Subsidence

Earthquake shaking has the same effect on dry and wet loose soils as a vibrator has on fresh concrete - densification. Soil subsides as it densifies, and often unevenly. As well as the risk of a building tilting or suffering severe distortions from this ' natural ' process of densification, connections of underground services to a building at foundation level are vulnerable to damage. Damage resulting from this type of differential subsidence can be avoided by using one of the liquefaction mitigation methods.

▲ 7.5 Lateral spreading damage to harbour pavements. 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake.

(Reproduced with permission from Adam Crewe).

▲ 7.5 Lateral spreading damage to harbour pavements. 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake.

(Reproduced with permission from Adam Crewe).

▲ 7.6 A landslide caused by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

(Reproduced with permission: US DoD Photo).

▲ 7.6 A landslide caused by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

(Reproduced with permission: US DoD Photo).

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