Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

Home Based Recycling Business Overview

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Author: Michael R. Meuser
Official Website: www.recyclingsecrets.com
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My Home Based Recycling Business Review

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Recycling Solid Wastes

)- As part of the building design team, interior designers are responsible for making sure that the solid wastes generated during construction and building operation are handled, stored, and removed in a safe, efficient, and environmentally sound way. Whether we are designing an office cubicle to include a recycling basket or making sure that an old fireplace mantle is reused rather than discarded, we can have a significant impact on how the building affects the larger environment. and industrial by-products and radioactive and chemical wastes from laboratories and industries. All of this averages out to about 45 kg (100 lb) of waste per person annually in the United States. Some of these materials, such as food scraps and paper, are links in the biological recycling chain. Some, such as metals and plastics, represent nonrenewable resources. Many waste substances contain useful energy, but separation and recycling of the mingled refuse is a Herculean task. Solid waste is the main...

Planning For Recycling

High-grade resources are valuable materials that can be recycled. Paper and some plastics can be collected and stored within the building. Glass bottles can be returned for reuse or recycling. If recyclable materials are kept separate at the site of their use, resource recovery is much easier. Glass bottles should be washed for reuse, not broken and recycled. Recycled paperboard (cardboard or pasteboard) saves 50 percent of the energy required to process pulp from wood. Recycled aluminum saves an astounding 96 percent of the electrical energy required for its original production. A 52-percent energy savings is achieved by recycling steel. Sorting and storing recyclable materials within the building requires more time and effort by the building's occupants. In an urban apartment, space and odor issues can make recycling difficult. Containers for different recyclables take up floor or cabinet space. A good community recycling program with curbside pickup helps keep accumulation down and...

Recycling and greening

That the green agenda needs to rise up the priority list is obvious, but words and action remain kilometres apart. Statements of policy too rarely translate into imaginative incentives and innovative regulations to drive the green economy. Stringent guidelines for waste recycling, energy efficiency and green transport have been a start, but would create more impact if linked to incentives, such as central government giving a city a massive financial bonus for matching a green target. Cities should signal enthusiastically that they are in the green field - too few do at the moment. For example, the public sector owns thousands of vehicles. Think of the impact of hordes of green electric cars and perhaps even green taxis suitably moving around. The subliminal message would be strong. Many cities already have environmental initiatives and incentives. How about pulling them together into a designated area identified as an environmental zone, where clustering would make their impact...

Recycling Fibrereinforced Polymers

The recyclate powder can be blended with other recycled plastics to produce GRP plastics lumber, which can be used for lightly loaded piles, decking, fencing and similar applications. This material can be cut and worked like the natural timber which it replaces. Alternatively, ground GRP can be incorporated into particleboard to make GRP-reinforced wood particle-board, which has enhanced mechanical properties compared to the standard grade (P5) of particleboard used for domestic flooring. However, when energy costs, transportation and other factors are considered, the ecological balance towards recycling fibre-reinforced polymers may be dependant on future considerations of recycling at the initial design stage.

Recycling hall Vienna 1981

This recycling center features a tent-like wood structure of 560 feet (170m) diameter that soars to a height of 220 feet (67m) above ground, supported by a central concrete mast. The suspended wood roof consists of 48 radial laminated ribs that rise from outer concrete pylons with wood compression ring to the mast top. The ribs follow the funicular tension line to carry uniform roof load in pure tension, but asymmetrical loads may cause bending stress in the radial ribs that are designed as semi-rigid tension bands with some bending resistance capacity. Diagonal boards form the roofing membrane and add shear resistance to the assembly of ribs and ring beams. The cylindrical concrete support mast cantilevers from a central foundation. It was designed to resist asymmetrical erection loads and to contribute to lateral wind load resistance. The rieriphsidl pylons are triangular concrete walls with metal brackets on top to ssouro ih.3 dial ribs.

Design development The harbour

The park consists of different elements which are described and analysed separately below. Many different approaches towards design have been combined. In the design of Vestmanna Plads, the Lawns and the Playground, the designers listened carefully to the wishes of the residents. The design for the Waterfront, the Festival Place, Halfdan's Passage and the Market Place were informed by respect for the history and character of the place, as well as a positive attitude towards the recycling and reuse of existing features. The diagonal paths crossing the lawns, the curved walls at Reykjaviks

Springhill Stroud Cohousing

Recycling, community composting, high-intensity insulation, a Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) and a car-sharing scheme all contribute to an environmentally sensitive scheme. The project also has the largest array of photovoltaic cells on private housing in the UK this was achieved with help from a 400,000 government grant for the installation and monitoring of the tiles.

Birmingham City University Leads the Way in Reducing Construction Waste

The project team are currently working with WRAP to identify what levels of waste are sent to landfill on similar projects and will then set targets for reducing waste for the City Centre Campus. The initial design and specification of the buildings will focus on how to avoid the potential for materials to be wasted. By setting targets and including these in any procurement documents, the project will also ensure that the contractors managing the construction will focus on re-use and recycling of all waste created.

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment WEEE Directive

The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive aims to minimise the impacts of electrical and electronic equipment on the environment during their lifetimes and when they become waste. It applies to a huge spectrum of products. It encourages and sets criteria for the collection, treatment, recycling and recovery of waste electrical and electronic equipment. It makes producers responsible for financing most of these activities (producer responsibility). Private householders are to be able to return WEEE without charge.

RoHS Restrictions of the use of certain Hazardous Substances

The aim is to reduce hazardous waste from the industry and encourage an increase in recycling and sustainable production. Some of the most hazardous products when landfilled are electronic and electrical. The directive states that manufacturers must retain responsibility for their products throughout their life cycles. It came into force in 2006 and encourages manufacturers to look at more benign materials and processes if their long-term management is ultimately their responsibility. Take-back and collection schemes for obsolete products will be more commonplace, as companies recycle their branded goods.

Solid Waste Collection In Small Buildings

Most of the waste in a home comes from the kitchen. Finding recycling space within a pantry, air-lock entry, or cabinet or closet that opens to the outside makes daily contributions easier, facilitates weekly removal, and simplifies cleaning (Fig. 12-1). Figure 12-1 Residential recycling. Figure 12-1 Residential recycling. Garbage compactors are designed to cut down on storage space for solid wastes. They can be used to compact separated items for recycling, such as aluminum, ferrous metals, and box cardboard. When dissimilar materials are crushed together, recycling becomes difficult. In a single family home, a garbage compactor may not save more space than it takes up, but small stores and businesses may find one beneficial.

