Environmental Impact Minimizing Nuisances

For a suburban setting, one potential problem includes overcoming misconceptions about the nuisance and pollution potential of horse facilities. Most people enjoy horses yet neighbors can be more concerned that horses are manure-generating, fly and odor machines. A horse facility operating with a large number of horses on limited acreage can intensify nuisance problems not noticed at small stables. Generally in the northeast, 2 to 3 acres of good pasture per horse is needed for summer feeding...

Veterinarian And Farrier Work Area

Provide a well-lit and uncluttered area where a veterinarian and farrier can administer treatment and safely work. Ideally this area would be a relatively quiet location, near the parking space (Fig. 13.20) where their supplies and tools are kept, and have easy access to a sink or other hot water source. This area may be part of a work aisle of the stable or a dedicated space in a larger facility. A wash stall can double as the vet or farrier area because it already has a water source and good...

Fire Detection Devices and Principles

Early warning devices can be an effective tool in fire detection, but few are suitable for barn use. In some situations, the main goal is to save the animals housed in the barn but in other situations, minimizing property damage is the priority. Many early detection and fire suppression systems are available, but most were developed for residential use. This severely limits their practicality in horse or livestock facilities, because they tend to be dustier, more humid, and colder than...

Water

Water is a necessity in the horse stable. Water will be needed for drinking by horses and people and for stable, equipment, and horse cleaning. An outdoor water source may be needed for paddocks and turnout shelters and other auxiliary buildings. Additional water may be used in a laundry and bathroom and for dust control of the riding arena surface. In smaller private stables it may not be the case, but in larger or commercial stables it is recommended that a human drinking water supply be...

What Are Comfortable Conditions

A horse's most comfortable temperature range is between 45 and 75 F. Our most comfortable human Figure 6.1. Horse stables have obvious door and window openings to maintain fresh-air conditions during most weather. This stable also provides openings that are always open at the ridge vent and cupola and along the eaves of the building so that even during the coldest weather, when doors and windows are closed, there is still some fresh air exchange. Figure 6.1. Horse stables have obvious door and...

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Island stall layout with center aisle Figure 2.3. Common stable floor plan and cross-section configurations. Island stall layout with center aisle Figure 2.3. Common stable floor plan and cross-section configurations. Figure 2.4. Single-row stall options are typically open to outside work aisle and are a good option in mild climates. Figure 2.4. Single-row stall options are typically open to outside work aisle and are a good option in mild climates. Figure 2.5. Center aisle design, with its...

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Wooden arches of glu-lam construction offer an attractive framing in simple rigid frame style or the more complex formation shown here. Figure 3.2. Clear-span construction uses trusses that provide an open interior. Stall corner posts attach to the lower chord of some trusses but are not supporting the roof weight. Figure 3.4. Wooden arches of glu-lam construction offer an attractive framing in simple rigid frame style or the more complex formation shown here. Figure 3.5. Hoop...

Lighting

A high-quality work environment provides proper lighting to improve worker efficiency, safety, and comfort. Good lighting takes some of the drudgery out of the many human-labor chores associated with horse housing. Good stable light quality can have a positive influence on worker comfort. Quality of light refers to reduced glare, shadow control, and reduction in sharp differences between objects and their background. Light quality also considers the light's color. Lighting may be used for...

Light Quantities And Efficiency

Lumen (lm) is a measure of the amount of light emitted from a lamp and is used to compare different lamps. A lumen is the amount of light that is radiated in a 1-second period as determined in laboratory testing. Lamp efficiency is determined by dividing the lumen output of the lamp by the electrical energy it consumes in watts (W). Footcandle (fc) is the amount of light striking a working surface where illumination is needed. For light in general, 1 fc 1 lm ft2. For many energy-efficient light...

