Example Projects

5.3.1. Buildings with Composite Steel Pipe Columns

Examples of buildings with large-diameter composite columns are shown in Figs. 5.15, 5.16 and 5.17. The 44-story Pacific First Center has eight 7.5-ft (2.3-m)-diameter pipe columns in the core and several 2.5-ft (0.76-m)-diameter columns at the perimeter, each filled with 19-ksi (131-Mpa) concrete. The second example is a 62-story tower with 9-ft (2.7-m)-diameter pipe columns tied together with 10-story-high X-braces. The third is a 58-story building with four 10-ft (3-m)-diameter pipe columns filled with 19,000-psi (131-Mpa) concrete. To achieve composite action, steel studs welded to the pipes' interior surfaces are used. All three buildings were designed by the Seattle-based structural engineering firm, Skilling Ward Magnusson Barkshire, Inc.

An example of non-high-rise application of composite columns is shown in Fig. 5.18. Called the Fremont Street Experience, the space frame has an overall dimension of 1387 ft (422.75 m) by 100 ft (30.5 m) with a 50-ft (15.25-m) radius. The space frame is 5.77 ft (1.76 m) deep and is supported on composite columns spaced longitudinally at 180 and 200 ft (54.87 and 61 m). The space frame's top and bottom chords and web members consist of a 3-in. (76-mm)-diameter steel tubing, with a typical wall thickness of 0.120 in. (3 mm).

The composite columns consist of 42-in.-diameter by 0.75-in.-thick (1067 mm X 19 mm) steel pipes with 8000-psi (55.16-MPa) concrete. Headed studs 1/2 in. (12.7 mm)

Figure 5.15. Pacific First Center; 44-story building.

Figure 5.15. Pacific First Center; 44-story building.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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