Large Building Solid Waste Collection

Large apartment complexes fence in their garbage can areas to keep out dogs and other pests. This area is a good place for bins for recycling, and even a compost pile for landscaping. The solid waste storage area needs garbage truck access and noise control, and should be located with concern for wind direction to control odors. Both the building's occupants and the custodial staff must cooperate for successful recycling in a large building. Office building operations generate large quantities of recyclable white paper, newspaper, and box cardboard, along with nonrecyclable but burnable trash, including floor sweepings. Offices also produce food scraps (including coffee grounds) and metals and glass from food containers. Dumping this all into one collection bin saves space, but with high landfill use costs, separation and recycling spaces are becoming more and more common. The collection process for recycling in larger build- i( ings has three stages (Fig. 12-2). First, white paper,...

Demolition of an office block

These were all subjected to a pre-tender site visit with minimum notice and as a consequence only two were invited to tender. A further interview covered disruption and recycling. The contractor proposing separation of materials at the workface was successful and they brought with them experience of recycling. Markets for most of the materials were identified prior to the start of demolition. This relied in part on existing knowledge, but also on new information gathering.

Case Studies Owner commitment

A client from the University of Texas proved his commitment to environmental issues by replacing a project's first architect when he felt that not enough was being done to incorporate environmental features. While the resulting building is not outwardly remarkable to look at (figure 3.2), it offers a series of interesting features in terms of water recycling, solar harvesting, appropriate orientations to minimize solar heat gain, and superb use of daylight throughout. This building is going to achieve a LEED Platinum rating and the client is now pleased.

Social Justice after Apartheid

Start the day with a visit to the base of the statue to apartheid architect Hendrik Verwoerd, toppled last week rather like Lenin in Soviet cities. Then visit to informal settlements in the city before driving fifty kms to Botshabelo one of the most distressing monuments to apartheid urban planning. Laid out as a new town for blacks suitably distanced from the white city, it now houses 250,000, many of them in self-built shacks. Visit employment generation project where people are making building blocks, and such things as candles, furniture and toys by recycling materials found locally. The formal job prospects here are limited and uninviting foreign firms pay R1.5 approximately 25 an hour, at which rate a day's wages would just buy a hamburger at the Thaba 'Nchu Sun resort built for white holiday-makers nearby. Dinner with the Provincial Minister of Housing (former freedom fighter with a spell in prison to his credit), who says that upgrading...

Project Construction

Existing structures on the site were deconstructed rather than demolished, and all materials were auctioned, salvaged, or recycled. The existing foundations were chipped and used as road base. Seven loads of chipped concrete were hauled off-site to be reused. The contractor used a construction recycling plan during construction of the building to minimize contribution to landfills. All cardboard, metals, concrete, concrete masonry units (CMU), asphalt, and land-clearing debris were recycled. Erosion control measures were rigorously enforced to ensure construction sedimentation and erosion did not directly impact the bay. An air quality management plan was used during the project's construction to minimize dust and debris from collecting inside the mechanical system and to prevent VOCs from being absorbed in porous building finishes.

Environmentally benign development and design

Initially, this chapter will discuss the main environmental problems that could be confronted through the design of residential schemes. There are four main themes reducing pollution and limiting the production of gases that are fuelling climate change waste reduction and recycling conserving water and promoting biodiversity. There will then be a brief discussion about the features of a more environmentally benign lifestyle and the relationship between this and the design of residential areas. Approaches to design and layout will then be introduced and explained. This will start with a discussion about the role of existing and new green spaces and the need to promote biodiversity. The role of density is then considered, and in particular how higher densities might reduce the need to travel, create more energy efficient residential forms and create large enough catchments to support public transport, local shops and other facilities. Approaches to layout which support more...

Building Components And Structure

B2.4) give shape to the whole building and each component has to be judged in the light of its overall contribution to the building as a whole, its place and meaning. Creative and innovative solutions combined with gradual and incremental innovations in component design and manufacture will continually bring new products to the market. New product development is an important driver in the ability of designers to specify more environmentally friendly products. New product development must, therefore, embrace ecological principles at all stages of design, production, use and eventual recovery. Some countries have introduced legislation that makes the producer responsible for all waste associated with the products they produce, and so a recycling and recovery management strategy must be in place for building materials. Elsewhere manufacturers are starting to shift their emphasis towards a life care programme for their products and components, which should be...

Embodied pollution what has been done to it and by whom

This includes concrete, PVC, MDF, most glues, paints and finishes. This embodied pollution can impact throughout the product life on employees in the manufacturing process, to building occupants through off-gassing or leaching in use and eventual pollution through recycling or disposal.

Environmental Sustainability By Design

Will be occupied by people that work there. Neither of these things can be guaranteed. Good paths and cycle routes may not dissuade people from driving, just as the provision of recycling facilities will not mean that residents will see the value of recycling their waste. Design can only create the conditions in which a more environmentally sustainable lifestyle becomes possible, although through its form it might also promote the opportunity to live in a more environmentally sustainable way. The lifestyles remain, however, the choice of the residents.

Photovoltaics and Fuel Cells

The 48-story office building constructed in 1998 at 4 Times Square in New York was designed by Fox and Fowle, Architects, P.C. to integrate a variety of energy-saving features. Photovoltaic cells in the building facade along with fuel cell power packages generate power for hot water heating and electricity. A high-performance low-emissivity (low-e) glass curtain wall and efficient lighting with occupancy sensors and controls reduce the heating and cooling loads. Fresh air is increased by more than 50 percent above the usual amount for improved indoor air quality (IAQ), and a dedicated exhaust shaft rids the building of tobacco smoke and other pollution along with excess heat. Waste chutes and storage facilities expedite recycling. Centralized, automatic building management monitors air quality floor by floor to filter air and purge the system of pollutants. Environmentally friendly building materials and maintenance feature recycled and recyclable materials and supplies, further...

Goals And Performance

Research and practical experience teach us that building users are never satisfied with their artificial environment for very long. We have examples of buildings that are perfectly sound and functional, yet have been demolished after only five years because they no longer fulfil the wishes and demands of the building users. This invariably liberates materials for reuse and recycling, and a quantity of waste material that has to be disposed of by incineration or landfill. It follows that we should seriously consider the durability of our designs and include as much flexibility as possible within the containers that we construct to allow for changing user demands. Such a goal will influence our design approach and in particular the manner in which joints are designed to enable flexible systems and alignments.

Watercourses And Sustainable Urban Drainage

Previously it has been suggested that greater concern should be shown for the conservation and management of water in residential areas. Architecturally it is possible to introduce, for example, water efficient household appliances or grey water recycling into the design of individual buildings. Such matters are beyond the scope of this book (see Howarth 2000 or Kennedy 1997). In terms of site layout and urban design, however, it should be possible to maintain existing watercourses in a naturalised state, as well as introduce a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS).

