The Spatial Distribution Of Uses

The type of uses that might be possible within an area also depends on how they are to be developed spatially. Four arrangements would seem to give an indication of how urban areas and patterns of use might develop. People needing access to shops and other facilities within the new residential schemes will probably find them provided in one of these four forms. 1 Centralising shops and facilities Some designers, having studied traditional patterns of urban development, locate a mix of uses at...

Some common residential block structures

Although a range of residential block structures have been adopted, some specific forms tend to be more common than others. The periphery block was probably the most common form of block structure until the 1930s when other block structures were experimented with. More recently, however, periphery blocks are suggested for a wide range of contexts as a result of the influence of the publication Responsive Environments (Bentley et al. 1985). The basic principle reflects the advice given...

Using natural features to define spaces

It is not necessary to use only buildings to define space within the urban environment trees and shrubs can provide a distinctive town-scape form and atmosphere. At the most general level, you may need to decide whether the character of a settlement will result from the buildings seen within a green setting, or whether any trees will be an addition to the urban spaces created between the buildings. It is possible, within a scheme, to vary its character by changing the role of the landscaping....

Plan the net densities

Higher net densities of residential development are often associated with areas where there is a high demand for housing, although more recently it has been argued that higher net densities of development may also allow people to live more sustainably. The theory is straightforward the more people that live within the vicinity of a given shop, service or facility, the more likely that its use will be sustained. The desirable distance for people wishing to walk to either their shops or a local...

Radburn

The name Radburn refers to the community in Fair Lawn, New Jersey. Here, Clarence Stein and Henry Wright created a neighbourhood where the patterns of access for pedestrians and vehicles are completely separate. A radburn layout involves creating a form of block where one side of a home faces the vehicle access and parking, whilst the other side faces pedestrian routes and community spaces Figure 5.16 . In this scheme, locating private gardens becomes difficult as the pattern of access to both...

Bibliography

Addenbrooke, P., Bruce, D., Courtney, I., Hellewell, S., Nisbet, A. and Young, T. 1981 Urban Planning and Design of Road Public Transport, London Confederation of British Passenger Transport. AEA Technology Environment 2005 The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development, London DEFRA. Aldous, T. 1992 Urban Villages A concept for creating mixed-use urban developments on a sustainable scale, London Urban Villages Group. Appleyard, D., Lynch, K. and Meyer, J. 1964 The View...