Seismic Composite Systems

The progress of composite systems in regions of high seismicity has been the least because of the difficulties associated with the detailing of joints. Until recently, joints for composite members were designed as for steel structures without regard to the structural concrete encasing the steel sections. However, studies reported over the years from Japan, concerned principally with the resistance of joints to earthquake forces, have given new impetus to composite construction.

With proper detailing, the components of a composite structure can be tied together well. This major characteristic, particularly beneficial in seismic design, has made composite design popular in Japan. The acceptance of composite construction in California, another

Figure 5.28. Typical frame fabrication unit.

earthquake area, has been less enthusiastic. However, in the rest of the United States and around the world, composite construction has in the past two decades gotten a strong foothold. The two tallest buildings in the world are of composite construction.

Because composite systems are assemblies of steel and concrete components, their design is governed by both AISC and ACI specifications. The available research and

W14 column Tension splice sleeve (typical)

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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