Surface Maintenance

Horse traffic patterns during arena use will cause the footing material to become uneven. The high-traffic path along the arena rail will take the most abuse. Depending on the riding discipline, high-traffic areas are also located along the arena diagonals, near barrels or poles, and the centerline. The footing within the high-traffic area will be thrown out of the path by hoof action, while any remaining footing will be more compacted where it is most needed. It is not uncommon for the footing...

Heated Arena

Indoor arenas can be kept at outdoor temperatures during the winter or provided with supplemental heat to maintain warmer conditions. The arena may be heated full time using space heating or a radiant heating system. Alternatively, it may be heated as needed with overhead radiant heat. Chapter 12 provides detail of heating systems typically used in stables and riding arenas, but a short overview is included in this chapter. It is costly to heat an indoor arena environment both in heating system...

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Stable interior showing airflow gaps of the breathable wall siding at end of stable aisle. This stable has other good ventilation features, including eave and ridge vents, a window that opens for each stall, open grillwork on stall partitions, and no overhead airflow obstructions. Figure 6.32. Stable interior showing airflow gaps of the breathable wall siding at end of stable aisle. This stable has other good ventilation features, including eave and ridge vents, a window that opens...

Indoor Environment

Indoor riding arenas can be as simple as a roof over a riding ring. This provides sun and rain protection in warm climates. In northern climates, more protection is sought from winter wind and cold, and so sidewalls are required. The goal of an indoor arena is to provide a better environment than that available outdoors, because of excessive cold, wind, heat or precipitation. This requires attention to arena environment conditions. The bigger the difference between desired indoor conditions and...

Example Calculation Air Distribution Duct

Calculations are presented for delivering air to an area of stable with eight horse stalls. The minimum recommended fresh air ventilation rate of 25 cfm horse is provided with a second calculation for twice this amount of air exchange. The minimum Figure 12.8. Heated stable with overhead rigid duct that delivers warmed air throughout the stable interior. The heater is located nearby in a separate utility room. Figure 12.8. Heated stable with overhead rigid duct that delivers warmed air...

Figure 173 Particle size distributions of six indoor riding arena footing materials Minimizing the amount of fine

Prone to suspension than heavier particles. Decrease lightweight particles in three ways 1. Eliminate fine particles, such as silt, clay, or fine sand, in the footing mixture by careful footing material selection. Even coarse materials such as sand and wood products will break down over time into many fine particles, so maintenance is critical to reduce dust. In some footing mixtures, 10 to 30 of these materials are deliberately added for traction and water-holding capacity but realize the...

Fresh Air Quality

Heated buildings will usually employ mechanical ventilation to carefully control fresh air exchange. A mechanical ventilation system is composed of a fan(s), planned openings, and controls. Warm stable design typically uses heat and mechanical ventilation during the heating season and uses natural ventilation the rest of the year. Provide one continuously operated fan system for minimum cold-weather ventilation and additional thermostat-controlled fans along with increased inlet opening for...

Riding Arena Surface

Unfortunately, there are no universal recommendations for the perfect riding surface or footing material. A perfect riding surface should be cushioned to minimize concussion on horse legs, firm enough to provide traction, not too slick, not too dusty, not overly abrasive to horse hooves, freeze-proof during cold weather, inexpensive to obtain, and easy to maintain. Cost of footing materials is locally dependent on material availability and transportation cost. The intended use of the arena for...

Poly Bonded Wire

Poly-bonded wire is a hybrid fencing material consisting of a thin (about 3 8-inch) vinyl coating (PVC) surrounding a 12V2- gauge wire (Fig. 15.15). The wire is best kept under tension similar to conventional wire fence. It is recommended that the vinyl be bonded to the wire because vinyl has a larger amount of expansion and contraction during temperature changes than does the wire. If the vinyl is not bonded to the wire, and merely coats the wire, it expands beyond the wire causing bubbles in...

Measuring Ventilation Rate

Measuring a building ventilation rate seems quite simple, but in practice it is nearly impossible to estimate accurately for naturally ventilated structures, such as horse stables. When the guidelines presented in this chapter for opening sizes are followed, the stable will ventilate naturally and appropriately. The most challenging weather for naturally ventilated structures is during hot but windless days. Fortunately for horses, there is relatively low body heat accumulation in a stable that...

