Do It Yourself Solar Energy

DIY 3D Solar Panels

Almost everyone in the United States is currently paying higher electricity bills. This usually eats deep into your salary. Fortunately, switching to solar energy is one way to save money and make your home eco-friendly. In DIY 3D Solar Panel, a pioneer in the field of solar panels known as Zak Bennet will teach you exactly how to set up a 3D Solar Panels in your home within 24 hours. You can be able to do this using tools you can easily find in your garage. He will also show you other tools you need to make this dream of living off-the-grid and saving money on electricity bill come true. This course contains an eBook and video guide. It is very affordable and you can get a refund if you don't like it. Read more...

DIY 3D Solar Panels Summary

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Author: Zack Bennet
Official Website: www.backyardrevolution.org
Price: $39.00

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My DIY 3D Solar Panels Review

Highly Recommended

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Trimo Launches Ecosolar Photovoltaic Systems

- an integrated Photovoltaic system for its roofing and fa ade panels. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) - systems that are integrated at the construction stage of a building's cycle - are one of the most cost-effective ways of designing in a renewable energy systems, with the potential to off-set building costs almost from day one. Making use of the tremendous surface areas presented my many modern construction projects, Trimo's EcoSolar systems generate power, whilst also presenting an architecturally aesthetic building option. Trimo's EcoSolar system is designed to be incorporated into its recently launched Trimoterm SNV-3L panels, which is ideal having been designed for roof inclinations from 3.

Photovoltaic panels detailed development

Manufacturers have also devised ways of bonding photovoltaic cells to flat-roof type single-ply roofing membranes. Some products have flexible PV cells laminated to the waterproof membrane in the factory and the whole system is delivered to site in roll form ready to be laid out over the supporting deck. Figure 8.8 shows a comparison of panel arrangements.

Photovoltaic Slates And Tiles

Photovoltaic slates (Fig. 14.3) and tiles, which have the general appearance of fibre-cement slates and Fig. 14.3 Photovoltaic slates. Photograph solarcentury.com Fig. 14.3 Photovoltaic slates. Photograph solarcentury.com shiny plain tiles respectively, can be used on suitably orientated roofs as an ecological alternative to standard roofing, subject to appropriate planning consent. The lower half of the individual slates consist of photvoltaic cells which are connected into a standard photovoltaic system. The tiles are 2.1 m strips of material, marked in units to resemble conventional roof tiles and overlapped to give the required visual effect. To obtain 1 kW of power under optimum conditions, 10 m2 of slate or 16 m2 of tiling are required.

Trimo Launches Ecosolar Photovoltaic Systems For Roofs And Facades

With all areas of construction under social and legislative pressures to explore renewable energy sources, Tri mo, one of Europe's leading manufacturers of construction products has launched EcoSolar- an integrated Photovoltaic system for its roofing and fa ade panels. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) are one of the most cost-effective ways of designing in a renewable energy systems, with the potential to off-set building costs almost from day one. Making use of the tremendous surface areas presented my many modern construction projects, Trimo's EcoSolar systems generate power, whilst also presenting an architecturally aesthetic building option. Trimo's EcoSolar system is designed to be incorporated into its recently launched Trimoterm SNV-3L panels, which is ideal having been designed for roof inclinations from 3 as the PV system sits between the trapezoidal profiling on the smooth surface. Energy generated can be used by the building itself and any surplus fed into the...

Row house in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy

Table 8.5.1 Row house targets in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy Table 8.5.1 Row house targets in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy This section presents a renewable energy solution for the row houses in the cold climate. As a reference for the cold climate, the city of Stockholm is used.

Designing Buildings for Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic panels can substitute for other construction materials, providing a cost savings. New solar electric technology has made possible a number of products that serve another building function while acting as photovoltaic cells. Building integrated PV (BIPV) elements are structures that combine PV modules into roof panels, roofing tiles, wall panels, skylights, and other building materials, replacing traditional building elements. Companies in the United States, Japan, and Europe are actively pursuing new module designs. Solar roof shingles, structural metal roofing, and architectural metal roofing are now available, along with window glass. These products use flexible, lightweight panels designed to emulate conventional roofing materials in design, construction, function, and installation. Structural metal panels are used for PV-covered parking, charging stations for electric vehicles, park shelters and other covered outdoor spaces, and for commercial buildings. PV shingles...

Solar energy in refurbishment Advantages of solar energy

Refurbishment or other adaptation work can present an ideal opportunity to apply different solar energy options. It also presents challenges, however, because retrofitting such techniques in existing buildings can be difficult owing to the physical constraints and financial restraints involved. 'Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source and, therefore, has economic as well as environmental and social value' (ISE, 1997). It can be categorized into 'active' and 'passive' techniques. The former uses turbines, fans and pumps, some of which are often used in conjunction with passive systems. The latter uses the form and fabric of the building to admit, store and distribute primarily solar energy for heating and lighting (O'Sullivan, 1988). It has the following advantages

A1 The Photovoltaic Effect

This is the basic process by which a PV cell converts solar radiation into electricity. In crystalline silicon cells a p-n junction (p for positive, n for negative) is formed (Figure 2.1) by diffusing phosphorous into the silicon and introducing a small quantity of boron. This results in an electric field being formed. When photons, particles of solar energy, are absorbed by a PV cell, electrons under the influence of the field move out towards the surface. This flow or current is harnessed by an external circuit with a load.

