Info

British Health Resorts Association 71-2 Brixham, Devon 108,194 Brown, Captain Samuel 203 Brunlees, James 238 Buchan, John 284 bungalows 284-5,286,287 Birchington, Kent 284-5 Bungalow Town, Shoreham Beach, Sussex 287 PaghamBeach, Sussex 287 Peacehaven, Sussex 288 Burton, Decimus 47, 280 Burton, James 47 Cadmus, Paul 117, 120 Camber Sands, Sussex 9,11 camping 34,55,290,290,291,298,299 Campion, George Bryant 116 Cancun, Mexico 82 Cannadine, David 9, 98 Cannes, France 58,126,146,304 caravans...

Slew fly i m

As two of the first holidaymakers to Brighton, visiting the coastal town in the summer of 1736, the Reverend William Clarke and his wife needed somewhere to sleep. In a period before the development of any purpose-built architecture for visitors, they lodged in an older pre-resort Brighton building. Urging a friend to come and visit, Clarke described his accommodation I assure you we live here almost underground. I fancy the architects here usually take the altitude of the inhabitants, and lose...

The Indoor Bath

Margate, in 1736, was the first resort to boast an 'enclosed' sea water bath, fed from the sea by a 15-foot-long 'canal', and invented and owned by Thomas Barber, a local carpenter. The bath and 'a neat Dressing Room, and Dresses' at beach level was accessed by descending from the dining room of a seafront lodging house. Barber advertised the benefits of the innovative 'enclosed' bath as being convenient, private and comfortable. Bathing could take place whatever the state of the tide or the...

Hastings V St Leonards

The public promotion of 'Sunshine and Health', the cover of one 1935 guidebook. of the sun were widely acknowledged on one side of the Atlantic, for example, New York's health commissioner announced 'The sun is the greatest bottle ofmedicine in the world',44 while on the other side of the ocean, a British commentator described the 'profundity and prodigality' of the sun's ultra-violet radiation.45 The sun, though, seized more than the medical imagination. It had class and gender dimensions....

Holidays For The Masses

The developing interest in physical fitness and the pleasures of life out of doors combined with the rapid broadening of the demand for seaside holidays led to another alternative to sleeping and staying by the sea - the holiday camp. In origin the first camps, late Victorian camping holidays for disadvantaged children, had a strong philanthropic and moralistic philosophy. The holiday camp required an architecture for a shared communal holiday for large numbers of people. By the early years of...

LURE fflD Seaside Mll Uftt

At the dawn of the seaside resort, pioneer visitors began to venture to the English coast in search of health, leisure and pleasure. Two of the first adventurers were the Reverend William Clarke and his wife. In the summer of 1736 they stayed for a month in Brighthelmstone, a small and declining town on the south coast of England. On 22 July Clarke wrote to his friend, a Mr Bowyer We are now sunning ourselves upon the beach at Brighthelmstone The place is really pleasant I have seen nothing in...

Select Bibliography

Adamson, Simon, Seaside Piers (London, 1977) Akhtar, Miriam, and Steve Humphries, Some Liked It Hot The British on Holiday at Home and Abroad (London, 2000) Anderson, Susan C., and Bruce H. Tabb, eds, Water, Leisure and Culture. European Historical Perspectives (Oxford, 2002) Aron, Cindy S., WorkingatPlay A History ofVacations in the United States (New York, 1999) Bainbridge, Cyril, Pavilions on the Sea A History ofthe Seaside Pleasure Pier (London, 1986) Ballard, J. G., Super-Cannes (London,...

From Promenade To Pleasure Pier

Walking over the sea for pleasure at first used structures designed for functional maritime purposes. At Whitby, Scarborough, Ramsgate and other older coastal towns being transformed into resorts, stone breakwaters and piers -often very old structures - protecting or forming a harbour were explicitly adapted for parading by fashionable visitors. In Persuasion, written in 1815-16, Jane Austen describes the 'old wonders and new improvements'2 of the Cobb at Lyme Regis, an ancient stone pier...

Lodging House To Grand Hotel

The holiday camp and caravan park and the makeshift landscape ofself-made plotlands were an escape from the traditional forms ofseaside accommodation in the established resorts. At the British seaside until the middle ofthe nineteenth century most visitors stayed in lodging-houses. There were graduations in lodging-house status and quality the most affluent families would rent a grand house for a complete season, others perhaps a suite of rooms, while for the working class the lodgings, for a...

