When prestressing steel is stressed to the levels that are customary' during initial tensioning and at service loads, it exhibits a property known as relaxation. Relaxation is defined as the loss of stress in stressed material held at constant length. (The same basic phenomenon is known as creep when defined in terms of change in strain of a material under constant stress.) To be specific, if a length of prestressing steel is stressed to a sizable fraction of its yield strength (say. 80 to 90 percent) and held at a constant strain between fixed points such as the ends of a beam, the steel stress fp will gradually decrease from its initial value fpi. In prestressed concrete members this stress relaxation is important because it modifies the internal stresses in the concrete and changes the deflections of the beam some time after initial prestress was applied. The amount of relaxation varies, depending on the type and grade of steel, the time under load, and the initial stress level. A...
Masonry can be defined as an association of two different materials brick and mortar, with complementary mechanical properties. Bricks are elastic but brittle elements while mortars are plastic and ductile continuous binding materials. The elastic modulus of brick is always higher than that of mortar. In the case of masonry, there are geometric imperfections and structural faults like the vertical joints between bricks, where stress concentrations occur around the corners of bricks under the action of compressive forces. For long lasting actions like the gravitational ones the ductility of lime mortars protects the brick against failure by the phenomenon known as adaptation. In the case of short time actions of certain level the induced energy is stored by elastic brick as potential energy. Then, by a slow relaxation it is gradually dissipated by the plastic deformation of mortar. When forces of short time are huge, like those developed during an earthquake, the material strength is...
Design The site was on the edge of an area of gently undulating mixed woodland with intervening lawns used by the students and university staff for relaxation, walking and jogging. This was to be the location for the new sports centre with a 42 x 22 m playing area for all types of ball games, gymnastics, other sports and competitions, together with the associated ancillary facilities. The architects created two simple structures the sports hall itself, with a pitched roof, and a two-storey block containing the ancillary facilities, with a monopitch roof, along one side of the hall. The two structures are offset, thereby creating an internal angle at the south end which provides an obvious entrance area. A simple solution was achieved by exploiting the natural slope of the site, providing a spacious entrance to the balcony and changing rooms above and a separate entrance below to the offices, sports instructors' accommodation, medical facilities and services. The upper level offers an...
The water management concept is revolutionary for New York City and was a major aspect of the platinum LEED Certification of the project. Individual gardens are based on different cultural water themes and offer space for activity and relaxation. Water design and integration with the park were key design criteria for the new administration building. The water management concept is revolutionary for New York City and was a major aspect of the platinum LEED Certification of the project. Individual gardens are based on different cultural water themes and offer space for activity and relaxation. Water design and integration with the park were key design criteria for the new administration building.
The Maggie's Centre cancer caring centres (the first of which she was able to be closely involved in as a new treatment gave her 18 months' remission), are not hospices, but places providing information for those faced with a bewildering range of complementary therapies and advice about diet, exercise, and relaxation, as well as complex decisions to make about conventional treatment. As programme director Andrew Anderson summarises, the Maggie's Centres are both a bolt hole, somewhere it's okay to cry, and they are about making patients better, more demanding 'clients', who don't just feel pushed around by a system they can't control . a conversion, this time of a small Victorian gatehouse at Glasgow's Western Infirmary Hospital. It too is designed by a local Scottish architect (Page & Park, best known for the Glasgow Lighthouse building). Again the kitchen is at the heart of the building. The library is at the base of the castellated turret and will be lit from above, and there will...
A microclimate describes an artificial climate within a glazed space. With the conditioning of certain parameters (temperature, relative humidity, light levels etc.) a microclimate can allow these spaces to be used permanently despite changes in daily and seasonal outdoor climate. Microclimatised halls create living space for people, either as places to work or to enjoy free time and relaxation. This category also includes greenhouses and animal enclosures.
Finland is well known for its many lakes, its vast forests - and its saunas More than one-third of Finnish households possess a summer-house somewhere in a forest by a lake and with a sauna. A special culture of relaxation and seclusion has evolved over a long period of time, a culture which matches the natural circumstances and exploits them to the full. The Finnish sauna is a product of this environment. Typical features are the wood-burning stove, which ensures the dry heat amid the cold arctic climate, the wooden surfaces in the sauna - for wood is the only material one can touch at such temperatures (approx. 90 ) - and a lake nearby for intensive cooling. The necessary changing room, indoor and outdoor areas for sitting or relaxing as well as cooking and sleeping facilities round off the Finnish sauna. In this way, a few days or weeks can be spent relaxing and recharging the batteries . stairs between the house and the water. A small patio with a view of the lake forms a link...
