Seismic Importance Factor IE

In seismic design, the importance factor I is used to increase the margin of safety against collapse. For example, I = 1.50 for essential facilities, I = 1.25 for hazardous facilities, and I = 1.15 for special occupancy structures. Essential structures are those that must remain operative immediately following an earthquake such as emergency treatment areas and fire stations. Hazardous facilities include those housing toxic or explosive substances. Examples of special occupancy structures are those not classified as special or hazardous, and required for continuous operation. Standard occupancy structures such as office buildings, hotels, and residences are designed for I = 1.0. The above values of I apply to facilities designed under the regulations of the 2001 California Building Code (2001 CBC). For buildings designed under the 1997 UBC, the values of I are as follows (Table 16-K, UBC 1997):

• Special occupancy structures I = 1.0

• Standard occupancy structures I = 1.0

• Miscellaneous structures I = 1.0

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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