The Salzburg Guggenheim Museum 277

(Loft) Model of Interior (Below left) Section

(Opposite) Bird's-eye view - section of tho mountain-top museum complex with surroundings

(Loft) Model of Interior (Below left) Section

(Opposite) Bird's-eye view - section of tho mountain-top museum complex with surroundings

Tadao An do Architect A Associates JAPAN PAVILION EXPO '92

(Seville. Spam) 1989-91

The Japanese Pavilion at the Seville Expo '92 is one of the largest wooden constructions in the world. 25 metres high and with four levels, each with a surface 60 metres by 40 metres. The upper part is covered by a roof of translucent film made of teflon. The exterior is finished in warped lap siding wood.

Technologically, the project therefore combines a most traditional material with the most advanced construction techniques that stretch the potential of wood to its limit. Functionally, the organization is clear. Visitors are brought to the heart of the building, to a high point from where they descend through the various display areas. But. more than the displays, what is presented throughout their journey is the building itself and the way it is constructed.

The material used is different from most of the previous works of Ando, which are based on exposed reinforced concrete. In addition, while in most of his previous projects the solids of the building, despite their massivcness. are dematerialized by downplaying their structural identity through what Ando has called abstraction. and by foregrounding their pure geomctri cal configuration, in the Seville Pavilion the technology of the structure and details- an opto date technology drawn from all over the world - is exhibited explicitly.

This collection of technologies in one structure. traditional and modern. Japanese and international, was a conscious choice following the directives of the programme of the building: to present the idea of the past, present and future of Japan' participating simulta neously in a world of local traditions and one of modern globalism. At the same time, the building is meant as a celebration of the idea of discovery; the Expo's theme is The Age of

(Opposite) Views of the model of the pavilion (Above) Plan

Discovery. Discovery refers, more concretely, to that of America by Columbus 500 years before in 1492; the discovery by Europe of its unity in 1992; and. in the specific case of this pavilion, the discovery of Japan by the world.

There is. however, more to the pavilion than its pragmatic display of its programmatic message, in fulfilment of the requirements of being part of an international exposition; more, too, than its unique size, operational clarity and technological intricacy. The building is also an intricate poetic object.

In his poetics, here as in his previous work, Ando relies on minimal geometric elements in his spatial compositions. The Seville Pavilion, however, overcomes his previous Euclidean elementarism of straight lines, circles, orthogonal prisms and simple intersections between them. Instead, the spatial elements have a freer configuration. Still, self-con tained. their shape suggests what in Japanese painting is called fude no chikara, the strength of the hand at the moment the brush applies a stroke to a two-dimensional surface, here translated into built form. The pavilion is in fact an enormous ideogram, created fundamentally from two kanji. or written characters: a single curved stroke forming a pathway, and a number of straight strokes enclosing a space. The two elements are opposed to each other, convex bridge to concave facade. Yet. in their opposition, the two characters interpenetrate and become enmeshed as an inseparable whole. The curved stroke of the arched bridge. 11 metres in height, is one of the most striking features of the project. By climbing up through it. the visitor enters the pavilion. An archaic Japanese symbol, this traditional arched bridge, or taikobashi. originally represented the passage from this world to the other. In the

Concrete Pavillion Japanese

pavilion, the taikobashi is used as a double metaphor to symbolize the crossing from the realities of life into the world of imagination, as well as the bridging of knowledge between East and West.

Representational and poetic functions are not confined to the visual structure of the building. Ando conceives spatial organization and use to be interwoven with meaning: as in all traditional Japanese ritual, so in this pavilion ceremonial architecture, formal structure and process are one. 'I pursue precisely that vital union of abstract geometrical form and daily human activity': 'abstract existence (Is) meeting with concreteness". Ando remarks in his statement for the catalogue of his major exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, in Autumn 1991.

In this space event complex, visitors, after their ascent through the bridge, enter a gallery, a huge open space. From here, they proceed downwards, passing through each of the exhibition rooms. And as they descend inside the great open space of the gallery, with its 17-metre-high ceiling, they turn to the plain wooden columns and beams, which together form a configuration washed by the light they sense streaming through the transparent teflon film above. As the visitors actively experience this visual-kinetic process, navigating through the architecture and being guided by it. they will be able to feel the historical movement of Japan"; the whole building will become for them a bridge of international exchange and understanding, just as the programme required. But even more than this.

the pavilion is born as an architectural space of ideogram ritual which incorporates the concepts of evolution and encounter merged into one. and offers a cognitive synthesis through an experience of space in which the whole body participates.