New form-finding programs which explore hanging models in the virtual world, based on dynamic relaxation, such as Kilian's CADenary tool have to deal with the same issues (Kilian and Ochsendorf 2005). It is very hard to control and predict how the final shape of the compression network will look like if local changes are being made or a string model is being assembled and hung under gravity.
It is quite natural, in any case, that this continuous process should have come about through the grafting or juxtaposition of certain pre-existing elements drawn from other contexts, firstly the urban palazzo and then the monastic cloister complex, even though these elements were undoubtedly all produced according to empirical choices (and only later more sophisticated ones), in accordance with the gradual nature of the process we have mentioned. Amongst the most common interventions to be found accompanying a building's changing use and status in preparation for its typological shift were, either singly or together the enlargement of some areas (entrance) the particular character of some features (vaulted ceilings) the insertion of areas designed to serve as places of relaxation and rest (loggias, interior courtyards) the dawning of a rational order an awareness of spatial volumes introduction of decorative architectural features (such as crenellations) more carefully considered...
Although every room in this house is made of wood, tatami mats and shop doors each room has a different character. The earthen floor and eight-tatami room adjoining the porch (pen-an) is meant for relaxation and is used for the family's daily activities. In contrast, the ten-mat drawing room (zashiki) and the ten-talami anteroom in the innermost part of the house are very formal and meant for receiving guests. A six-tatami room and a Buddhist altar separate these two parts of the house. This central area has an air of sacredness, quite distinct from the other parts. Ando considered the character of each room as well as seasons and annual events while designing the interiors of this house.
Urban parks and greenspaces in Whyte's day were traditionally designed to foster sedentary relaxation amid aesthetic surroundings, with active recreation largely confined to playgrounds and athletic fields for the young and fit. In light of today's obesity crisis, urban open spaces must provide opportunities for vigorous outdoor recreation and physical fitness for an aging and culturally diverse public. Anne Lusk, an experienced public health researcher, offers practical advice on the design of urban greenspaces and linear corridors to encourage such activities as running, cycling, skating, tennis, rock climbing, and other energetic outdoor pastimes.
In addition to conventional medical practice Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital offers a range of therapies including homoeopathy, acupuncture, neurotherapy, relaxation therapy and hypnosis. The bulk of this treatment is conducted in outpatient clinics but the hospital also has occupational therapy and physiotherapy departments on site. The new facility should be designed for future functional flexibility as clinical practice may change.
As the aim of the proposed model is to simulate long-term deformations ofmasonry, viscous damage, which governs the strain rate at constant stress levels and initiates the tertiary creep phase, has a highly important role. The viscous damage parameter (Dv) decreases the relaxation time of the Maxwell dashpot, thereby increasing the strain rate during the steady-state creep and describing the accumulation of damage up to failure. In order to describe the evolution of Dv in time, a twofold definition is considered firstly, the viscous damage parameter is a function of the stress level, as a relation between the strain rate and the stress level has been observed during the current test program, as well as in literature (Challamel 2005, Anzani 2000). Secondly, a damage-rate formulation is adopted to enable the simulation of damage increase in time when the stress level remains constant. With Aesec the strain increase during a secondary creep phase, tm the relaxation time, EM the elastic...
The AASHTO recommended losses of Table 19.3 include losses due to elastic shortening, creep, shrinkage, and relaxation (see Section 19.13b). Thus for comparison with R values for estimating losses, such as were employed for the preceding examples, which included only the time-dependent losses due to shrinkage, creep, and relaxation, elastic shortening losses should be estimated by the methods discussed in Section 19.13b and deducted from the total.
A number of other respondents feel that the legislation is particularly weak with regard to the majority of development projects, that is, those which are refurbishments and alterations to existing buildings (see also Foster, 1997 Imrie, 1996). Indeed, one architect noted that 'most access problems occur in the conversion refurbishment of existing buildings where Part M is either unworkable or does not apply', while another commented that 'most of the built environment consists of existing buildings which are inaccessible and if not part of a construction project are then outside the remit of the regulations'. Others feel that relaxations of the regulations are too easily obtained from building control departments. Indeed, as an architect commented, developers will sometimes start a project without Part M approval and, consequentially, 'where work is started before approval is secured under the regulations, and is found not to comply, there is too much leeway in giving retrospective...
