Extant London works include Various estates see below

Cubitt began his career as a journeyman carpenter and sailed to India as a ship's carpenter. Returning in 1809, he set up as a master carpenter and was joined by his brother William. In 1815, he made the step of setting up as a general contractor who directly employed other trades. Having a permanent waged workforce to feed with work (and disliking working with architects), Cubitt began to speculate the Calthorpe Estate, Gray's Inn Highbury Park Stoke Newington (Albion Road) Islington...

Kenwood House 176769

Hampstead Heath is an extensive swathe of ostensibly wild parkland that is, in fact, a carefully cultivated boundary zone between sometimes decrepit Victorian terraces on its inner, city, side and the often finer detached houses of early suburbia and the well-heeled historic villages of Hampstead and Highgate that lie on the outer fringes of central London. In the northern part of this recreational resource, stretched across the top of a hill, sits a fine and dignified villa whose gleaming...

A free style is there any such thing

A b term sums up the architectural struggles ofthe late I vnineteenth century more than 'freestyle ' meaningto be free ofthe conventions applying to this or that style, particularly the neo-Gothic or neo-Classical, in all their varieties ofimposition and constraint. Yet nothing could be more fraught and paradoxical. Architecture has to be addressed in terms of intentions and their expression, and 'freestyle ' actually refers to a form of choice that, nevertheless, demands an orientation and...

Queen Victoria Street City 1999

Peter Foggo was, for many years, the lead designer of Arup Associates - the architectural design arm of Ove Arup's firm of engineers, a group that had been founded in 1953 and later formalised as Arup Associates in 1963. Foggo was born in Liverpool, where he worked as a bank clerk before the impressiveness of his Victorian surroundings in the city prompted him to begin studies at the Liverpool University school of architecture. Upon graduating he briefly worked for the Architects Co-Partnership...

Leadenhall Market City 1881

former Guildhall School of Music, John Carpenter Street (west side), Victoria Embankment, 1885-7. Perhaps the outstanding extant work from Jones. Tower Bridge, with Sir John Wolfe-Barry. (Erected mostly after Jones' death), 1886-94. Wolfe Barry's office apparently did most of the detailing. During the period of explosive growth during the nineteenth century - and despite being the historic core of Britain's capital and the heart of its global empire - the City of London wanted nothing to do...

Silken Hotel Aldwych 2008

Ken Shuttleworth (who left to set up Make as a practice contriving to be everything the Foster practice was not the fallout bizarrely resulting in Foster being accused of exercising a Stalinesque Photoshop elimination of Shuttleworth from office photographs). Foster's London office buildings (as at Canary Wharf and More London) have, on the whole, been formulaic - with the exception, perhaps, of interesting ones such 100 Wood Street (exorcised from the practice's web site, possibly because of a...

Merely a simple barn St Pauls Covent Garden 1631

St Paul's, Covent Garden, is pure theatre. It was required to formally address the square to its east side and so has an entirely false frontage on that side, but its proper entrance is, of course, on the west side. This is the 'barn' foisted onto a land developer and features as part of a schematic whole that is indicative of West End developments for the next 150 years a square, rows of grand houses, each speculatively developed, mews at the rear, perhaps a church and market. The context was...

Extant London works include The Royal Festival Hall Southbank 1951

Njf , R A artin stands as a peculiar figure in post-m IVIwar British architecture an achiever himself, as designer and teacher, knighted at a relatively young age, and someone who was crucial to the career of many other architects. He was born in Manchester, son of a church architect, and studied architecture at Manchester University. He graduated with an MA in 1932 and a PhD in 1936, and began teaching at Manchester in 1930. In 1934 he was appointed head of the school of architecture in the...

Extant London works include

Queen Elizabeth Hall and Hayward Gallery, Southbank, with others while at the LCC. Archigram won the RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 2002, some forty years after they published 'archi-grams' and upset the architectural establishment. They were an odd mixture of malcontents initially Cook, Green and Webb, later joined by Chalk, Crompton and Herron (the latter all ex-LCC). Theo Crosby was responsible for bringing all six together to work on a project at Euston and, for...

