Damage Control Features

The design of a structure in accordance with seismic provisions will not fully ensure against earthquake damage because the horizontal deformations that can be expected during a major earthquake are several times larger than those calculated under design loads. A list of features that can minimize earthquake damage follows:

1. Provide details that allow structural movement without damage to nonstruc-tural elements. Damage to such items as piping, glass, plaster, veneer, and partitions may constitue a major financial loss. To minimize this type of damage, special care in detailing, either to isolate these elements or to accommodate the movement, is required.

2. Breakage of glass windows can be minimized by providing adequate clearance at edges to allow for frame distortions.

3. Damage to rigid nonstructural partitions can be largely eliminated by providing a detail at the top and sides, which will permit relative movement between the partitions and the adjacent structural elements.

(a)

Figure 2.9. Hysteretic behavior: (a) curve representing large energy dissipation, (b) curve representing limited energy dissipation.

Figure 2.9. Hysteretic behavior: (a) curve representing large energy dissipation, (b) curve representing limited energy dissipation.

4. In piping installations, the expansion loops and flexible joints used to accommodate temperature movement are often adaptable to handling the relative seismic deflections between adjacent equipment items attached to floors.

5. Fasten freestanding shelving to walls to prevent toppling.

6. Concrete stairways often suffer seismic damage due to their inhibition of drift between connected floors. This can be avoided by providing a slip joint at the lower end of each stairway to eliminate the bracing effect of the stairway or by tying stairways to stairway shear walls.

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