The revised Building Regulations' Section N Glazing Materials and Protection was introduced.This specifically recognizes the strength characteristics of annealed glass it is in effect a relaxation of the requirements of BS 6262. Diagram 2 states the size of annealed glass that can now be used. At 15 mm thick the panel size is not limited by Section N, and the end walls of the Sainsbury Centre are once again a legitimate solution for a building in England and Wales. However one must remember that annealed glass is not tolerant to local stress build-up of a loadbearing bolted fitting.
Only exhibited one sculpture - The Little Dancer Aged Fourteen -and in that sense these were not sculptures. There were figures of ballet dancers, thoroughbred horses, and women going about their ablution. These were his fascinations and the recurring themes of his paintings and pastel studies, and he used the figures as tools to sharpen his observation. A friend has described a visit to Degas' house in which he slowly rotated a figure in the light of a candle so that they could watch the changing projection of the figure on a white wall. The figures are now very fragile, but several art museums have collections of castings made from the originals. The balanced poise of a dancer (Figure 4.1), the frozen movement of a horse (Figure 4.2), and the relaxation of a woman taking a bath (Figure 4.3) can be seen captured in three-dimensional form. He studied these subjects meticulously. He actually had a bath installed in his studio for his models to climb in and out of. When a series of...
In a superb ethnographic article on downveiling, that is, the modern styling and relaxation of veiling standards among Cairene women, Herrera describes hijab well as a form of both resistance and submission to patriarchy, an assertion of cultural authenticity, a reaction against Western imperialism and local secular regimes, a genuine desire by women to live more piously and a practice borne out of economic necessity (2000 1). While no one denies involuntary veiling due to the coercive power of Islamist men, and even violence (i.e., Algeria, Afghanistan) against women refusing to wear Islamic dress, a number of more nuanced studies show that veiling represents women's initiative that differs from passive conformity to Islamist patriarchy. A core motivation is political the search for authenticity expressed as a dress performance oftentimes signifying resistance to oppressive secular regimes and or disillusionment with Westernized global culture. Practically, wearing hijab generates...
A clean, inviting circular relaxation pool serves as the focal point in the cente' the court. Its water spills into an adjacent lap pool that is equipped with s if jets. Strategically placed uplighting and unique site landscaping complete * r modern simplicity of the design. * The circular relaxation pool is centered within the court. Glass doors were incorporated into the garage structure to maximize views and access to both the court and garage.
Further evidence of relaxation was extended licensing hours, allowing bar-top dancing, the setting up of a Crazy Horse from Paris and creating the Clark Quay development where tacky, sexist outfits like 1NiteStand Bar or Hooters go about their business unquestioned and especially attract the ex-pat crowd.
1980) tend to work smarter than their predecessors, having been more exposed to technology, but less willing to work long hours. These workers demand a work environment that is efficient, but also permits a quality of life that balances work and relaxation. Off-stage spaces that provide respite and opportunity for socialization are particularly rewarding. On the other hand, the newest generation of workers, the millenials, present new challenges to facility planners. Born between 1981 and 1999, these staff grew up with technology, playing video games, and operating computers as toddlers. This generation grew up communicating via email, cell phone text messaging, and personalized Web pages. These workers expect technological tools to make their work easier and faster and to give them more individual control. These employees don't need large centralized nursing stations if they have the ability to communicate with each other digitally and with handsfree, voice-activated devices from...
Unsanitary blocks of houses must be demolished and replaced by green areas the adjacent housing quarters will thus
The green areas that will have been intimately amalgamated with built volumes and integrated into the residential sectors will not have the embellishment of the city as their sole function. First, they must play a useful role, and it is facilities of a communal nature that will occupy their lawns day nurseries, pre-school and post-school organizations, youth clubs, centers for intellectual relaxation or physical culture, reading rooms or game rooms, running tracks and outdoor swimming pools. These will be the extensions of the dwelling, and must be subject, like the dwelling itself, to the land ordinance. Nothing, or virtually nothing, has yet been provided for the weekly hours of leisure time. Vast spaces in the region surrounding the city will be reserved and equipped, and made accessible by sufficiently numerous and convenient modes of transportation. These spaces are no longer a matter of lawns around the house, more or less densely planted with trees, but of actual forests and...
For most designs, a separate estimate of individual losses is made. Such an analysis is complicated by the interdependence of time-dependent losses. For example, the relaxation of stress in the tendons is affected by length changes due to creep of concrete. Rate of creep, in turn, is altered by change in tendon stress. In the following six subsections.
With a relaxation of political tensions a half-century later that travel to Greece once again became possible. The time was now right to explore Greek architecture in a serious way, and this first proposal was put forth toward the end of 1748 by the Englishmen James Stuart and Nicholas Revett.