Custom Play Environments

Nearly all aspects of campus life and often includes targeted goals for carbon neutrality, procurement services, building efficiency, transportation, green design, and recycling, waste, and grounds management. The translation of this on to the campus landscape has created an i nterest-ing paradox between the past and the future, as institutions are balancing a need

Provide Facilities That Allow Residents To Recycle Their Waste

Localities have very different approaches to the management of waste, and it is important that schemes should dovetail with local collection schemes. Within a layout, however, the design implications of supporting recycling need not be complicated. For example, within some schemes it might be possible to have collection points for sorted waste within walking distances from people's homes in other areas, where doorstep collections occur, it might be desirable to provide more space for the separation and temporary storage of waste within and around the home (Figure 4.48).

Furniture and Finishes

One of the easiest ways in which companies can start on the journey to sustainability is to evaluate their furniture and furnishings purchases and to incorporate such criteria. The LEED for Existing Buildings system explicitly incorporates environmentally preferable purchasing policies into the rating system. LEED for New Construction also rewards furniture made from salvaged and reclaimed materials recycled-content materials, rapidly renewable materials, certified wood products and composite materials that are free of urea-formaldehyde resins. Consider the new Steel-case Think chair, which is up to 99 recyclable by weight. Disassembly for recycling takes about five minutes using common hand tools. The chair has up to 44 recycled content. It holds the NF Environnement label in France for environmental quality and is Greenguard Indoor Air Quality certified in the US.

Highperformance Buildings

Many people have begun using the term high-performance buildings instead of green buildings or sustainable buildings because they want to emphasize what is gained from these projects, not what is given up.68 High-performance also appeals to Americans we want everything turbo-charged and super-sized. A high-performance building is one in which energy and water efficiencies are high, indoor air quality is high, recycling rates are high, etc. This is a much easier concept to explain to most executives than a green building, which still sounds vaguely like a tree-hugger term. In my view, high-performance buildings are those that save at least 50 of the energy use of a standard building, compared with a database called the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Database, last updated in 2003.69 (The next survey will be conducted in 2007.) The table below shows an example of the information that's available from this database.

Recapturing centrality

Distinctively the values a city wishes to reflect. This can have downstream benefits in terms of economics and culture and should be part of a city's foreign diplomacy. For example, Freiburg in Germany, with a population of just over 230,000, is renowned as an innovator. Car use has remained stable over 30 years and eco-housing, recycling and the use of alternative energy sources are an everyday part of life. This has attracted a cluster of high-level environmental research institutes and networks, such as ICLEI,16 whose innovations reinforce the town's position. The broader region, including wealthy northern Switzerland, acts as an innovation hub, rather like a Silicon Valley with a sustainability twist, with cities competing with each other on the environmental front. This alternative view of city development acts as its drawing power and is the region's source of competitiveness. It is the region's eco-aware, IT-savvy, anti-guzzling perspective and alternative Silicon Valley idea...

Sustainability Programs in the South Bronx

The New York City Department of Sanitation, with funds provided by the New York City Council, coordinates free drop-off electronic recycling days in the five boroughs. The electronic waste recycling project was managed by INFORM, an organization involved with projects citywide. In the spring of 2003, SSB was charged with coordinating electronic waste recycling days within each of borough. SSB coordinated with Per Scholas, a company in Hunts Point that has onsite computer recycling, and Supreme Recycling, a computer recycling company out of New Jersey. The project was an overwhelming success. Electronic waste, by the tons, was saved from going to the landfill. The project, however, was a one-time venture for SSB. To date, the city funding for the borough-based waste coordinators that made it possible was for ten months. Groups are working throughout the city as part of the Zero Waste Campaign to re-create the conception in a bigger, better, and more sustainable way. Recycling...

Other Sewage Disposal Alternatives

At the other extreme, systems have been developed that allow normal washing, flushing, etc., without normal water supplies or normal wastewater discharges the systems accomplish this by recycling and treating washwater within the building, and then using the filtered washwater for toilet flushing, etc. These systems are very costly and complex, and they require unusual amounts of space within the buildings.

Coating existing roof coverings

Applying a bituminous coating to a roof, however, is a risky venture. It effectively traps any moisture in the roof space, which could lead to condensation problems if there is inadequate background ventilation in the loft area. Black- and other dark-coloured coatings increase the thermal absorptivity of the roof in very hot summer conditions. This could cause an excessive temperature build-up in the roof space as well as cause the coating itself to melt. The coating has a lifespan of between 5 and 10 years, which necessitates its re-application on a regular basis. Moreover, 'Turnerization' obviates the possibility of recycling the slates at a later date because of the difficulty in removing the bituminous coating.

Significance of sustainability

Sustainable practices are an investment in the future. Through conservation, improved maintainability, recycling, reduction, reuse and other actions and innovations, we can meet today's needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own. (US Air Forces Facilities Guide 2005, cited in http renovation. pentagon.mil )

Importance of sustainable adaptation

Adapting a property as opposed to constructing a new building not only helps to reduce energy consumption, pollution and waste. As pointed out by Edwards (1998) 'recycling buildings and giving them new uses is as important as recycling bottles,' mainly because 'the UK construction industry generates about Designing extensions and conversions for easier reuse recycling demolition.

Recycledcontent Materials

When you think of a green building, if you're like most people, recycling and building with recycled-content materials would likely spring to mind as a key characteristic. In the LEED system, credit is given to projects in which recycled-content represents more than 10 of the total value of all building materials (excluding equipment). This includes structure roof, floors and load-bearing walls rough and finish carpentry insulation (sometimes cotton-batt insulation is made from recycled jeans) doors and windows architectural metal, rebar, fly ash in concrete, steel structural beams, internal walls and floor coverings. The purpose of the LEED standard is to encourage the development of a local and regional economy that values recycling and that creates new materials with the same performance characteristics (strength, weight, durability, etc.) as virgin materials. In that way, we will begin to close the loop of resource flows in the economy and not incur the energy and pollution costs...

Urban acupuncture and Curitibas creativity

The aim of city-making and acupuncture is to create this solidarity. Usually this is achieved by acts of what Lerner calls 'urban kindness', which act like acupuncture. Examples can be either small and seemingly trivial or large. They can be the acts of individuals, the municipality or a business. For instance, after finishing his daily work, a Curitiba dentist used to go to his office's window and play the trumpet for anyone walking past. It can be the planting by the city of the first tranche of what later became a million trees in less than two decades. In the beginning it was a true gesture of urban kindness. To ensure that all the seedlings planted in the streets would be watered regularly, Curitiba asked people to help. The local authorities rolled out a campaign 'The City provides the shade and you the fresh water.' And they water them. It can be Lerner's innovative recycling programme, where the city exchanged recycled materials collected by citizens, especially the poor, for...

