Diaphragm discontinuities

Discontinuity The Shear Wall

In the ideal world of the structural engineer, diaphragms in buildings are not penetrated by anything larger than say a 300 mm diameter pipe. Diaphragms are also planar and level over the whole floor plan. However, the real world of architecture is quite different, because in most buildings quite large penetrations are required for vertical circulation such as stairways and elevators. Building services, including air ducts and pipes also need to pass through floor slabs and in the process...