Separate Heated Area In Stable

Mentioned several times in this chapter is the idea of providing a heated working area segregated from the main horse stabling environment. The idea is to Figure 12.21. Concept layout of unheated stall area with heated grooming, wash, and tack support area in 18-stall stable. Shaded area is heated. Figure 12.22. Concept layout of small private stable with heated grooming area and tack room with unheated stall area. accommodate human comfort with a heated working area while providing a...

Time and Energy

Understand that the time lag for floor heating is longer than for more conventional heating systems because of the thermal mass of floor that needs to be heated in order to provide detectable warmth. Likewise, when floor heat is turned off, it has a considerable time where it continues to provide heat to the surroundings. Floor heating systems are best used in applications where the heat is needed over long periods rather than an application where heat is needed quickly or for short periods of...

Outside Water Needs

Water will be needed outdoors for horse watering and equipment cleaning. At the minimum, an antisi-phoning, frost-proof hydrant should be provided in a location that can service paddock water needs and any cleaning chores. Automatic outdoor waterers can be located nearer the center of a paddock rather than near the fenceline, but it still needs to be checked daily for water use and cleanliness so put it in a convenient, mud-free location (Fig. 10.11). These units provide access to ground heat...

Natural Light

Natural lighting systems allow sunlight to enter the stable or arena through glazed or unglazed openings. The design includes the number, size and locations of openings, covers for each opening, and protection from horses. Covers for each opening include glass and translucent plastic panels or translucent curtain materials. Typically, each stall should have a window. Support areas should have windows such as in the tack room, feed room, office, and lounge. During warm weather, stable doors,...

Permanent Openings

Furnish stalls with some sidewall openings that are permanently open year round. Each stall should have direct access to fresh air openings. A guideline is to supply each stabled horse the equivalent of at least 1 square foot of opening into its stall to allow ventilation even during the coldest weather. The best location for this permanent opening is at the eave (where sidewall meets roof). A slot opening along the eave that runs the entire length of the stable is often used (Figs. 6.10 and...

Feed Storage

Feed bins are common in horse stable feed rooms. Wooden bins, sometimes lined with metal, are constructed with multiple compartments for storage of more than one type of feed or ingredient. A top hinged lid rests back against the wall behind the bin and is shut when not in use. This hinged lid makes it more difficult for a loose horse to get the bin open and comfortably keep a head in the feed bin. Use 3 4-inch-thick plywood or 1 by 6 boards in bin construction. A removable liner is useful for...

Siting the Manure Storage

The waste stockpile areas must be accessible to trucks or tractors in all weather conditions. A location on high ground will usually provide firm soil well above groundwater, forming a suitable base for the storage facility and access road. Keep manure away from building materials, as corrosive chemicals in the manure can damage them. Do not store manure where runoff or floodwater will cause nutrients to enter nearby waterways. Table 8.4 lists distances to separate the manure storage from...

Manure Handling Efficient Movement

When handling large quantities of bulky material, straight-line movement through wide doors is the most efficient. Avoid stable designs that necessitate turns and tight passages for travel from the stall to manure deposition area. Hand labor is most common in horse stall cleaning. To increase worker efficiency, provide plenty of stall light, minimize lifting, and make the temporary manure stockpile area easily accessible from all areas of the stable (Fig. 8.5). in most stables, stalls are...

Stall Waste Production And Characteristics

Manure includes both the solid and liquid portions of waste. Horse manure is about 60 solids and 40 urine. On average, a horse produces 0.5 ounces of feces and 0.3 fluid ounces of urine per pound of body weight every day. A 1000-pound horse produces about 30 to 36 pounds of feces and 1.9 to 2.4 gallons of urine daily, which totals around 50 pounds of total raw waste per day (Fig. 8.1 and Table 8.1). Soiled bedding removed with the manure during stall cleaning may account for another 8 to 15...