The next step taking fans out of the ventilation system

Wherever possible reclaimed materials salvaged from the Doncaster area have been resourced, thus recycling unwanted urban infrastructure to create a useful new building. Reclaimed joists are resawn to create floorboards and ceilings, and a lamella (grid shell roof) in the entrance foyer uses this reclaimed timber to create an advanced long span structure. Energy intensive metals such as aluminium are used sparingly, often where strength and a low weight are important in the rotating wind cowls - or for glazing bars and roof surfaces where longevity and low maintenance are important. All steel sections are reclaimed directly from local demolition sites and fabricated into new components on site.

Stormwater Management

A basic principle of sustainable design is that buildings should be able to supply all their water needs from the annual rainfall on the project site and from recycling the wastewater generated by a project, effectively getting several uses out of the same amount of rainwater. At the present time, it's not always possible for projects to use all of the rainfall on a site, so they need to reduce the impact of new development on downstream flows from stormwater running off a site.

Circuit Disconnects and Decay

Initially, the new media were lauded for recycling property abandoned by other industries. However, as their expansion accelerated the new media began to displace clusters of firms from their traditional districts in Lower Manhattan, Chelsea, the Garment district, Chinatown, and other areas. A notable example in Chelsea is the Starrett-Lehigh Building, a 2.3-million-square-foot former railroad terminus. New media firms, paying 30 a square foot in rent, displaced mattress firms and warehousers who had been paying rents in single digits (Aron 2000b 26). Displacement is taking place in the Garment district even though much of it is supposed to be protected by zoning (Flamm 2000 24). In the Hudson Square area Trinity Real Estate owner of twenty-four buildings (50 percent of the area) - refused to renew the leases of dozens of printers, who had paid as little as 7 a square foot in rent new media and telecom firms are paying up to 38 (Aron 2000b 26). The new media push into Chinatown, the...

Property development at Kings Cross railway lands

The Interim Uses Initiative elaborated by the KXRLG (Parkes and Mouawad, 1993), while formalized at a later stage to fill a vacuum in the development process, is possibly the best representation of the different sort of environment envisaged by the local groups. The proposals (Figure 9.5) include a City Garden Festival, anticipating the creation of permanent park and other 'green' initiatives areas and facilities for sport and recreation a documentation centre on the environment and on local history, with connected commercial and tourism facilities space for events in the arts and entertainment spheres and temporary housing. Other proposals call for a market, craft workshops, the rationalization of existing storage and distribution activities, the expansion of production (both existing and to be promoted, such as a recycling centre), and a job training and employment promotion centre. Most of these are temporary uses, in the spirit of the Interim Uses Initiative commissioned by...

Making sweat equity practical

Typically cohousing groups can talk their contractors into letting them assist with the installation of the required landscaping. They can sometimes arrange to come in on weekends and clean up the site, managing the recycling of materials, for instance. This can save the contractor money and they may be willing to give you the credit. But remember, they are responsible to the bank for getting the project done on time and on budget. If you arrange to provide any of the work the contractor will still be responsible for making sure it gets done and doing it if you don't.

Green Urbanism Compact and Ecological Urban Form

One of the boldest ecological restoration and land recycling initiatives has taken place in the industrial Ruhr Valley of northwestern Germany, consisting of former coal mines and steel mills. Here a regional regeneration strategy has been implemented, including seventeen municipalities and an urban agglomeration of two million people. The bold effort involved formation of IBA-Emscher Park, an international exhibition, comprising some 120 different reuse projects over an eight-hundred-square-kilometer area. The projects range from the conversion of a large gasometer to exhibition space, to transforming slag heaps into parks and public art. In the process, these bold initiatives have fundamentally reshaped the local perception of this formerly bleak, industrial landscape. One spectacular example is the Duisberg-Nord Landscape Park, where a former steel mill has been miraculously transformed into a unique city park (figure 2). Formal gardens have been carved out of coal and coke storage...

Lowdensity Sustainable Development

Closer to the mid point of this continuum of urban forms that purport to deliver sustainable development is the very British Garden City and its offshoot, the garden suburb. Those who advocate these forms of development point out that low densities have many advantages for sustainable development, such as the ease of installing solar heating for each home, the possibility of extensive vegetable gardens and allotments, and the recycling of organic domestic wastes. It is argued that, while the compact city may result in urbane landscapes, it does little to meet the cultural preference of the British public. The argument develops further by pointing to the centrality of public participation in the delivery of sustainable development, and surely the voice of the British public could not make clearer - both through the findings

Renewable Energy and Closed Loop Cities

A number of the cities seek to promote a more closed-loop or natural urban metabolism in which wastes become inputs or food for other urban processes. Stockholm has administratively reorganized its departments of waste, water, and energy into a combined ecocycles division. A number of actions have already been taken, including the harvesting of bio-gas from sewage sludge and its use as a fuel for the city's combined heat and power plants. A number of Swedish cities also are using bio-gas from household waste as a fuel for buses and other public vehicles (Swedish Ministry of the Environment, undated for a review of environmental vehicle programs in European cities, see European Commission 2001). Experience to date suggests that in addition to recycling waste there has been a dramatic reduction in conventional air pollutants as well as in carbon dioxide emissions in these cities. Another powerful example of the closed-loop concept can be seen in Rotterdam's Roca3 power plant, which...

Symbiosis Richard Horden

Richard Horden

On an ethical level, the built systems necessary to accomplish this were to be lessons in themselves, demonstrations of solar and wind power, waste recycling and water conservation, requiring the responsible participation of students and staff to close the consumption circle. On a pedagogical level, knowledge was recycled via electronic loops, which gathered it from the world and disseminated it through the world. Educationally, the central idea was to encourage 'environmental literacy' through direct experience. Students and staff would actively participate in a transparent system of energy consumption and waste recycling, enabling them to see what they consumed, and how this consumption could be rendered self-sustaining through their co-operation. An 'energy card', looking and working like a credit card, was to be introduced, so that individuals and departments could see how much energy they were using each day. To help with this, all high-energy equipment, like...

Cultivating Smartcities

Maquette Avion Design

Urban agriculture is not a new phenomenon its popularity and adoption has waxed and waned over the millennia, from the recycling of urban wastes and tunnel irrigation networks in ancient Persia for agriculture, to the stepped cities and farming terraces of Machu Picchu that can be considered as a precursor to hydroponics. Proposed intervention sites vary considerably in scale and context. Within dense urban areas, roof tops, windowsills, balconies and walls can be appropriated for the growth of edible crops, evoking the spirit of the Second World War victory garden when America was still in the midst of the Great Depression. In a remarkably ambitious programme, gardening classes, literature, seeds, fertiliser and committees were organised, yielding 40 per cent of the country's non-military produce at the time. In peri-urban areas, the intervention is more profound and far-reaching. New housing developments can be planned to integrate farming at the scale of landscape. Buildings can be...

To The reader of Architecture In Europe

It Because the recycling of unknown materials is an impossibility. These are the sort of questions one may ask not only of ecological houses, but also of ordinary ones. A house is a complicated assembly of materials which are produced by methods involving a loss of energy and which produce pollution either when they are being made or after they have been used. Perhaps through cost benefit calculations of this kind we could develop an approach to shelters that would really be ecological.