Introduction

1 David Cannadine, Ornamentalism How the British Saw Their Empire (London, 2001), p. 3. 2 The point is made by a number of commentators, including Ken Worpolein Here Comes the Sun Architecture and Public Space in Twentieth-century European Culture (London, 2000), p. 11. 3 Miriam Akhtar and Steve Humphries, Some Liked It Hot The British on Holiday at Home and Abroad (London, 2000). 4 John K. Walton, 'The Seaside Resorts of Western Europe. 1750-1939', in Recreation and the Sea, ed. Stephen Fisher...

Clactononsea

I I ITT71VI 7j nOiJMIT If.N rK> *< V. T h. Him K3n IX 'AHIMINI Uk ANT I N I ' LH-hK. tJF A J KL.Y A 1940 lner poster, artwork by J. Greenup. for eating, drinking, entertainment and leisure were in structure monolithic, constructed using modern industrial building techniques, and the chalets for sleeping were usually set in serried rows. From the air the overall design layout was more reminiscent ofthe light industrial factory estate or military barracks and parade ground than the Eager to...

The Palm

The designers ofthe Western seaside also used exotic vegetation in the quest to create another place. Tropical vegetation, and particularly the palm, has been woven into the design tapestry of the seaside, although in northern resorts the thread has often been artificial and emblematic rather than real. The palm has been an idea and symbol of the exotic and the pleasurable other. Brighton's Royal Pavilion used the palm in various ways. Cast-iron columns to support roofs and ceilings were...

Beyond British Shores

With the growing internationalization of the seaside resort, there were comparisons to be made with the practice of bathing beyond British shores. Seaside holidaymakers in other countries found alternative - and preferable - ways of using the sea that had no need for the bathing machine, especially as it was used in Britain. In consequence, the British cultural hegemony ofthe Western seaside faded, and increasingly the British seaside was influenced by what happened elsewhere. This was...

Bathing Machines

In Britain, for two centuries from the 1730s, the architectural icon of the use of the sea for health and pleasure was the bathing machine. This radical invention was in use on the sands of the coastal spa town of Scarborough, Yorkshire, by the 1840s. It could still be glimpsed as an anachronism, engulfed by a sea ofholidaymakers, on the beach at Blackpool in the 1930s. Outwardly, it looked substantially the same in the 1930s as it had 200 years earlier a small rectangular wooden structure tall...

The Postcard Home

Donald Mcgill Postcard Illustrations

Although often derided as an insubstantial piece of ephemera, the picture postcard carrying a visual image on one side was the single most important way ofrepresenting Taking photographs and refreshments on Blankenberghe Pier, Belgium. Postcard, c. 1920. Taking photographs and refreshments on Blankenberghe Pier, Belgium. Postcard, c. 1920. The promenade, a classic subject for the seaside postcard Clacton-on-Sea, c. 1957. the twentieth-century Western seaside, its use and users and its...

Photo Acknowledgements

The author and publishers wish to express their thanks to the belowsources of illustrative material and or permission to reproduce it. Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge holders of copyright ofthe illustrations used in this book, and the publishers would be pleased to hear from copyright holders concerning any errors or omissions. A. H. & S. Paragon Series p. 252 (top) aros Limited p. 244 (top) Art Gallery of New South Wales ( Margaret Stephenson-Meere) p. 120 foot (photo...

Brightons West Pier

Each pier developed its own particular life history, responding to and reflecting local and regional circumstances and events, as well as broader national changes in seaside holi-daymaking and architecture. Looking at one resort -Brighton - and one pier - the West Pier of 1866 - illustrates in microcosm many of the processes at work. In the later stages ofits history, however, Brighton's West Pier was to assume an iconic and national status.26 A speculative private enterprise, the West Pier...

Contrasts And Comparisons

Although initially a British architectural response to the seaside, other Western countries also took to the business of building for pleasure not simply beside but in the sea. In the United States from the late nineteenth century, many established resorts developed distinctive amusement piers. Although perhaps also used as landing stages and promenades, the primary purpose of amusement piers was simply that ofentertaining visitors to the seaside while ensuring above and right The Brighton...

At Hastings

Cliftonville Lido

TRAVEL fTH KIRO'WCH IMS SUHKV i-GlT 'The Famous Bathing Pool at Hastings and St Leonards', lms poster, c. 1930s, artwork by G.S. Pryse. The image suggests that female bathers far outnumbered male ones. 'The Famous Bathing Pool at Hastings and St Leonards', lms poster, c. 1930s, artwork by G.S. Pryse. The image suggests that female bathers far outnumbered male ones. promise, perhaps, of much more. None of this is surprising given the manner gender was used to sell and design the seaside. But...