Compass Centre

former Eurostar terminal, Waterloo Station (1993 until late 2007). There is also an Operations Centre, completed 1991, which sits above some of the platforms in another part of the station. Extensive work was also carried out at Paddington Station, 1999. Lords Grandstand, 1998 (complementing similar work by Hopkins). offices, 25 Gresham Street, London (2003). 10,750 sqm. University College London Cancer Institute, 2007. Architecture with clarity and a (now) rare exercise in sophisticated...

Educating heroes and francophile sentiments

In 1884, Richard Phene Spiers, Master of the Royal Academy School of Architecture, had unfavourably contrasted articled pupillage with Continental practice The first great faiiing in England is that the student coming straight from school is not prepared to make that use of the practical training to be had in the office which is universally assumed. He has little or no knowledge of either freehand or geometrical drawing, of physics, mechanics, or of any of the elements of architectural style he...

Extant London works of Cubitt include Kings Cross Station frontage 18512

Undergoing extensive work in 2008, in conjunction with St Pancras Station (now the Eurostar station) and a general renewal of the area. Lewis was the youngest of three Cubitt brothers Lewis, Thomas and William, and was known as the brightest but laziest of them. He was apprenticed to his brother Thomas in 1815 and later at the offices of H.E. Kendall, then in partnership with the other brothers until this was dissolved in 1827 (Thomas going off on his own, but being re-joined by Lewis in 1831)....

Extant London works include Nos 38 and 39 Cheyne Walk Chelsea 18961913

Ashbee was the son of a wealthy merchant and, ironically, a fastidious and well respected book collector, Henry Spencer Ashbee (1827-1900), now famous as a publisher of erotic works (left to the British Museum), world traveller, supposed womaniser and a man embarrassed by his son's homosexuality. Against that unusual background Charles Ashbee attended Cambridge University and, in 1886, entered the world as a socialist determined to both do good and be an architect. In 1887, the year the elder...

No 1 FitZSjohn Avenue Hampstead 1883 4258 Pont Street

Stevenson's life and work parallels that of Shaw, but on a more quiet note. He was born in Glasgow, was a pupil of David Bryce in 1856, went to London and to Gilbert Scott's office in 1858, travelled in France and returned to Glasgow and a partnership with Campbell Douglas (1860). This ended in 1868 when Stevenson moved spent two years writing and travelling before moving to London and partnership, in 1871, with E.R. Robson (formerly Chief Architect at Liverpool), whom he had met at Scott's and...

High and dry Watergate 162627

The Watergate (below) that sits in Embankment I Gardens, adjacent to Embankment station and Terry Farrell's Charing Cross office building, is contentiously attributed to Jones but was, in any case, executed by Nicholas Stone (1586-1647), a mason who (among other things) also worked on the Banqueting House. He was born near Exeter, spent time in Holland and returned to Southwark, where he set up a large practice, becoming the King's Mason to James I in 1619 and to Charles I in 1626. The gate sat...

Berthold Romanovich Tolek Lubetkin 19011990

Hidden Tecton members included Douglas Bailey, Anthony Chitty, Lindsay Drake, Michael Dugdaie, Valentine Harding, Denys Lasdun, Godfrey Samuel, Francis Skinner. ne can't be entirely sure of anything where Lubetkin is concerned, but it seems he was born in Georgia, son of a relatively wealthy Jewish engineer and spent most of his life denying this Jewish identity, even claiming to have been the son of a famous Russian admiral. It appears that he was educated in St Petersburg and Moscow and, by...

Location location location The Queens House 161635

Why would anyone build a house for the Queen of England straddling a main public road to Dover The answer lies in the disposition of royal land to the north was the River Thames, London's life-blood and an eminently easy way to travel, where a principal royal palace was located next to the Thames the rambling, red-bricked, gabled and chimneyed Palace of Placentia, begun in the mid-fifteenth century and later demolished for the Wren building that now stands there (the former Royal Naval...

Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church rc

Bodley (the other assessor was Shaw) should join with Scott. It wasn't a happy arrangement and Scott felt severely hampered until Bodley died in 1907, just before Scott had determined to give up and resign. He was to work on the cathedral (his most famous work) for most of the rest of his life, simplifying the original neo-Gothic design, lending it a more classical flavour and designing every detail that craftsmen and artists had to execute. (In fact, the first bay of...