Positive emotions, in turn, are associated with creativity and cognitive flow, a state of high task engagement. Other green building features, such as indoor and outdoor relaxation areas with vegetation and views, are likely to enhance social interaction and one's sense of belonging, both of which are associated with organizational attachment, a topic of enormous interest among organizations today. Drawing on research
New York's Central Park, designed in the 1850s by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, is said to have been fashioned after Birkenhead Park in England and designed for the masses who had no access to the healthy outdoors (Rybczynski 1999). Olmsted wrote about the need for urban inhabitants to escape unhealthy urban congestion, and, if they did not possess funds to leave the city, they should have places for respite and relaxation within reach of their homes (Olmsted 1865).
The reconstruction of the former Financial Times building (Bracken House) by Michael Hopkins and Partners has achieved a unique subdivision, with the central atrium and lift cores placed at the maximum permitted remove from the compartmented escape stairs and remodelled areas within the retained wings of the former layout (Figures 3.8a and 3.8b). Accommodation stairs are sited on either side of the new open offices and permit direct connection between the floors throughout the eight storeys. The perforation of compartment floors is allowed owing to the sprinkler system installed throughout the common office accommodation and to the fact that four new escape stairs are strategically designed at either end of the retained wings. A further benefit of the layout with outward escape from the atrium lift lobby is relaxation of fire enclosure to the main vertical circulation. The steelwork is uncased and the fenestration openable between working areas and atrium and hallways. It is another...
Let us enumerate once more the characteristics we deemed proper to play. It is an activity which proceeds within certain limits of time and space, in a visible order, according to rules freely accepted, and outside the sphere of necessity or material utility. The play-mood is one of rapture and enthusiasm, and is sacred or festive in accordance with the occasion. A feeling of exultation and tension accompanies the action, mirth and relaxation follow. (Huizinga, 1955 132)
Relaxation that will occur later at a lower stress level. The relaxation rate can thus be artificially accelerated by temporary overtensioning. This technique is the basis for producing low-relaxation steel. The loss calculations of the preceding paragraphs recognized the interdependence of creep, shrinkage, and relaxation losses in an approximate way, by an arbitrary reduction of 10 percent of the initial prestress force P, to obtain the force for which creep and relaxation losses were calculated. For cases requiring greater accuracy, losses can be calculated for discrete time steps over the period of interest. The prestress force causing losses during any time step is taken equal to the value at the end of the preceding time step, accounting for losses due to all causes up to that time. Accuracy can be improved to any desired degree by reducing the length and increasing the number of time steps.
Docents are fantastic, and that avoids the issue of creating this garden of signs, says Holley. Trees and ground covers are labeled with small signs, bur there are few larger signs at chest or eye level. It's an approach grounded in the garden's vision, if you constantly have something you are supposed to read, it really interrupts that feeling of relaxation, says Holley.
Neighborhood space is high-quality public space that draws residents and employees on a regular basis from the immediate neighborhood, including the host building and its environs within walking distance. Neighborhood space is used for such activities as socializing, child care, reading, and relaxation. Neighborhood spaces are generally smaller than destination spaces, are strongly linked with the adjacent street and host building, are oriented toward sunlight, and are carefully maintained. Amenities typically include seating, tables, drinking fountains, water features, planting, and trees, but not food service or live entertainment.
Flexural strength of pretensioned I beam. The prestressed I beam shown in cross section in Fig. 19.13 is pretensioned using five low relaxation stress-relieved Grade 270 3 in. diameter strands, carrying effective prestress JL 160 ksi. Concrete strength is f'c 4000 psi. Calculate the design strength of the beam.
Unconventional yet comfortable relaxation with the easily reclining Rocky. The back incline is varied by use of a lever-operated compression spring mechanism. The leg support is achieved through a glide structured pu I lout rest pad hidden under the seat. The angle of the leg rest is adjustable for individual relaxing comfort. The
For many people, reading magazines is a form of relaxation. But for the free-lance writer who owns this home office, all those periodicals provide a stock-in-trade. The wide, tilted shelf below the bookaise aiiouis ffieir vivid display. Design Peter Van Dyke and Tim Cook.
It is interesting to note how trends m hotel design have headed off in two directions, especially in regard to the design of rooms On one hand, an effort is being made to provide more luxurious multipurpose rooms and suites The hotel room as office away From work or as fantasy sleeping,'relaxation environment often results in rooms with
As a result people use the square at different times of day as a short cut and for relaxation children wade in the fountains during the summer and clamber on the statues. Dogs are walked and people sit watching the people cutting across the square who, in turn, are watching them. The design of the square by Paul Cret adds to its ambience but, by itself, would have achieved little.