Behind The Front

The sense ofthe seaside being represented as a paradise and then being altered into something unsavoury or undesired is common. The point may be made about the impact of Roger Vadim's 1956 film And God Created Woman in the transformation ofSaint-Tropez from a 'serene' fishing village on the French Mediterranean coastline - although presented by Vadim as a site ofsexual pleasure - into a fashionable and hedonistic jet-setting resort,38 and, more recently, into a self-tanning product. Du...

Bathing Pavilions And Sun Terraces

Despite the demise of the bathing machine, during the decades before 1950, some British local authorities - deeply traditional and conservative Eastbourne was one of the most notorious - continued the attempted regulation ofbeach bathers, trying to enforce the use ofhuts and tents for changing and banning both changing on the beach and 'mackintosh bathing', the practice of wearing a waterproof coat over one's costume when going to and from the beach. This regulation continued in some places...

Seaside Guides And Seaside Girls

Beauty Competition

Selling the seaside has also often been by way ofallusion to other places and other things. Frequently in Britain and elsewhere in the West resorts have been associated with other successful or exotic places. During the nineteenth century the name and idea ofBrighton, the first great seaside resort, was relentlessly applied to other seasides in Britain and exported to emerging seaside places in the usa and Australia. Similarly, during the twentieth century, the exotic and luxurious connotations...

A A

Postcard of 'Young's residence on Million Dollar Pier, Atlantic City', c. 1912. postcard of the 'Interior, Heinz Ocean Pier, Atlantic City', c. 1910. The Steel Pier's High Diving Horses, c. 1940. was a concentrated period ofpier building during the early years of the twentieth century. At one point there were five amusement piers within sight of each other on Santa Monica and Venice Beach, and each dominated by funfairs, theatres and dance halls. Copying freely from its Italian namesake, Venice...

Black Family At The Beach 2004

Nudity Paignton Beach

Underlying the difficulty of capturing the essence of the beach is that it is an ambiguous open space, capable of being defined, designed and used in different ways. The prim and sedate respectable Victorian beach with donkey rides, as pictured for children c. 1860s. right Unrestrained fun and sun. Cover illustration by F. S. Ash for the children's book On the Sands, mid-20th century. The prim and sedate respectable Victorian beach with donkey rides, as pictured for children c. 1860s. right...

Glorious Devon And The Cornish Riviera

The marketing and place promotion ofthe seaside takes place in the context of a jostling of other representations that may endure over a long period and either affirm or refute the advertised message. This engagement between contrasting representations can be illustrated by looking at one holiday region, the English West Country. Most strongly from the inter-war years, the West Country was marketed as a newly discovered or rediscovered wild, romantic and historical landscape. The promotional...

The Exotic And The Oriental

The formative building in the invention of seaside Orientalism was Brighton's Royal Pavilion, designed by John Nash for the Prince Regent (later George iv). In origin a farmhouse on the edge of the town and with views of the sea, in 1787 the earlier structure was remade into a Palladian 'Marine Pavilion' designed by Capability Brown's son-in-law, Henry Holland. On the enlarged royal seaside estate, huge royal stables and a 'riding house' were built in the early 1800s to the designs of William...

Natatorium To Water Park

Beyond Britain the architecture of seaside pools has taken a diversity of forms over the last century. In the United States, the most iconic and innovative of seaside pools was the mid-1890s Sutro Baths in San Francisco, a remarkable water recreation and entertainment complex capturing an important turning point in the architecture of swimming. As much aimed at residents ofthe city as visitors, the baths recognized the increasing popularity of swimming as a communal activity to be enjoyed by...

Bungalows And Plotlands

One English predecessor to the Californian beach house, the bungalow, was also designed for physical and psychological health, although not in the context of an egalitarian society. The bungalow is a classic example of a building for staying in by the sea that has echoed ideas from elsewhere, only, in turn, to be replicated in other places.12 A Western import from India, the bungalow had originally described a peasant's hut in seventeenth-century rural Bengal it then came to mean a house for...

Responding To The Changing Seaside

Montmartre Theatre Blackpool

Resorts and their architecture are not simply made but continually remade, adapting to new ways of using nature, responding to changing social structures and processes, fashions in leisure and entertainment, and developing ideas about the seaside and its use. Between the two twentieth-century world wars, a theme repeatedly explored by British architectural and planning commentators was how to modernize seaside resorts and their architecture. In the context ofthe inadequacies of existing resorts...