Contents

Preface vii

Acknowledgements ix

1 The Development of the Pitched Roof 1

Primitive roof forms 1

The coupled roof 1

Stability 3

Ceilings 6

Trusses 7

Design for economy 9

Standard design roofs 9

Bolt and connector joints 10

Trussed rafters 11

Cost advantages 11

Legislation 13

2 Roof Shapes and Terminology 18

Terminology 23

3 The 'Traditional' or 'Cut' Roof 26

Design 26

The common rafter and purlin roof 28

The hip roof 32

The mono pitch roof truss 35

The valley structure 36

Attic roofs 37

Roof lights and roof windows 48

Additional design considerations 48

4 Attic Construction Using Modern Engineered Timber Components 52

The floor 52

Attic construction using engineered timber components 57

5 Bolted Truss Roof Construction 71

The joints 71

Truss assembly 72

The split-ring connector 74

Accuracy 75

Standard designs 75

The roof construction 75

Bolted truss hips 77

Valleys 77

Structural openings 80

Roof stability 80

6 The Construction of Trussed Rafter Roofs 82

Performance in use 82

Design 85

Design information 86

Quality control 88

Inspection and quality assurance 94

The construction of a trussed rafter roof 96

Hip end roofs 103

Valleys and intersecting roofs 103

Trimmings for openings 109

Attic and loft roofs 109 Openings for dormers, roof windows and stairwells in attic trussed rafter roofs 117

Bracing the attic trussed rafter roof 119

Trussed rafter shapes 122

7 Truss Plate Systems 123

Systems available 123

Computer programs 125

Training 128

Technical data 130

Metalwork 131

Hip roof construction 131

Valleys 138

Attic trusses 141

Raised tie trusses 143

Punched nail plate joists, rafters and purlins 145

Future developments 148

8 Roof Construction Detailing 150

General 150

Storage and handling of timber and timber components 150

Preservative treatment 157

Wall plates and fixings 160

Gable ends, ladders, gable restraints and separating walls 166

Water tank platforms 174

Ventilation of roof voids 178

Bracing 180

Eaves details 186

Trimming small openings 192

Infill 195

9 Loft Conversions 198

Development of the loft 198

The early attic 199

Floors and ceilings 201

Cottages 202

Wasted space 202

The final blow 203

Examining conversion possibilities 204

Decision making considerations 204

Typical roof types 205

Letting in light 210

Can we stand up? 219

Valley 219

Access to the attic 220

The last resort 221

10 Obligations - Visual Impact on Your Home 222

The planning application 224

The structural impact on the home 225

11 The Conversion 227

Making a start 227

The survey 227

Plans and specification 228

Writing the specification 229

Impact on occupants during conversion 230

Builders' stores and materials 231

12 Solutions 232

Basic accommodation 232

The common roof 233

Bolted truss and trussed rafter roofs 235

Roof replacement 236

Ventilating the roof void 237

Openings for dormers and roof windows 240

Conclusions 240

Bibliography, Standards and Technical References 241

Index

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