The Dilemma of Technology

This essay is not intended as a diatribe against modern technology. It is. however, important to understand it and its context. It is the reality of our life today, and tomorrow, and until or if there is some cataclysm which forces us to re examine everything. Such a dramatic change could be brought about by the Green Movement. Slowly, all technology is becoming subject to scrutiny. The explosion at Chernobyl, the greenhouse effect and a general awareness of the fragility of our Earth arc forcing us to reconsider the assumptions underlying our way of life. We are being asked to think about the long-terms effects of our decisions and to examine how the Earth's resources can best be used. The motor car. symbol of our modern way of life, is the first to be put to the test. Building cannot be far behind. No real analysis of the cost in environmental pollution, energy consumption and recycling exists for buildings. It will surely come, and when it does many of today's assumptions will be...

Supporting an ecological approach

These observations bring us to the subject of ecological sus-tainability, which is strongly related to inequality in the world. This means that we have to save our resources, especially energy, and make a greater effort to use materials and space much better than we do at present. We have to avoid deterioration, exploitation and pollution as side effects of manufacturing, producing, using and recycling buildings. The argument for designing buildings that are environmentally friendly over their entire lifetime is well established, but the philosophy has been slow to find its way into normal practice. The concept of a building as a generator of waste, in its conception, during its long life and in its death (and possible rebirth), is an important one. Too often we are concerned only with the completion of a project, forgetting that it is during its use that a building, aided and abetted by its inhabitants, is particularly wasteful of energy and resources. Decisions made early in the...

Sustainable Design Strategies

Sustainable architecture looks at human civilization as an integral part of the natural world, and seeks to preserve nature through encouraging conservation in daily life. Energy conservation in buildings is a complex issue involving sensitivity to the building site, choice of appropriate construction methods, use and control of daylight, selection of finishes and colors, and the design of artificial lighting. The selection of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and other equipment can have a major effect on energy use. The use of alternative energy sources, waste control, water recycling, and control of building operations and maintenance all contribute to sustainable design. Rainwater retention employs local water for irrigation and flushing toilets. On-site wastewater recycling circulates the water and waste from kitchens and baths through treatment ponds, where microorganisms and aquatic plants digest waste matter. The resulting water is suitable for irrigation of...

Boatemah Walk Lambeth London

Boatemah Walk is a three-storey block of 18 flats and is part of Lambeth Council's regeneration of Angell Town estate. The original design brief was for a greywater recycling system to a green roof and standard WC and taps specification. ech2o consultants were asked to design a rainwater harvesting system for the flats after the decision was made to abandon the greywater recycling scheme.

Cradletocradle Design

Cradle-to-cradle design was introduced in 2002 by architect William McDonough and chemist Dr. Michael Braungart as a method for evaluating products that could be safely used without any harm to people or the environment, based on known data. The evaluation criteria for products include material properties, specifically toxicity and carcinogenicity, persistence and toxicity in the environment, and use of heavy metals material reuse potential, either in recycling or composting efficient or renewable energy use, including use of 100 solar income in manufacturing water use, stormwater and wastewater discharge in manufacturing and instituting strategies for social responsibility as evidenced by third-party assessments and certifications.33 One of the early successes of this effort was creating a fabric for a chair manufacturer that was durable and attractive but that could be composted at the end of its useful life. Another product developed from this point of view is a commercial carpet...

What is adaptation Definitions

Words such as 'recycling', 'remodelling' or 'renewal' are also sometimes used to describe major adaptations. 'Remodelling', for example, is commonly employed in the USA as an all-encompassing expression for these works. Such terms, whilst descriptive in their own way, only serve to blur the distinctions between the various interventions that can be done to existing buildings.

Sustainability

Sketches Animal Rescue Systems

The concept of sustainable development, and associated practices such as sustainable construction, lend themselves to investigation via the sketchbook. It is possible to use freehand drawing to explore aspects of modern green design, be it the use of solar energy, wind power or natural ventilation. Conversely, most of the buildings constructed before the Industrial Revolution utilised local renewable energy sources, building materials were from the immediate locality, transport and farming practices relied on human and horse power, and cities were located where natural resources demanded. There was little or no importation of energy, food, water or materials, and since there was scarcity all round, there was a great deal of reuse and recycling. In this there are lessons for the future, which can be recorded and understood through freehand drawing. So sketching can help reveal best green practice, whether old buildings or more recent examples are employed. There is a clear link between...

Photographs Alan Crumlish Photographs

Some of the main goals to be achieved in this project are developed by a great diversity of solutions through flexibility, revaluation of the shape, its building process and construction methods focusing on recycling or the lessons for promoters, insurance company, engineers, etc. with respect to sustainable design as something essential to take into account

Recycled materials or waste

Construction and other waste generation is a major issue in the UK and we lag far behind many countries in recycling and reuse. The creative reuse of materials is still a largely untapped resource despite the efforts of a few motivated individuals and organisations. Lowest impact options are non-polluting materials that can be simply reused. Recycling and reuse of polluting materials that would be destined for landfill is creditable, but ultimately the final destination must be a consideration and hence the manufacturing processes which create polluting materials must be challenged. It is important that the use, and potential for reuse, of benign materials is built into everyday detailing so that today's building materials do not become tomorrow's waste.

Tanner Springs Park Portland

Natural spaces such as forests, meadows and wetlands are being consumed and displaced. Quietly and permanently, an insatiable appetite for land is destroying the living spaces of sensitive wild animals and plants. In contrast, the recycling of abandoned industrial land for new mixed downtown uses is space effectively and ecologically used. The City of Portland, Oregon, chose to go down this ecological path with the regeneration of an old, industrial downtown city neighbourhood, the Pearl District.

The Biosphere Reserve Concept Promise and Limitations

Another model of regional environmental management is the biosphere reserve concept. This concept has been put into practice at more than four hundred sites in more than ninety countries since 1971 (UNESCO 1996). As of 2003, there were forty-seven designated sites in the United States. To date, the biosphere reserve concept has mostly been applied to wilderness or rural sites away from major settlements, although several reserves already exist in urban fringe locations. For example, the Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve includes thirteen protected areas in the greater San Francisco Bay area, the Everglades National Park borders metropolitan Miami, and the Pinelands National Reserve in southern New Jersey is surrounded by urban and suburban development on three sides. The application of the concept to urban areas is formally under review by the MAB program (UNESCO 2000), and there is continuing lively discussion on the MAB Urban Group Forum (http Koichiro Matsuura, director-general of...