And provide places for rest and relaxation. All the senses should be rewarded. Trees, flowers, fountofns, sculpture, and murals, as well as the architecture of freestanding structures, are vital parts of ihe overall scheme. Public events such as fashion shows, holiday celebrations, and exhibitions are all parts of Ihe life in these open spaces, as are snack bars, outdoor cafes, and restaurants.
The near-perfect climate allows for an exceptionally open and airy layout that diffuses light throughout the ballpark. The impeccable weather also makes the grassy, tree-lined area known as the 'Park at the Park', an appealing option. It extends the ballpark experience beyond the facility's walls, offering fans a place for relaxation and recreation during a game and serving as a public park during non-event times.
The magnitude of the prestress force is not constant. The jacking force Pj is immediately reduced to what is termed the initial prestress force Pi because of elastic shortening of the concrete upon transfer, slip of the tendon as the force is transferred from the jacks to the beam ends, and loss due to friction between the tendon and the concrete (post-tensioning) or between the tendon and cable alignment devices (pre-tensioning). There is a further reduction of force from Pl to the effective prestress Pc, occurring over a long period of time at a gradually decreasing rate, because of concrete creep under the sustained prestress force, concrete shrinkage, and relaxation of stress in the steel. Methods for predicting losses will be discussed in Section 19.13. Of primary interest to the designer are the initial prestress P immediately after transfer and the final or effective prestress Pe after all losses.
As discussed in Section 19.6, the initial prestress force P, immediately after transfer is less than the jacking force P, because of elastic shortening of the concrete, slip at the anchorages, and frictional losses along the tendons. The force is reduccd further, after a period of many months or even years, due to length changes resulting from shrinkage and creep of the concrete and relaxation of the highly stressed steel eventually it attains its effective value Pe. In the preceding sections of this chapter, losses were accounted for. making use of an assumed effectiveness ratio R - Pt, P,. Losses have no effect on the nominal strength of a member with bonded tendons, but ovcrestima-tion or underestimation of losses may have a pronounced effect on service conditions including camber, deflection, and cracking.
Since scientists spend a great deal of their lifetime in a research institute - both physically and emotionally - it is important to provide opportunities for relaxation and communication that extend beyond the professional realm. Lively social interaction is also crucial as foreign employees from all parts of the world are separated from their friends and family for a couple of years. Social activities should cater for a broad range of interests squash, yoga, music, dancing, table tennis and the like. A research building should at least offer space for such activities.
Compaction of cohesive fill produces even greater increases in lateral earth pressures than in granular fill, of the order 0.2-0.4 times the undrained shear strength. But for such clays the more significant issue is likely to be lateral swelling pressures. For clays placed relatively dry, a relaxation in lateral stress has been observed immediately after compaction (Sowers et al., 1957 Symons et al., 1989). However, as rainwater enters the fill, swelling starts to occur. In situ determinations of the average lateral stresses within a 6m high abutment backfill of London clay (Mawditt, 1989) showed that horizontal total stresses rose up to 180 kPa near to the centre of the embankment, and up to 70 kPa close to the wing walls. In a pilot-scale experiment (Symons et al., 1989) observed average lateral pressures on a 3m high wall of the order of 100kPa. Given that these figures are of the order of many times higher than the commonly assumed equivalent fluid pressure, it is suggested that...
Relaxation to the Class 0 fire requirement. In this case a general-purpose isophthalic gel coat can be used, which itself has no fire-retardant characteristics, but which protects the laminating resin containing the fire-retardant additive from ultraviolet light. But, of course, it does not get a Class 0 fire rating.When applying for such a waiver it may be necessary for tests to be carried out that stimulate in-service conditions on full panels, including the appropriate jointing technique used.The configuration and design of the joints must significantly affect the performance of the panels during a fire.The panels for Mondial House (Fig. 3.7), designed
After the load is applied to the prestressing steel, stress relaxation occurs which results in a reduction of the force in the tendon. The magnitude of relaxation varies depending on the steel characteristics and the initial stress levels applied, with typical values of 2.5-3.5 when a stress of 0.70fpu is applied, which reduces to below 1 when the initial stress is 0.50fpu or less.
Relaxation Audio Sounds Lazy Summer Day
This is an audio all about guiding you to relaxation. This is a Relaxation Audio Sounds with sounds from Lazy Summer Day.