Irregular Buildings

The seismic design of regular buildings is based on two concepts. First, the linearly varying lateral force distribution is a reasonable and conservative representation of the actual response distribution due to earthquake ground motions. Second, the cyclic inelastic deformation demands are reasonably uniform in all of the seismic force-resisting elements. However, when a structure has irregularities, these concepts may not be valid, requiring corrective factors and procedures to meet the design objectives.

The impact of irregular parameters in estimating seismic force levels, first introduced into the Uniform Building Code (UBC) in 1973, long remained a matter of engineering judgment. Beginning in 1988, however, some configuration parameters have been quantified to establish the condition of irregularity, and specific analytical treatments have been mandated to address these flaws.

Typical building configuration deficiencies include an irregular geometry, a weakness in a story, a concentration of mass, or a discontinuity in the lateral-force-resisting system. Vertical irregularities are defined in terms of strength, stiffness, geometry, and mass. Although these are evaluated separately, they are related and may occur simultaneously. For example, a building that has a tall first story can be irregular because of a soft story, a weak story, or both, depending on the stiffness and strength of this story relative to those above.

Those who have studied the performance of buildings in earthquakes generally agree that the building's form has a major influence on performance. This is because the shape and proportions of the building have a major effect on the distribution of earthquake forces as they work their way through the building. Geometric configuration, type of structural members, details of connections, and materials of construction all have a profound effect on the structural-dynamic response of a building. When a building has irregular features, such as asymmetry in plan or vertical discontinuity, the assumptions used in developing seismic criteria for buildings with regular features may not apply. Therefore, it is best to avoid creating buildings with irregular features. For example, omitting exterior walls in the first story of a building to permit an open ground floor leaves the columns at the ground level as the only elements available to resist lateral forces, thus causing an abrupt change in rigidity at that level. This condition is undesirable. It is advisable to carry all shear walls down to the foundation. When irregular features are unavoidable, special design considerations are required to account for the unusual dynamic characteristics and the load transfer and stress concentrations that occur at abrupt changes in structural resistance. Examples of plan and elevation irregularities are illustrated in Figs. 2.4 and 2.5.

(b)
Figure 2.4. Plan irregularities: (a) geometric irregularities; (b) irregularity due to mass-resistance eccentricity; (c) irregularity due to discontinuity in diaphragm stiffness.
Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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