Hot Water Distribution

Until the advent of indoor plumbing, wastes were removed from the building daily for recycling or disposal. Historically, table scraps were fed to animals or composted. Human wastes were thrown from windows into the gutters of the street, or deposited in holes below outhouses. Urban inhabitants continued to dump sewage and garbage in gutters until the 1890s. Rural people dumped wastes into lakes, rivers, or manmade holes in the ground called cesspools, which were fed by rainwater or spring water. These cesspools generated foul smells and created a health hazard.

Process Of Production

When we look at the building process in its widest sense it becomes clear that it is a never-ending journey. Apart from the obvious design and construction phases the processes continue as the building is changed to reflect different user requirements, maintained, refurbished and upgraded (Fig. B4.1). It is only at the end of this journey that we become concerned with disposal via disassembly and recycling of materials and components. So the process of production needs to be seen within a whole-life context in which the initial realisation of the building is a short period compared with its overall lifespan. This must be recognised during conception to enable decisions to be made that assist and enhance the health of the finished structure as it ages, that is, we need to take a long-term view of Recycling

Case Study Metro Health Hospital Wyoming Michigan

Address the needs of an underserved part of the community. Their vision for the hospital was to create an environment that was healthier for the patients and environmentally friendly. Primary design concepts included right-sizing the building to maximize space, installing a green roof for patient viewing, preserving and taking advantage of the wooded areas on site, encouraging recycling, and implementing a green housecleaning program. In addition, the careful site selection resulted in reduced travel time by patients, employees, and medical personnel to the facility.

Prologue Sustainable

A number of organizations and manufacturers are working diligently toward sustainable construction practices (also referred to as green building). Some relate to particular resources such as forests. Some have to do with recycling materials such as scraps of gypsum wallboard or worn-out tires into new building materials gypsum wallboard, roofing slates. Some are promoting renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and photovoltaic technologies. Some concentrate on improving the energy performance of buildings through better thermal insulation, more airtight construction, and more efficient heating and cooling machinery. And some focus on educating architects and engineers, the designers of buildings, who by siting and orienting buildings intelligently, configuring them appropriately, selecting materials knowingly, and detailing the construction properly, can greatly reduce their impact on the earth and its resources. recycling of building materials and building wastes

Mortars

The use of lime mortar, as in the Building Research Establishment environmental building in Garston, Watford, will allow for the ultimate reuse of the bricks at the end of the building's life-cycle. The recycling of bricks is not possible, except as rubble, when strong Portland cement mortar is used.

Agenda

Short- and long-term thinking both belong to a holistic view of the entire life cycle of the constructed works. This is an essential condition for the effective handling of the conceptual and the detailed design, and will go a long way towards a responsible and sustainable approach to construction, building use and recycling. All three authors of this book have tried, in their own way, to work towards a practical yet philosophically sound approach to architectural detailing. Our work has been explored in the daily task of practising architecture and also in the more rarefied academic world, essentially the fusion of theory and practice. In the chapters that follow we will draw on our collective experience to advance a practical and scientific foundation for architectural detailing.

The Festival Place

South of the Pinen, groups of Crataegus crus-galli have been planted in the gravel surface, while towards the street there is a group of poplars. All the trees planted are white-flowered. In keeping with the philosophy of recycling and reuse, 12 benches in the Festival Place have been made using concrete from the former storage area of the harbour. The benches are supported on H-profile iron legs, upon which the 60 x 180 x 15mm concrete elements are secured. These are capped with blue ceramic flags. In the south-eastern corner a wall is reused as the support for six barbecue grills. These are fixed to the wall and one of them has insulation underneath so that people in wheelchairs can use it without danger of burning their legs.

Evaluation

In the original proposal for the park the designers stated that their intention was to create 'a recycled park which conveys the place, the history and our time'. In this, they have been successful. The four themes - recycling, place, history and time - are evident throughout the Harbour Park.

Reduced waste

Construction activity gives rise to the largest quantity of solid waste of any sector in the UK. Reductions are possible with major savings in construction and demolition costs. But efficient use of land, energy and water conservation, native landscaping and solid waste management all have financial benefits. This provides a useful policy fit with the Limits to Growth model described in Chapter 1 and provides the basis for many of the case studies in Factor Four. Designing buildings for long life and with flexible spaces can significantly reduce waste and disruption during maintenance and refurbishment,and facilitate recycling.

Conclusion

The paradigm for sustainable development is akin to the holistic or synoptic method of the Geddesian planner rather than to the sectoral approach used in resource allocation or the limited solutions offered by traditional road engineering to discretely defined traffic problems. For the purposes of the discussion that follows in Chapter 4, the nature of sustainable urban transport will be analysed within the framework of the city and its region. However, it is clear that sustainable urban transport requires the support of a balanced combination of pricing measures to promote public transport, in addition to changes in governance, advances in transport technology including recycling of materials, and new initiatives in the design and structuring of all future urban developments.

Flooring

The Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) has developed an Indoor Air Quality Testing Program. Environmentally responsible carpet is identified with the CRI IAQ label. New nylon formulations can be recycled into useful products. Synthetic carpet can by made from recycled post-consumer plastic, such as soda bottles. DuPont and BASF both have developed nationwide commercial carpet recycling programs. You can incorporate these programs into your projects by specifying products that have the CRI IAQ label, and checking with manufacturers about recycling.

Plastics

Plastics last for hundreds of years, and pollute both the land and the marine environment. The best solution for their disposal is recycling, which also saves raw materials and energy. Recycled plastics are used for outdoor furniture, floor tiles, carpets, and an increasing number of other products.

Its time forTreo kft

The aim of the Slow Cities movement is to implement a programme of civilized harmony and activity grounded in the serenity of everyday life by bringing together communities who share this ideal. The focus is on appreciation of the seasons and cycles of nature, the cultivation and growing of local produce through slow, reflective living. Slow Cities is not opposed to progress but focuses on changes in technology and globalization as tools to make life better and easier while protecting the uniqueness of town characters. To be a member of Slow Cities and to be able to display the movement's snail logo, a city must meet a range of requirements, including increasing pedestrian access, implementing recycling and reuse policies, and introducing an ecological transport system. Working with the Slow Food network, the Slow Cities movement is spreading the word about its slow brand of community connectedness.

Teamwork

Follow all the steps previously outlined. As the walls get taller, the assistance of willing friends (or paid help) speeds the progress by sharing the work. For less down time, have several wheelbarrows loaded in a row where you are working, or have a third person recycling the wheelbarrows (Fig. 6.51).

Monitoring

Two of the apartment buildings have similar orientations and the same number of apartments. It is proposed that one of these will incorporate experimental technology, such as rainwater recycling and a conservatory thermal buffer device with solar mass storage. The other building will act as a control block incorporating best-practice elements as for the rest of the scheme. The Department of the Built Environment at Ulster University, Belfast will undertake the monitoring of the buildings.