Management of the Stored Manure

With proper management, flies and odors from manure storage can be minimal. The major deterrent to fly breeding in horse operations is to keep the manure as dry as possible. Other wet organic material sites also need to be removed. Remove manure from the farm at least every seven days during fly breeding season, or operate a properly managed composting facility. Figure 8.17. Grassed filter area for treating manure storage leachate. Use a site-specific design of the vegetated filter based on...

Other Stable Wastes

Waste management is not confined to horse stall waste at a large facility. Keep trash separate from manure and soiled bedding for disposal. Recyclable materials are also kept separate for collection. Medical waste (e.g., syringes) usually has special disposal requirements. Fertilizers and pesticides and their containers sometimes have disposal restrictions. Human waste from a bathroom requires a septic system or connection to municipal sewer. Gray water, such as shower and sink water, may also...

Contract Disposal

Another manure disposal option is to contract with a hauler who will remove the waste from the stable facility. The waste can be used in a commercial composting operation or for other functions where the waste disposal is the responsibility of the hauler. Dumpsters are positioned at the stable for temporary stall waste storage (no trash or garbage) a full dump-ster is replaced with an empty one. Dumpsters should be sized so that the contents are emptied at least weekly during the fly breeding...

Manure Disposal Direct Disposal

Direct disposal involves the on-farm use of the stall waste via field application. Proper field application demands equipment such as a tractor and spreader so that the manure is applied in a thin Figure 8.18. Stall waste transfer from stable collection vehicle to field application machinery. Figure 8.18. Stall waste transfer from stable collection vehicle to field application machinery. layer over the soil (Fig. 8.18). The thin layer is essential for drying the manure to discourage fly...

Figure 81 Daily manure and stall waste production from a typical 1000pound horse

Substantial amounts of manure can accumulate where horses congregate around gates, water-ers, favorite shade areas, feeders, and shelters. These areas should be cleaned weekly for better pasture management and parasite control and to diminish fly breeding. Manure collected from paddocks and pastures may be added to the stall waste stockpile. Horse manure has been considered a valuable resource rather than a waste. Fertilizer value of 8V2 tons of manure produced annually by a...

Flooring Materials and Drainage

The importance of good flooring becomes more evident as a horse spends more time in his stall. The fitness of a horse's legs and feet can be greatly affected by the type of stall flooring chosen. The most suitable floor is highly dependent on management style, while personal preferences can have a strong influence. Fortunately, there are many options for suitable floors in a horse facility. The objective of this chapter is to provide information on stall and stable flooring materials, including...

Stable Design and Management to Minimize Fire Risk

Having water hydrants (more than one) with adequate water volume and pressure located in and around the barn helps in early suppression before the fire company arrives. An alternative is having enough hose available to reach all areas in the barn. In all facilities, hydrants need to be frost free. If heat tapes are used (but their use is discouraged), be sure to read, understand, and follow all manufacturer warnings and directions. An improperly installed heat tape is a fire hazard. Locating...

What about Drafts

A draft occurs when cold air blows on a horse. Warm air blowing over a horse is not a draft. Since horses tolerate colder conditions than humans, what we consider drafty is not necessarily uncomfortable to the horse. Be sure to differentiate between cold temperature and draft. A main principle of ventilation is Figure 6.3. Design detail for freezing conditions, such as the self-draining water hydrant, will be needed in most horse stables located in cold climates. Figure 6.3. Design detail for...

Moisture and Dust Protection

Because of the dust and high humidity in horse housing and indoor arenas, install dust- and moisture-resistant fixtures. The common incandescent and fluorescent fixtures used in residential and commercial building applications are not appropriate for the stables, arena, and other high-dust and -moisture areas. In the damp and or dusty buildings found on horse farms, more rugged dust-proof and moisture-resistant fixtures are needed. A dust- and water-tight fixture for incandescent light is shown...