Pall Mall 195558

Police Station, Wood Street, City, 1965. Central Criminal Court (Old Bailey) extension, 1973. Some people simply don't fit any category, and that applies to McMorran and Whitby. Their two most significant works - the City police station in Wood Street and the Old Bailey extension, respectively completed in 1965 and 1973 - seem to belong to a world thirty years earlier. And yet they have a masterful, idiosyncratic strangeness that still gives them presence. McMorran was educated at Harrow...

Richard Gilbert Scott son of Sir Giles

Richard Gilbert Scott

Below the staircase at the Midland Hotel, St Pancras (George GilbertScott) prior to restoration and the hotel's conversion. Scott was the beginning of a rather talented line of architects. His son, also named George, appears to have been rather undecided as to whether he was an architect or scholar. He went to Eton, then entered his father's office as an articled pupil and later as an assistant, but was persuaded to attend Cambridge University. He seems to have been significant in shifting...

Robert Hooke 16351703

In 1665, Hooke, who had met Wren at Oxford, said of the latter Hooke wrote that, Since the time of Archimedes, there scarce ever met in one man, in so great a perfection, such a Mechanical Hand, and so Philosophical a Mind But Hooke was hardly less and has a particularly high scientific reputation. The two became great friends and worked closely together. Hooke was born on the Isle of Wight, but came to Westminster school as a young boy and then went on to Oxford. In 1663 he was awarded an MA,...

Robin Hood Gardens

Ten and seven storey blocks engendering a 'stress free' central area, designed according to the then new Parker Morris standards, built in the Swedish Sundh system Jeremy Dixon as the job architect. The Smithsons were odd heroes architect's architects, intellectuals, brave and obscure, idiosyncratic and prickly, talented and arrogant, authors of one of London's worst housing estates (Robin Hood Gardens, Isle of Dogs) and one of its finest urban insinuations (the Economist group, in St...

Sir Joseph Bazalgette 181991

Architecture, urban forma and engineering were often entwined in Victorian London and there is a need to mention a man who was important to the London we experience today, a man who worked closely with architects and gave many of them significant design opportunities on the streets he created Joseph Bazalgette. He kept a large private practice and his biographer notes that Bazalgette's role was to monitor the progress of private bills passing through parliament of works which would have an...

Sir Roger Pratt 162085

Summerson remarked that Jones stands as an isolated historical figure and that it was Roger Pratt who later came to the foreground as a man who later picked up the Jonesian task of Italianising English architecture. Pratt - an architect who, in his day, was as eminent as Wren - was born in Norfolk and educated at Oxford and the Inner Temple. The Civil War prompted him to travel abroad and, from 1643 to 1649, he was in France, Holland, Italy (where he matriculated in Law at Padua later, he...

Sir Stirrat Andrew William Johnson Marshall 191281

Bottom JohnsonMarshall. Iatthew was is another Scotsman who made good in London. He was born in Edinburgh, son of the architect John Fraser Matthew, partner of Sir Robert Lorimer. He graduated from Edinburgh University during the Depression and, without work, he studied slum housing. By 1936 he was advised by a family friend to work at the Department of Health for Scotland. Between 1940-45 he was working on the Clyde Valley regional plan, with Patrick Abercrombie and, by...

Soane Nash

After Adam and Chambers, two figures dominate the view of London's architecture during the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries John Soane and John Nash. In contrast to their predecessors, these are recognisably modern figures no longer amateurs, but quasi professional. However, they practised in a period when the vocational 'disinterest' that was supposed to characterise the twentieth century professional remained a blurred issue in which architecture, art and development were...

St Bartholomew Hospital 173059

Now rather obscurely lost amid hospital life, but an interesting place to visit (see St Barts-the-Less and St Barts-the-Great). The man who is born into a Scottish Roman Catholic family, who lives for many years in Rome, who dies a Catholic and yet, somehow, manages to maintain a very successful career serving a Protestant aristocracy in a power structure deeply suspicious of anything Catholic is surely an interesting architect. John Summerson describedGibbsas,...

St Johns Church

1825-28, Cambridge Heath Road, Bethnal Green. St Peter's Church, 1823-25, Liverpool Grove, Walworth. (Soane admitted he was not a church man and none of the above churches are particularly interesting. Iohn Soane was born near Reading, where his father was a bricklayer and, being self-conscious of his humble beginnings (something that followed him through all his life), he was to later (indicatively) change his name from Soan to Soane. In 1768, at the age of fifteen, he entered the office of...