Waste reduction

Waste is a big problem and countries are keen to encourage and support attempts made by local authorities to reduce waste production at source and, in particular, encourage recycling and composting. A country like the UK has an improving record. In 2001 it recycled 13 of its waste, preferring to put 81 into landfill. In 2004 5 the figure had changed to 23.9 being recycled or composted, whilst 72 went into the land (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2006a). The USA has a better record as it recycles 28 of its waste, a rate that has almost doubled during the past 15 years (www.EPA.gov). These countries are far behind others, however for example, in the Netherlands and Austria about 60 of municipal waste is composted or recycled, whilst in Belgium and Germany the statistic is 50 (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2006b). Given that the amounts of waste produced are increasing, the main goal in design terms is to support attempts at recycling. In...

Being good

Particularly with reference to a global community of interests common to us as a species, and the reality of many different societies with differing interests. It is just this ability to straddle the universal and the particular, the global and the individual, which excites such hostility in certain quarters, for environmental ethics address the individual as directly as they do the state. Responsibility is inescapable. Owning a car, throwing out instead of recycling, not insulating one's roof, all these small domestic acts of defiance carry ethical as well as financial implications, regardless of the state's position.

Lifespans

When no re-use or recycling is envisaged for a component, it is better to opt for organic, that is, biodegradable materials so that these can be re-absorbed into the earth by the natural cycle of decay, at the end of their useful life. It is very important to note that many coatings and preservatives transform otherwise 'natural' materials into toxic waste (e.g. most conventional preservative treated timber) that is no longer harmlessly biodegradable and must be disposed of by regulated means.

Design

The concept of Design for Environment (DfE) is beginning to permeate the design community. In DfE, companies examine the long-term environmental effects of sourcing, processing, distribution and eventually recycling their products. Looking forward to the day when all manufacturers will be forced to take back their products for recycling, DfE incorporates design for disassembly and recycling of all components into new products.

New is good

Environmental benefits notwithstanding, it is doubtful whether we can - or should - entirely deny our desire for the new, which is not just about stimulating jaded appetites, or 'wasting' resources. Though there are obvious parallels between the idea of renewal and environmental architecture's commitment to recycling - of materials, of buildings, of techniques - there are also less obvious connections between the new and sustainability. This is important to stress, since outside sustainable practice, environmental architecture is often misrepresented as being conservative to the point of regression, rejecting intellectual and technological change.

Public Services

Certain basic services depend on the municipal administration and are subject to special requirements. These services include meat distribution, flour and bread production and storage, water supply, the control of pharmaceutical and dairy products. The administration is in charge of sewage and garbage disposal, and the recycling of refuse. It also controls the water supply, electrical power, and heating for industrial as well as for private consumption, and requires a centralized plant to provide such municipal services to all buildings and areas of the city.

Faultlines

Eco-efficiency on its own is only a small part of a richer web of ideas and solutions that requires a fundamental rethinking of the structure and reward system of commerce. This implies developing a regulatory and incentives regime attuned to encouraging resource efficiency by combining innovations in business practice and public policy. It implies a different taxation system which in essence makes what is considered good for us tax-free and taxes heavily what is bad. This might relate to encouraging recycling, creating local energy-efficient building standards or the public sector acting as a role model in using alternative sources of energy. To what extent have cities got the independence and power to operate in this way

Manufacture

Aluminium, the most common metallic element in the earth's crust, is extracted from the ore bauxite, an impure form of aluminium oxide or alumina. The bauxite is dissolved in caustic soda, filtered, reprecipitated to remove impurities and dried. The pure alumina is then dissolved in fused cryolite (sodium aluminium fluoride) within a carbon-lined electrolytic cell. Electrolysis of the aluminium oxide produces oxygen and the pure aluminium, which is tapped off periodically and cast. The process is highly energy intensive, and typically the production of 1 tonne of aluminium requires 14 000 kWh of electrical energy. In the western world, 60 of this energy is from renewable hydroelectric power. Currently, 63 of new aluminium used in the UK is from recycled sources, and recycling requires only 5 of the energy input compared to primary production. Cast ingots or slabs are hot rolled at 500 C into 5 mm coiled sheet which subsequently can be cold rolled into thinner sheet or foil. Due to the...

Building the truth

A detailed understanding of the impacts incurred during an entire life cycle of an object , from the extraction of raw materials through manufacturing, use, and eventual recycling or discarding (Van Der Ryn and Cowan, 1996 91). The difference in delegates at the two conferences is revealing. In Berlin there were representatives from major corporations and politicians from central government, instead of the builders and local administrators of the Plymouth conference. It is obvious where the power and money lie. There are other differences, however, more germane to this discussion differences in the choice of materials being promoted. 'Natural' local materials like those championed in Plymouth are usually part of a larger 'low tech' vision that seeks to reduce to a minimum the damage building does to the environment. At their 'greenest', the use of these materials is integrated with recycling schemes, organic cultivation of food, and the use of entirely passive heating and cooling...

Infrastructure

All major development is an opportunity for innovation in infrastructure. In a large development, reinvestigating the utility services to reduce demand for energy and power (and water and sewage) can reduce cost. A large development offers opportunities for district heating and to examine options for waste management and recycling, including using waste streams as fuel. Mixed use development is now recognised as good practice in many respects. It can significantly reduce travel times and increase social cohesion. Mixed use developments might also offer potential for energy outputs from one process to be used as inputs for another or provide flexibility in system selection, which is responsive to different patterns of occupancy than those of a single-use building. The chances to exploit the opportunities for sustainable resource use may

Managing costs

Most fiberglass insulation has about 30 recycled content, mostly factory-recycled glass (the easiest type of recycling to do). You can opt instead for cellulose insulation, which is made from 100 recycled newsprint, all post-consumer. Because it's blown into place, cellulose insulation seals even better than the typical fiberglass batts do. And it requires very little energy to make, while fiberglass requires a lot. (Cotton insulation, which is harder to find, is made from 100 factory waste and also requires little energy to manufacture.) Many brands of fiberglass insulation contain a formaldehyde binder. Cellulose and cotton do not. Consider using the services of a consultant who specializes in environmentally appropriate construction. You will certainly be interested in the indoor air quality of the new homes you plan to build for yourselves. Likely, you will want to consider the use of environmentally appropriate building materials and construction...

Carsten Petersdorff

In houses consuming very little energy to maintain comfort, the energy needed to build the houses represents an important part of the energy consumed over the whole life cycle of the building. Thus, it can happen that in the path to reducing energy over the house life cycle, at some point selecting a construction or component with very little embodied energy may be more effective than a measure which reduces heating energy. Another important factor to consider in selecting components is the flow of materials that occurred in their production. This includes extracting raw material, processing, fabrication and installation, through to demolition and disposal recycling. The question quickly arises what is sustainable

End parking

Another common arrangement for parking in Europe is end parking, where parking is arranged perpendicular to the residential block at the end of a terrace. Access to homes is then via narrow pedestrian-dominated routes, although generous dimensions still allow for delivery of goods. Often the parking area is also the location for waste and recycling facilities. This arrangement keeps the parking a short distance away from homes, allowing space around the homes to be used by residents and, in particular, children. The end of terrace houses or apartments can easily provide some surveillance of the space (Figure 5.68).

