnerable to rot and insect attack. This could be prevented by treatment with boron products however, this would adversely affect the potential for ultimate recycling of the cardboard. As cardboard is a recycled material it has a low embodied energy, and can legitimately be considered green.


Legally, this is 'any substance or object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard'. The relevant waste strategy issues are monitoring procedures raw materials wastage storage and handling reduction of landfill tax potential for reuse and recycling transport and disposal. It is essential to be aware of

Recycled plastics

The increasing use of plastics in our everyday lives has led to a large waste problem, which can only be resolved by extensive recycling. Many plastics are slow to degrade in landfill sites and, as many are based on products from the petrochemical industry, this finite resource should not be wasted. One major problem in recycling plastics is their wide diversity (Chapter 10) thus separation into single recyclable products is difficult unless we are educated to do this within our own homes. However, recently it has been demonstrated that structural products can be manufactured from recycled mixed plastic waste.


The foregoing may allow lower initial costs in that there will be less of the usual redesigning that takes place during construction, because there will be better briefing and joint development of the brief between architect designer and client user. There should also be lower repair, maintenance and upgrading costs, as many such needs will be reduced or eliminated due to appropriate design. Indeed, it is possible to conceive that there may be no such costs if the building's life is fully consonant with its anticipated use and the building remains as built, deteriorating acceptably until it 'dies' and is demolished for recycling. This building may also facilitate empowerment of the individual user, with less or no central 'control'.

Building Form

Re-use and recycling of building materials and components in the construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as opposed to the use of new materials and components straight from the factory or quarry. The second principle requires the use of local or regional materials where possible and particularly, where those materials require low energy inputs in fabrication, transportation to the site and in the construction process itself. The third principle is to avoid those materials that cause environmental damage such as the destruction of the tropical rain forest, or which leave behind scars on the landscape. The fourth principle is to relate buildings to the local environment and particularly to the local climate for example, in a cold climate to insulate the building effectively to reduce to a minimum the amount of external wall surface to orientate the building towards the sun to provide a buffer on the cold north face and to build conservatories on the sunny facades. The fifth...

Composition render

Proportioned amounts of cement, lime and sand, with good resistance to cracking, used for bricklaying and rendering. composition render composition mortar used as exterior-grade plaster or render usually called compo render, properly known as cement lime render. composition shingles see strip slates. compost organic matter, rich in nutrients, used as fertilizer and created by the biodegrading of household and garden waste also the structure for its production. compost bin see composter. composter, compost bin a specially designed vessel, often with a heater, for producing compost from organic waste material. composting in waste management, the action of producing fertilizer by the biodegrading of organic waste.

Trends in practice

Of publications, including examples of recycling, rehabilitating and converting historic buildings to new uses. In many cases, although dealing with historic ensembles, such conversions have not necessarily aimed at restoration. The problem would not be raised, if such existing structures were not conceived of as historical, and therefore requiring the necessary critical process and the identification of their significance. Projects have included rehabilitation of old barns into residences, coffee shops, offices or exhibition rooms, old castles into visitor centres or hotels, former harbour areas into commercial and cultural centres (e.g., New York, Toronto), desecrated churches into concert halls, residential apartments or offices. In cold climate countries the 1980s trend has been to transform existing urban street spaces or courtyards into covered malls, or building historic city or village centres into pedestrianized shopping areas (Fitch, 1982 Strike, 1994).

Water Hammer


Waste stacks, which carry water and effluent from toilets and other fixtures, are a frequent cause of noise complaints, particularly when plastic (PVC or ABS) pipe is used. This lightweight pipe transmits annoying levels of noise when water flows through it. When a toilet is flushed upstairs and the water rushes through a plastic pipe, levels as high as 60 to 65 dBA have been measured in downstairs units. This is loud enough that it makes normal conversations difficult and is certainly a show-stopper for the party guests. The cause is the lightweight plastic material, which vibrates due to the turbulent flow created by the passage of the waste water, and any direct coupling of the pipe to the structure. Consequently plastic waste stacks should never be used in residential buildings or sensitive commercial structures such as offices, classrooms, hospitals, studios, or theaters even for short runs such as P-traps.


