Ae

In a similar manner, expressions for Ax, A2, A3,... An... Ans for a practical column shown in Fig. 8.32a with a cross-sectional area decreasing up the height in a stepwise manner,

Figure 8.32b. Simplified column for calculation column shortening. and subjected to different axial loads, may be derived as follows:

Figure 8.32b. Simplified column for calculation column shortening. and subjected to different axial loads, may be derived as follows:

t ns

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