Howard House

In the small, craggy fishing villages along Nova Scotia's remote southeastern coast, local fishermen have been recycling for years. Transforming old cargo containers into boatsheds, they've created a landscape ofweathered metal boxes that plainly reflects both the ruggedness and modesty oftheir tradition. On the edge of one such village, wedged in among the boulders of a hook-shaped peninsula that reaches into the sea, stands Brian MacKay-Lyons's Howard House.

Containers

Consider where to conveniently locate trash and recycling receptacles. Trash containers are likely needed in the feed room (in addition to an empty bag barrel), tack room, wash stall or grooming station, and office. Manure storage buckets for droppings collected outside the usual stall cleaning times should be located in the wash stall to minimize drain clogging and at the indoor arena where picking manure will prolong footing dust-free life. Occasional droppings in the work aisle or grooming station can be swept into nearby stalls or wash stall bucket.

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Recycled water

In the short term, recycling greywater and rainwater may not be economically viable for all adaptation schemes. However, in the long term it can offer a cost-effective solution to tackling water demand, particularly in the refurbishment of larger buildings. For example, installing a large water tank in the basement of a block of 16 flats could be used to store, screen and redistribute the greywater back into the system. Even recycling of rainwater, though, necessitates high levels of maintenance to the plant and pipework to avoid the adverse microbiological reactions that can pose health problems or damage drainage systems (Edwards, 1998). Thus proper filters and sterilization methods will require regular servicing and occasional replacement in any such installation.

Pollution

The UK still lags behind much of Western Europe in recycling domestic solid organic waste, such as food, paper and card. Most of this ends up in landfill, and contributes to the generation of polluting leachate and to greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Recently, targets have been introduced requiring significant increases in recycling. Reduction, reuse and recycling should be a first consideration. Provision for composting and recycling (e.g. space for separate bins) can be incorporated at any scale. Rainwater run-off and treatment options for greywater and sewage are dealt with later in this chapter.

Greening Cities

These guidelines are beginning to influence efforts to rank cities according to quality of life and policies that promote sustainability. The 2005 SustainLane U.S. City Rankings evaluated twenty-five cities with respect to conditions such as the availability of farmers' markets, recycling, air and tap water quality, the percentage of parks to the total urban land area, and the number of LEED buildings. One of the first rating guides, The Rating Guide to Environmentally Healthy Metro Areas (Weinhold 1997), ranks 317 metropolitan areas according to thirteen categories of data.10 These data, compiled to assist persons with health problems triggered by pollution, identify toxic sites rather than lifestyle amenities such as recreational benefits.

Rainwater

An obvious case for recycling or reuse, for example, would be one in which a large roof area suitable for rainwater collection is matched to a large demand for non-potable water (e.g. for vehicle washing or toilet flushing). Similarly, many industrial or agricultural processes use clean water for cooling or rinsing, which can then be reused without treatment for cleaning.

Mass creativity

If thousands of people were 'creative' perhaps it could be too much. Incremental creativity might be the answer, whereby the open mindset is legitimated by leadership groupings or the media. For instance the change of Copenhagen from a car-dominated city to a walking and cycling city must in its initial stages have involved 1000s of cyclists going against the grain of then current thinking. The same is true for recycling schemes. It is the atmosphere that creates the context for innumerable smaller things to occur which in themselves display only a tiny speck of creativity.

Wandering Subjects

Although economics determines much of the recycling of waste, so too does a desire to subvert the system of consumption and to transgress the logics of economics. A decision to cut a number of roof lights for starlit baths meant waiting. We waited through a few winters, finely tuning the exact design details and spending the money we saved to buy the expensive components.

Water conservation

Water is a valued resource and methods for conservation should play an integral part in service design. Consideration should be given to water saving initiatives such as collecting and storing rainwater, and then using it for purposes such as cleaning and toilet flushing. More importantly, it can be used for watering the grass pitch, as at the Manchester United Ground. Grey water recycling is another method of conserving water, whilst economies can also be made by using water restrictors, cistern control, vacuum toilets and leak detectors. Figure 24.1 shows in schematic form the rainwater reclamation systems of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Stadium. Another example of a stadium in which similar principles have been applied is the City of Manchester Stadium (see the Case studies at the end of this book).

Construction

In lieu of a recognized standard method for calculating and evaluating ecological parameters, an investigation of the fundamentals was undertaken. This was true not only for the various materials and construction elements employed in the operation, but also for the resources and energy used, from transport to production, manufacture, service life, flexibility, and recycling disposal possibilities of the materials, all the way to their energetic behavior. Ergonomic and social aspects, such as the question of user comfort, also found a place in such considerations.

Sprayon Paper Adobe

An alternative approach is a spray-on application of paper adobe, or lime-stabilized paper adobe, directly over the exterior walls. Waste paper in the US takes up the largest volume of space in our landfills. Our local Utah State Job Service office generates several huge garbage bags full of shredded paper each day Here's a tip for scavengers without recycling programs in their area throw all those damn slick color catalogues into the mixer with some clay and sand and spray them on the walls nice and thick (2-3 inches 5-7.5 cm ). Seal it with a lime plaster.

Saving energy

Energy can also be recovered from waste water by heat exchange, with the possibility that where there is a suitable nearby river or water area, heat can be recovered. Wind fans are another possibility which could be considered, along with recycling waste energy from plant systems and the use of CHP, which should be examined.

Greenness

This relates to issues of renewability and 'light' or 'lean' use of resources, in construction as well as in use. It takes on board issues of embodied energy and environmental impacts, including for instance implied transport considerations, by being 'the right building in the right place'. A number of generally low-density and low-intensity 'green' projects were referred to in Chapter 8 and included facets such as being earth sheltered, having turf roofs, recycling waste water, composting solid waste and being either low or zero energy in operation. These were often, though not always, semi-rural or suburban applications. Assessment methods have been devised, such as BREEAM, that attempt to make a composite if not yet fully comprehensive or universally agreed evaluation of a building. This is discussed further in the final chapter

Timothy Beatley

European cities have also gone through or are going through extensive local Agenda 21 activities, typically resulting in the preparation of a local sustainability action plan and a host of tangible actions for making these communities more sustainable. These actions range from composing and recycling initiatives, to urban ecosystem restoration, to establishment of neighborhood sustainability centers. European city participation has been relatively high, with nearly 100 percent of municipalities participating in countries such as Sweden, for example. (For a review of Local Agenda 21 experience in Europe, see Lafferty 2001.)

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