St Stephen Walbrook

Stephen Walbrook

Among the finest of the surviving City churches is St Stephen Walbrook, at Bank (1672-87). Externally, it is unprepossessing the exterior is not important apart from the tower which would once have raised itself above the surrounding roof tops (as Pugin later reminded us). At the ground, it is the entrance door and entrance sequence that is important - leading up steps into that part of the whole which is all important the interior. Here, Wren strives to produce a centralised plan that, as at...

St Thomas Hospital

Lambeth (at Westminster Bridge), 1966-76. That YRM rode to success on a wave called the postwar welfare state is a fact. How that came about has not been explained, although one can surmise that the success of the practice had a lot to do with 'K' Yorke, as he was called, combined with expertise from the foreign and Modernist expertise of his two partners Rosenberg, from Czechoslovakia, and Mardall, from Finland. Rosenberg arrived first. He qualified in Prague and was there in private practice...

StMaryle Strand 171417 St Martininthe Field 172226

Gibbs' most famous building in London stands in contrast to most of the City churches and their compromised inventiveness. The church is prominently sited, stand-alone and large, and attempts to unify all its parts into an orderly whole that has none of the agitated assertiveness of Hawksmoor. In particular, it marries portico, vestibule, the body of the church and a tower in a manner that suggests a refined Christianisation of the Classical temple and strikes a note of accord with new tastes...

Swiss Cottage Library

There is one London building that still sustains Spence's reputation the Swiss Cottage Library (Sir Basil Spence, Bonnington and Collins), refurbished by John McAslan's practice in 2005. It is worth a visit, representing a lost tradition of well designed and stocked libraries that this nation has neglected in favour of things such as 'idea stores'. Spence first entered into relations with Hampstead Borough in 1958, winning the commission to design a town hall with some extravagant features that...

The Cenotaph 1919

It is perhaps fitting, but nevertheless ironic, that London's finest example of Lutyens' work is arguably the Cenotaph a comparatively small civic monument to the dead of WWI witness to a significant change point in his career, devoid of domesticity, religiosity or commerciality. That it remains a significant memorial, now embedded in annual civic rituals, says much about the success of the design as well as the depth of pain caused by war. The basis of the design for a cenotaph (meaning an...

The Soane Museum

There is delight and regret in Soane, a man of raw ambition and probity, of humour and bitterness, and what he had to say and what he did in Lincoln's Inn are, perhaps, the content of an architectural psychologist's dream. As a self-confessed lover of architecture he surrounded himself with the subject as a fluidity of historicity and values firmly rooted in the epochal sensibilities of his day and vicissitudes of his own fate. Soane held antiquity in high esteem, but was convinced that the...

Thomas Leverton Donaldson 17951885

Thomas Donaldson has the credit of HW - I being a principal creator of the Institute of Architects, founded in 1833 and quickly establishing royal patronage in 1837. The other authors included Philip Hardwick, Thomas Allom, William Donthorne, and John Buonarotti Papworth. When awarded its royal charter in 1837 the Institute became the Royal Institute of British Architects in London, eventually dropping the reference to London in 1892. The context was a variety of attempts to form exclusive...

TUC Congress House 194857

Swiss Centre, Leicester Square, 1961-6. Aberdeen's claim to fame is the TUC's Congress House, won in competition in 1948 in a post-war period when the TUC's seventy staff represented nine million unionists. It was a grim period in London's history, with the Depression tears still fresh in people's memories. But, especially among architects, it was also one of optimism and hope for the future of post-war Britain. One has to imagine this work of bright, transparent Modernism arriving in a...

University College Hospital 18961906 Gower Street

Waterhouse's finest design - the Manchester Town Hall - is not in London. But we do have a few others by this notable architect and fan of terra-cotta, particularly the Natural History Museum. Waterhouse belonged to a strongly Quaker Liverpool family and, in 1848, began his life in architecture articled to P.B. Alley and R. Lane, in Manchester. Upon the completion of his articles in 1853 he set off travelling in France, Italy and Germany after which he set up in practice with commissions coming...

Westminster Abbey 1375 on

Peter is a fine work of architecture whose unfortunate fate has been to end up as a secular tourist attraction and funeral vault celebrating significant past lives (beginning with the open tomb of Henry V's queen, Catherine of Valois, which sat here for three centuries, but now including all kinds of political, military and poetic figures). As at the Tower, one has to struggle to get to the architecture. The origins of the church are obscure - claimed by its...

