Lockclad system

The Lockclad system, supplied In the UK by Red Bank, uses terracotta tiles made from English clay fixed to an aluminium lock rail. Each tile is securely and independently retained on the supporting rail by fixing clips, allowing individual tiles to be removed and replaced. Rainwater penetrating the rainscreen is collected by the tray that forms the top of the sigma rail. It is then efficiently drained to the front face of the facade at every horizontal joint. Openings should be suitably baffled...

A construction typology

Wood can be incorporated into outer walls in many ways. A very old but still current construction type is that of the log cabin', with tree trunks stacked one on top of the other providing a load-bearing, watertight and insulating structure. However this construction is no longer common, due to the high cost of materials and the limited thermal insulation offered. Today, wood is more commonly used to protect against rain in the form of boards, sheets or tiles which are affixed to a wooden,...

Terracotta systems

There are essentially four types of terracotta system. 'Bardeau' system The Bardeau system using French clay was originally imported into the UK by Smithbrook Building Products but is now marketed by Terreal using a French tile manufacturer Guirard Freres. It was originally used at Cit Internationale de Lyon by Renzo Piano. The maximum size of the tiles is 1400 mm x 300 mm x 70 mm they are fixed to a metal framework using proprietary stainless steel clips at each end of the tile. It can be used...

Glass

Finally a few words on the glass itself. There are now many forms of glass and glazing available to provide environmental control and thermal performance.These include - variable-transmission glazing These are described in detail by Brookes and Stacey (I 992), pp. 29-41. Also, Button and Pye (1995) summarize much useful technical information. The weakening effects of nickel sulphide inclusions in glass have been the source of much debate. Annealed glass is unaffected, but in toughened glass...

The material and its properties

Trees give us the material we call 'wood', also known as 'timber' (or lumber' in North America) when used in construction.Wood is derived from two main types of tree conifers, and the broad-leaved deciduous trees. These two types of wood are often referred to as 'softwood'and 'hardwood' respectively, although by no means all coniferous wood is actually softer than the 8.2 Wohnhaus in Hof, Basel (architect Herzog & de Meuron) 8.3 Rowing Museum, Henley-on-Thames (architect David Chipperfield)...

Weathering

The quantity of rainwater the velocity and the angle at which it hits a building change for different positions in the building, and therefore one must expect unequal weathering of the parts. This is particularly true for precast concrete, for which water absorption can cause blotches or streaking on finished surfaces. Concrete finishes vary considerably in their ability to take up and release dirt under weathering conditions.They should, therefore, be chosen for so-called self-cleansing...

Standardization of components

Because of its mouldability, GRP is often marketed offering a variety of shapes and sizes, and many manufacturers' catalogues stress its versatility of shape. Even so, economy of production can only be really achieved with standardized identical units. Manufacturers' moulds are high-cost items, and repetitive identical units are desirable for maximum economy, although this similarity need not extend to uniformity of colour Specials or non-standard units increase costs and involve the structural...

Fig 617

Guidance on the performance criteria, leading to a more accurate specification for their use within the system market. This process relies on changes in attitudes towards technical specifications and quality control, and a requirement for design input from the manufacturers that may be beyond their present resources. Batch-produced sheet core manufacturers using platten presses (Fig. 6.18) and vacuum presses (Fig. 6.19) concentrate on wall panels only. Large laminated panels (up to 7 m x 2.5 m)...

Fire resistance

Mondial House

In the UK a Class 0 resistant laminate to BS 476 is required for claddings on buildings above I 5 m high, or Class 2 or 3, within I m of the boundary. In order to provide this degree of fire resistance, it has been usual to improve the fire retardancy of polyester resins by - the use of additives, such as antimony oxide plus chlorinated paraffin, which can be mixed up with the resin - building in certain groups in the chemical structure of the resin, for example dibromone-opentyl glycol, acid,...

Patent glazing

Nineteenth-century Victorian glasshouses gave many opportunities for the development of dry assembly systems of glass and metal (Fig. 7.2). Many of these are shown by Hix (1995) in his excellent historical study of glasshouse construction. Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace had wooden glazing bars made on site by sophisticated milling machines, but by the time it was moved to Sydenham it was largely rebuilt using metal glazing bars and a puttyless glazing system, the recognized advantage of which...

Siliconebonded glazing

Throughout Europe, there has been a considerable growth and development in the use of structural glazing, predominantly to form the non-loadbearing glass envelope of major building projects. The end walls of the Sainsbury Centre, UEA (Fig. 7.34), installed by Clark Eaton in 1976, remain one of the most elegantly and minimally detailed assemblies of clear annealed glass, 15 mm thick, stiffened by 25 mm, 600 mm wide, full-height glass fins.When Solaglass replaced two units, owing to their size,...

Fixings

It is obviously not possible to fit the panels on site to an absolutely true and level structure.Tolerances on the base structure must be notified to the designer of the GRP panel system, and reference should be made to BS 5606, which indicates the accuracy of assembly that may be expected on site for given components and construction. One of the difficulties of fixing any single-skin panel back to the supporting structure is the problem of restraining the fixing device within the thickness of...

Fabrication the mould

The process of fabrication involves laying up successive layers of resin, into which glass-fibre reinforcement is embedded to follow a mould profile (Fig. 3.2). Reid and O'Brien (1973) have described the basic laying-up 3.1 Faults (a) crazing of GRP surface (b) internal dry patch. techniques. The open mould contact process uses either hand lay-up or spray-up application.There are, in addition, some other mechanized processes, such as press moulding (hot or cold), using matching moulds to press...

Types of cladding

Grc Cladding Fixing Details

Several systems of GRC cladding and roofing have been developed over the past decade, including - single-skin cladding or roofing - composite panels with foamed polyurethane In single-skin form, GRC can be mounted onto a metal stud framing Fig. 4.5 .This framing provides support and stiffness against out-of-plane forces, and permits expansion and contraction of the GRC skins. This approach has been extensively used in Germany and the USA and increasingly in the UK and continental Europe. The...

Composite metal panels

Composite Metal Foam

A combination of predictable thermal and structural performance quickly led architects to see the benefits of using composite metal panels. Composite construction is the bonding together of layers of materials to form a rigid structure.The Mosquito bomber Fig. 6.4 was an early example of composite construction in aircraft design. Composite construction is now extensively used in products as diverse as tennis rackets and jet aircraft.The principal form of composite construction is two thin...

Typical spans

Butt Joint Mullion

In metal box framing, the window mullions are the principal members of the grid horizontal members rarely form the support for curtain walls. Vertical members spanning from floor to floor must withstand axial stresses caused by self-weight and bending caused by wind loads, and it is in this direction that the mullion must have greatest stiffness and strength, a principle also illustrated by the 'fin' section of a patent glazing bar The depth of the mullion is thus dependent upon its 7.6 Glazed...