The type of boiler used depends on the size of the heating load, the heating fuels available, the efficiency needed, and whether the boilers are single or modular. Fuels for boilers include wood, coal, solid waste, fuel oil, gas, or electricity, and some boilers use more than one fuel. Fossil-fuel burning boilers need flues to exhaust gases, fresh air for combustion, and pollution-control equipment. A horizontal pipe carries exhaust gas from the boiler, and is connected to a vertical flue section called the stack. Boilers also need ventilation air, with an inlet and outlet on opposite sides of the room. Boilers sometimes use recovered industrial waste heat to generate steam, often in combination with oil or gas. Hot water converters use a steam or hot water heat source such as geothermal, district heating, or a central steam boiler to heat hot water for building use. Hot water converters are essentially heat exchangers that transmit heat from a steam or...

The Code

John held down two jobs, but still found time to volunteer with a local recycling project where he learned the value of reducing his needs for non-renewable commodities. Jane's chemical sensitivity led her to investigate the timber industry's practices. She was appalled to discover the amount of energy, waste, and unpronounceable chemical compounds that go into the production of wood-based materials. The deforestation of old-growth timber in her own country and the ever-increasing loss of equatorial and tropical rain forest land throughout the world saddened and dismayed her. For

Hoik Spaces

What's the easiest place to start Many firms say converting some trash cans to recycling, buying recycled paper, or replacing incandescent light bulbs with CFLs. When you don't know where to start, start anywhere, says Stantec's Klaas Rodenburg. Implement one simple act that will reduce your environmental footprint. This will lead to another and another. All these little acts will add up over time, and before you know it, it becomes business as usual.

Factory as Innovator

Gatti Wool Factory Structure

But the ultimate challenge was to build an invulnerable, fireproof, mill. A multi-storeyed building lit by banks of candles or by oil lamps was an inevitable fire risk, since spilled wax built up under foot and continuous oil leaks saturated the floors, while inflammable waste materials and wooden machinery waited nearby to fuel the flames. The tendency of water power to fail in periods of drought or harsh frost meant even longer hours in which exhausted workers struggled to make up production targets under artificial light, with the increased risk of accident. Being held to ransom by fire or water was in the nature of the manufacturer's life.

Sustainable Quarters

The concept of the eco-industrial park exemplifies the thought process which underpins the ecological approach to location decisions, both for industry and other urban land use activities. In the eco-industrial park, industries' and companies' location decisions are made in order to trade in waste and the recycling process, so that one company's waste is another's raw material. An interesting example of waste and energy trading is reported from

Waste Compactor

Of the compactor itself vary widely with the manufacturer and the capacity of the unit. A compactor room of 60 sq ft (5.6 m2) is sufficient for a small apartment building. A larger building will require 150 to 200 sq ft (14.0 to 18.6 m2) and industrial waste compacting facilities can be much larger.

Bridge Section

Designed to support a 25-ton truck, the bridge is made from 17-inch-deep pile caps, 12-inch stringers, I-beam cross sections, and tongue-and-groove plastic decking, which makes a continuous surface with the top flange of the pile caps. All the material is a uniform gray-black color, which is easily created from recycling mixed color plastic. Thomas J. Nosker joined the two-year-old Rutgers University Center for Plastics Recycling Research in 1987 with degrees in mechanical engineering, materials science, and polymer physics. The center's purpose was to develop a method for recycling and reusing plastic soda bottles.

New Acoustilay

Sound Reduction Systems have now combined both acoustic and environmental properties within their Acoustilay range, ensuring peace of mind in terms of acoustic performance and environmental impact. The product is manufactured entirely in the UK, therefore reducing the carbon footprint associated with imported goods. The barrier mat material, used to give Acoustilay mass, can be manufactured from pre, mixed and post industrial waste sources and is 100 recyclable at the end of its life.

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