Why Inadequate Ventilation

Two major factors lead to inadequate ventilation in modern stable construction. First, some stable designers are unfamiliar with how much air exchange is needed in a horse stall. Second, horse owners tend to be most comfortable in copying residential building practices. The belief that indoor housing provides a more desirable environment for horses is true only if a well-designed ventilation system is an integral part of the stable. Very limited information has been available for horse stable...

Indoor Arena Framing and Siding

An indoor riding arena is actually a relatively simple structure. It is a shelter over a riding surface. Its immense size in height, length, and width is what contributes to structural material cost. Selecting common framework sizes that are easily transported to the site and that can be handled by typical construction equipment can minimize cost. Clear-span structures are used where either trusses or rigid frame support a gable roof (typical) structure (Figs. 16.8 and 16.9) without interior...

Horse Arena Base Construction

The base supports the weight and concussion of the horse traffic and is essentially the foundation for the arena. It also provides protection to the subbase. Base material can be of limestone, bluestone, or whitestone composition. Depending on region, other names for base material may prevail, but requesting road base mix is a good starting point. An engineered crushed rock material is recommended. The material is an aggregate of many particle sizes that is not slippery and will not swell once...

Understanding Footing Raw Materials

The primary principle of selecting footing materials is to obtain materials that maintain their loose nature without compaction while providing suitable stability for riding activity. Footing materials are composed of particles with properties that influence their suitability as footing materials. The major component of most footing is a mixture of naturally occurring sand, silt, and clay particles. In a sieve analysis (available from most industrial sand producers), these are listed from...

Byproduct Compost

Farm Composting Handbook

An alternative to disposing of horse manure is to compost it into a by-product of the operation. Composting occurs naturally if stall waste decomposes in the presence of oxygen and is kept relatively moist, above 50 moisture content (Fig. 8.20). The Figure 8.20. Simple process of a composting stall waste pile. Figure 8.20. Simple process of a composting stall waste pile. Figure 8.21. A front-end loader (pictured) or specialized compost turning equipment is used to turn compost in professionally...

Uniformity of Light

Illumination uniformity is defined as the ratio of the maximum to minimum values of light over a work area. In locations where tasks are visually challenging, such as office work or detailed horse care, the uniformity ratio (UR) should be no higher than 1.5. A UR around 5 is suitable for tasks that do not require close observation by the worker, such as horse stalls or riding arena surface. The UR is a very simple measure divide the maximum light reading found in the area of interest by the...

Automatic Fire Suppression

Fire Sprinkler Piping System Too Low

Sprinkler systems are an effective tool for controlling fires but are not common in rural horse barns. Most sprinkler systems open to apply water to a fire when a sensing element in the individual sprinkler head comes in contact with intense heat. Only the sprinkler heads that come in contact with the fire's heat react, minimizing the water needed to extinguish the fire. A sprinkler system usually suppresses a fire with as few as two sprinkler heads and is very effective at controlling fires...

Construction Style and Materials

This chapter provides an overview of common construction styles used in horse stables and indoor riding arenas. Basic construction materials useful in horse facilities are briefly reviewed. Stables and indoor riding arenas are built to provide protection from weather, so there will be regional variation in desirable construction attributes. For example, in a hot, arid climate a more open structure is desirable for cooling breezes while providing protection from sunlight. In climates with cold,...

Horse Stable and Riding Arena Design

Eileen Fabian Wheeler is Associate Professor in Agricultural and Biological Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University. 2006 Blackwell Publishing All rights reserved 2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014, USA Web 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia Tel. +61 (0)3 8359 1011 Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by Blackwell Publishing, provided...

Natural lighting

Sidewall Translucent Panels Natural lighting can be successfully built into the structure of indoor riding arenas to cut artificial lighting electrical costs and to provide welcome brightness into a dark interior. Fortunately the arena design trend is toward providing natural light entry. Translucent panels installed high in the sidewall under the eave provide a relatively even diffuse lighting. Install at least a 36-inch height of translucent panel to provide sufficient light for riding even...