(Above) Axonomotric drawing and taction (Opposite) Conceptual drawing

Santiago Calatrava Vails Archltecte-lngenlour S.A. TGV RAILWAY STATION OF LYON-SATOLAS

(Lyon, France) 1989-92

Lyon Satolas Tgv Station Design Drawings

The result of a competition, the TGV railway station for Lyon-Satolas is the most ambitious of Calatrava's projects to date and. In many respects, gives the clearest indication of the direction of his investigations towards a poetics of construction (see also pp. 254-57).

The project consists of the main station building, the platforms and a passageway connecting the station to the nearby airport. Contextual aspects were important in determining the composition. The existing air termi nal has been respected and used as a reference object dictating the massing and the orientation of the new buildings. The axis of the station is placed almost as an extension of the diagonal of the air terminal and the complete bilateral symmetry of the new building echoes the airport's symmetrical shape.

Orientation is a key determinant of the design of the building. Space has been sculpted in order to give cues about circulation. Passengers are informed through a clear differentiation of the volumes about where they are and how to find their destination. Venturi would no doubt have dismissed this kind of solution, which bends architectural form in order to fulfil functional requirements, as an architectural 'duck'.

But there is more to Calatrava's spatial-plastic solution than facile functionalism. He has used architecture as a means of making the activity of travelling an exciting and memorable event rather than dreary, utilitarian and drudgery-filled, and has tried to make the collective and ritualistic aspects of using public transport essential ingredients of the building. In order to do this, a symbolic image was needed which would be instantly recognizable by the travellers, fulfil their expectations as they arrived, and offer a memorable impres sion as they departed. He chose that of speed and flight. The 'symbol' Calatrava tried to evoke was one that embodies the idea of flight and passage'.

The metaphorical representation of flight in architectural terms can be of two kinds: first, when the geometry of the volumes mimeticalty 'describes' flying organisms or those parts of the anatomy of such organisms that are used for flight - pinions, wings, feathers - or when it presents abstracted, streamlined figures: and second, when the configuration of the building describes', still more abstractly, what we might call aviational actions - taking off. landing, soaring. Coop Hlmmelbiau. for example. would have chosen the second - and carried it out on a small scale (see pp. 220-23). Calatrava. in his choice of 'a broadly spreading roof that unfolds its wings longitudinally over the platforms like a bird taking flight", has clearly opted for the first. There is also an implication of movement in the streamlined curving of the structural members of the roof of the platforms.

In this choice Calatrava appears to hasĀ« taken a path characteristically different from Foster's at Stansted Airport (pp. 258-59), where the building is a universal volume, its roof spreading calmly like a second vast sky beneath the sky; where the users' sense of direction is strengthened by relating their progress directly to views of the outside; and where the serene architecture expresses the Idea of rest - but not without excitement and intrigue - between changing modes of transportation. Calatrava's path seems, instead, to follow the one opened up by Eero Saannen three decades ago with his design for Dulles Airport for Washington DC. and. in particular, the mimetically simulated eagle of the TV/A building in New Yorfc.

Calatrava's buildings have certainly bene fited from the technological advances and experience that have occurred since Saari nen's designs were built in the early 1960s. He is. furthermore, more daring and. one might say. more obsessed. This explains no doubt why the specifics of the shapes created in Lyon-Satolas and the individual use of a varied but continuous geometry in its overall configuration arc so original.

This is not the first time Calatrava has tried to capture movement in a design. Most of his projects are attempts to do just that. When he is not picturing flight, then he is pictunng growth, that slow movement in time which

increases the volume of organic form. He does so through the application of a fractal geometry at all levels of scale.

Of course, buildings do not move. Neither are they shaped by movement. Although Calatra-va's buildings are metaphorical representations of movement, they can also be seen as suggesting the paradox that architecture's striving for permanence in space is always achieved in time and through time. These general reflections become happily appropriate as his specific projects have tended to be related structures meant to serve movement, such as bridges and stations, as is the case with the Lyon Satolas station.

(Opposite) Plan

(Above) View of the model

(Right) The model showing canopy construction

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