United Free Church

Also, houses at Nos.135-141 Hampstead Way. Below the frontage of the Bishopsgate Institute. Below the frontage of the Bishopsgate Institute. Townsend was born in Birkenhead, the son of a solicitor and his wife, a Polish pianist. At sixteen, he was articled to the Liverpool architect Walter Scott (to 1872) and, from 1873-75, was with Charles Barry before joining Edward Robert Robson's office at the recently formed London school board. It was about this time...

St Mary Woolnoth 171627

Historical change at St Mary of the Nativity began a long time ago - when William Butterfield arrived tin 1875 to remodel the interior by taking away the two galleries. However, as with many of the City churches, one is looking at a reincarnation that dates back to at least 1191. There was then a church of 1438 that burnt in the Great Fire, had Wren repair it in 1674, but was finally replaced by Hawksmoor's work. The reredos (the decorated screen behind an altar), pulpit and plasterwork are all...

The Banqueting House 161922

Jones' Banqueting House in Whitehall takes the form of a large galleried room for formal dining and occasional elaborate masques set above a basement decorated with 'rock and shell worke', where private drinking parties took place. It is also the last remaining fragment of the rambling, medieval Westminster Palace, within which it stood as a strange, set-piece statement at odds with all around it the initial commitment of what was intended to be a (never realised) grand palace. The Banqueting...

Modernism tainted and untainted

Andrew Derbyshire, once a well known post-war English architect, reminisced that, When I left the AA the prestigious Architectural Association School of Architecture in 1951, fired with enthusiasm to build the welfare state, I sought, like most graduates, to join the public service. We thought of private practice as money-grubbing, unfitted to pursue the ideal of social architecture Similarly, Ron Herron, a member of the Archigram group, another well-known and respected architect of the '60's...

No19 Lincolns Inn Holborn 1868

The house was designed in the so-called neo-vernacular 'parsonage' style developed by Pugin, Street, and Butterfield for their small vicarages, cottages, and schools picturesque, free of academic convention and based on good building and simplicity. The house (1859-70) became an 'arts & crafts' showcase for its garden, furniture and internal decor as well as the house design itself. Meanwhile, in 1861, after leaving Street in 1859, Web became a founder member of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner...

Golders Green Crematorium 1905

Southwark Bridge, 1915-1921, with the engineer Basil Mott. Below a detail on one of George's Harrington buildings. The more one sees of George's work the more one realise that this was a remarkable architect. His housing in Harrington and Collingham Gardens is Queen Anne on steroids outstandingly and daringly original. He was born as the son of a prosperous ironmonger, just off the New Kent Road. At school, as a fine draughtsman and watercolourist, he developed an interest in architecture and...

Glory for old pensioners Greenwich Royal Naval Hospital

The former naval hospital at Greenwich is a strange building it doesn't look as if it could ever have served such a purpose. It was designed by Wren in 1695 as a way of completing schemes for Greenwich Palace (initiated by Charles II, to designs by John Webb this is now the King Charles Block, 1664-9, on the north west side) and its central parts were constructed between 1696 and 1702 as a naval counterpoint to the army hospital at Chelsea. Vanbrugh, Hawksmoor and others all played a role in...

Sir Edwin Cooper 18741942

Cooper was a Scarborough man who was articled to Hall and Tugwell in that town between 1885-89. He then went into a firm in York before moving south to London and the firm of Goldie, Child, and Goldie before returning to Scarbough to enter into a partnership with an older, established architect as Hall, Cooper, and Davis. However, by 1903 he was in partnership with Samuel Bridgeman Russell, until 1910, before then setting up on his own. He entered and won competitions, but his big opportunity...

The Farrell Grimshaw Partnership FGP

Terry Farrell and Nick Grimshaw were, for over ten years, partners who graduated from the AA in 1965 and immediately entered upon a professional career together. In 1980, they were 'divorced', Farrell then embarking on a remarkable ten years that saw him established as Britain's premier Post-Modernist and Grimshaw, on the other hand, standing shoulder to shoulder with the High-Tech group that included Foster, Rogers and Hopkins. These contrasting stances hardly helped the Farrell Grimshaw...