Table 101 Horse Stable Water Use Estimates

Horse drinking Riding arena footing dust control3 Bathroom or wash sink Toilet flush Shower Automatic clothes washer Equipment washing (horse trailer, tractor, etc.) Horse bathb Floor wash with hosec Manured-floor wash with 12 gallons day horse 0.05-0.50 gallons ft 2 Total Water Use (gallons use) 1-2 4-7 25-60 30-50 30 Note Because horse facility water use is virtually undocumented, footnotes explain where estimates were drawn from similar water use purposes in other agricultural enterprises....

Example Design Of Indoor Arena Lighting Placement Set up design conditions

Uniformity Lighting Design

An arena of 60 feet by 120 feet has 7200 square feet of riding surface area. The sidewall height is 16 feet. Mount light fixtures on truss bottom chord. For a riding arena the floor is the important light plane so if lamps are mounted under the 16-foot-tall truss and the fixture height is about 2 feet, then distance Hp is 14 feet. Provide at least 20 footcandles of light 30 foot-candles for bright interior (Table 11.1). Minimize shadows to reduce light and dark patches that may be unsettling...

Water Use And Techniques

Watering the footing material reduces dust levels and can put some traction back into loose, sandy or wood-based footing. Frequent deep watering will be part of normal arena maintenance, so planning ahead to make it a less arduous task will have long-term benefit. The objective is to keep the material moist all the way through. Water to keep the footing evenly moist to a 3-inch depth. Once the arena is at a moisture that is suitable for your riding purpose, use a garden-supply store meter to...

Tool And Machinery Storage

Horsekeeping involves considerable hand labor. Keep tools convenient to daily cleaning routines, with hanging storage for rakes, brooms, shovels, and forks. This keeps them tidy, in a set location, and up Figure 13.14. Keep hand tools for stall cleaning hanging in a handy location, often in the work aisle of the stable near the centralized work area. Figure 13.14. Keep hand tools for stall cleaning hanging in a handy location, often in the work aisle of the stable near the centralized work...

Pipe And Cable Fences

Steel pipe fence tends to be used in areas where wood is less available or is quickly damaged by insects. Pipe fence is extremely sturdy and visible but usually has a high labor cost to construct because welding may be required. At least one manufacturer offers a design where the rails slide through holes in the post for easier assembly. Pipe fence requires little maintenance if properly treated during installation. It is successfully used for paddocks, round pens, and riding arenas with height...

Hot Weather Ventilation

During warm outdoor temperatures, ideally the indoor arena serves as a sun shelter and the building is opened up to admit as many cooling breezes as possible. At a minimum, provide large endwall doors that open and supplement with sidewall sliding Fig. 16.15 or swinging panels. Large sidewall doors are often used too so that as breeze direction changes, large openings can allow air to be directed through the building. In fact, pleasing cross-breezes are usually welcome within the arena in all...

Height

The minimum recommended sidewall height in a riding arena is 16 to 18 feet. The trend in construction is toward the 18-foot height. This provides a good, airy riding environment where jumping and Figure 16.8. Trusses are used for clear-span construction in small- to medium-sized indoor arenas. rigorous activity can be enjoyed. Generally a 24-foot pole, set 5 feet deep, can be used for an 18-foot sidewall that is not significantly more expensive than the poles used for a 16-foot arena height....

Rider Guards

Stirrup rails and rider wall guards are common in indoor arenas. The objective is to keep riders' stirrups and knees from contacting the columns that support the arena roof structure. Rails can be as simple as a 2 X 8 lumber rail nailed at stirrup height along the interior of columns. Clearly, not everyone's horse and stirrup level are at the same height, so this method has its limitations. The next step is to enclose most of the lower 4 to 6 feet of sidewall in wooden cladding, such as...