Photovoltaics and Fuel Cells

The development of fuel cells and photovoltaics is offering increased energy autonomy for larger buildings. Hydrogen is being developed as a high-grade fuel, extracted from water using electricity from solar and wind sources. With an increase in the use of solar energy, half of the world energy supply is expected to come from alternatives to fossil fuels by the year 2050. The 48-story office building constructed in 1998 at 4 Times Square in New York was designed by Fox and Fowle, Architects, P.C. to integrate a variety of energy-saving features. Photovoltaic cells in the building facade along with fuel cell power packages generate power for hot water heating and electricity. A high-performance low-emissivity (low-e) glass curtain wall and efficient lighting with occupancy sensors and controls reduce the heating and cooling loads. Fresh air is increased by more than 50 percent above the usual amount for improved indoor air quality (IAQ), and a dedicated exhaust shaft rids the building...

What are photovoltaics

PV systems convert solar radiation into electricity. They are not to be confused with solar panels which use the sun's energy to heat water (or air) for water and space heating. This chapter looks at PVs and examines a number of issues of interest to designers including Environmentally, PVs have the significant advantages of producing no pollutant emissions in use and, by replacing grid-generated electricity with solar energy used mainly on site, reducing CO2, NOx (nitrogen oxides) and SOx (SO2 and SO3) emissions. 2. Anon, (1996), Solar Electric - Building Homes with Solar Power. London Greenpeace. 5. IT Power, (1996), Development of Photovoltaic Cladding Systems. ETSU S P2 00216 REP. ETSU Harwell. 7. Environmental Resources Management, (1996), A Study Into Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Photovoltaic Technologies. ETSU S P2 00240 REP. ETSU Harwell. 1. Hill, R., (1998), PV Cells and Modules. Renewable Energy World, 1 (1), pp. 22-26. 2. Anon. (undated), Photovoltaic Technologies...

Integrating photovoltaic panels

Providing that ultra low pressure drop air distribution is specified and combined with most of the building components described earlier, it is possible to reduce the annual electrical load to the point where it can be met by grid-connected building integrated photovoltaics. The study undertaken by Conphoebus showed that photovoltaics could be integrated with return air flues built into the ventilated facade system however, this would be more appropriate for passive cooling applications in Mediterranean climates, as the heat loss from glass ducts in winter reduced the efficiency of the heat recovery system in more temperate applications. However, the annual energy performance of a theoretical urban model loosely based on the Parliamentary Building geometry was simulated using real time UK climatic data, and proved that in the UK winter wind power and summer photo-electric generation complemented each other excellently. This enabled the fan run times to be reduced to the point where...

Single family house in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy

Table 8.3.1 Targets for the single family house in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy Table 8.3.1 Targets for the single family house in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy This section presents a solution for the single family house in the cold climate. As a reference for the cold climate, the city of Stockholm is considered. The solution is focused on the use of renewable energy sources. 8.3.1 Solution 2 Renewable energy with solar combi-system and biomass or condensing gas boiler

Making renewable energy viable by minimising demand

The challenge appeared to be how to integrate as many functions as possible into a single element of construction, at the same time as optimising its overall performance. Adding more technical parameters into the design of each individual component makes the design more difficult, but the duplication of function can enable passive environmental features to be incorporated without additional cost. The primary objective for us is to design the building fabric as the primary or passive internal climate modifier, and only then introduce active building engineering systems to assist the building fabric to recycle ambient energy. The effective application of passive devices reduces the requirements for high-grade thermal and electrical energy to the level where they can be economically supplied from renewable sources. It becomes important to fully integrate solar technologies with those essential elements of the building fabric that must be provided to achieve shelter. As each passive...

Photovoltaic panels strategy

All of the buildings, except the tower, have roofs that are designed to slope gently southwards at a suitable angle for the future installation of photovoltaic panels. A pilot installation, with an array of 10m2 of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the tower was originally proposed. This would provide sufficient energy for lighting in the common areas (lift lobby or stairway).

G3 Photovoltaics

Imagine having sheets of windowglass which when exposed to the sun produce electricity. Due to recent developments in photovoltaic technology, this is now available. One kind is a thermopane-like glazing that contains A few public utilities are also trying to make silicon cells affordable to homeowners and small business operations. For example, Arizona Public Service will equip homeowners in off-grid areas with a ground-based array of photovoltaic or PV panels that will produce enough power for most domestic uses, a generatorthat runs when the sun won'tshine, and a propane tankthat fuels the generator. Someday such systems may run everything in a house and produce enough energy to run an electric car battery. Another problem with photovoltaic cells is that their ratings are (1) John Wiles'Photovoltaics Electrical Power from Sunlight EC& M maga- A photovoltaic installation should ideally receive a high percentage of sunshine all year round and its surface should have unobstructed...

Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics are silicon-based devices which, under sunlight, generate a low-voltage direct electric current. The quantity of electricity produced is directly related to the intensity of incident solar radiation or irradiance (W m2). Both direct and diffuse sunlight are effective, although the intensity of direct sunlight is typically tenfold that of an overcast sky, and the efficiency of energy conversion is around 15 . Photovoltaic cells are connected in series to generate a higher voltage. The supply is then passed through an inverter to convert the direct current into more useable alternating current at the standard voltage. The electricity generated may then be used within the building or sold back into the national supply if generation exceeds the demand. Photovoltaic units are manufactured from a sandwich of at least two variants of mono- or poly-crystalline silicon (Fig. 14.1). These n and p-type (negative & positive) silicon crystals generate electricity at their...

Photovoltaic systems

High-performance houses need very little heat, but a considerable amount of electricity, which is all the more significant when considered in primary energy terms. In this chapter, we assume that 1 kWh of heat from natural gas requires 1.14 kWh of primary energy, while 1 kWh of electricity requires 2.35 kWh of primary energy to produce. For this reason, it is highly attractive to consider ways of producing electricity from a renewable source, onsite. A photovoltaic (PV) system is an expensive investment, but promises trouble-free electricity production over a long life time. Figure 14.1.1 The relevance of the photovoltaic (PV) energy yield in different housing concepts Figure 14.1.1 The relevance of the photovoltaic (PV) energy yield in different housing concepts 14.1.3 Photovoltaic systems for high-performance housing Freiburg', Advances in Solar Energy, vol 9, pp1-70 M ller, J., Heinemann, D. and Wolters, D. (1998) Ecological Assessment of PV Technologies, Proceedings of the Second...

Oxford Photovoltaics

This glossary is almost entirely the work of the National Photovoltaic Applications Centre. The present authors have made only minor alterations to certain terms or introduced a small number of others indicated by an asterix. The definition of blocking diodes comes from Photovoltaics in Buildings (see bibliography) whilst the definition of bypass diodes come from Stand alone PV systems Guarantee of Results, ETSU S P2 00237 REP. Figures 2.14, 2.15 and 2.16 were produced by the authors using the Meteonorm 3.0 computer program. The idea for the form comes from the ECOFYS solar energy irradiation disk. Figure 1.4 Anon. (undated), Photovoltaic Technologies and their Future Potential. Figure 2.9 Sick, F. and Erge, T., Eds, (1996), Photovoltaics in Buildings. James Figure 2.17 Based on data from IT Power, (1996), Development of Photovoltaic Cladding Systems. ETSU S P2 00216 REP, p.84. ETSU Harwell. Figure 3.4(a) 21 AD Architectural Digest for the 21st Century, Photovoltaics. Eds. Roaf, S....

Photovoltaic Cells

Peat Design For Tunnel Vent For Pigs

Photovoltaic (PV) technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. It works any time the sun is shining, but the more intense the light and the more direct the angle of the light, the more electricity will be produced. Unlike solar systems for heating water, PV technology does not use the sun's heat to make electricity. Instead, it produces electricity directly from electrons freed by the interaction of sunlight with certain semiconductor materials in the PV array. Photovoltaic cells were developed in 1954 as an energy source for the space program. Until the 1970s, the manufacture and installation of solar energy panels was not regulated, and poor quality systems and unreliable dealers combined with lower fossil fuel prices to limit solar construction. them. Photovoltaic cells are made from a very pure form of silicon, an abundant element in the earth's crust that is not very difficult to mine. Photovoltaic cells provide direct electrical current. When enough heat or light...

Photovoltaic PV

Costs have fallen rapidly, as take-up of photovoltaic technologies has increased, but they are difficult to justify unless there has been serious attention to reducing energy and power requirement by every possible means. Typically, PVs are roof mounted, in a domestic situation. More recently, in commercial buildings it has become popular to incorporate the PV cells into the building envelope. The argument is that by serving a dual purpose the net cost of photovoltaics or active solar collectors can be substantially reduced by replacing roof light-shelves, curtain walling or cladding systems that would otherwise need to be introduced. This depends on them having a comparable functional design life. -the first speculative office building to incorporate building-integrated photovoltaics and, at the time, the largest ever constructed in Europe (Architects Studio E Architects, 1995, photo Studio E Architects)

Renewable Energy

There's so much to say about renewable energy. You can conceive it this way imagine civilized life on Earth before the advent of the fossil-fuel era. Think of ancient Rome, the Italian Renaissance and the settlement of America, all of which took place using only sun, wind and water, along with draft animals, for power. Imagine that we could live healthy, happy and productive lives without electricity. This was reality for our great-grandparents (that is, if you're my age if you're under 30, add another great). Think of Abe Lincoln in the White House, a once-habitable place to live and work without air conditioning (well, maybe not in July and August), gas furnaces and electric lighting. As we start to bump up against the limits of planetary ecosystems to absorb all the waste and effluents made possible by fossil and nuclear fuels, we once again are reminded of the need to start living not off our inherited wealth, fossil fuels, but off our continuing income from the sun, wind, flowing...

Figure 113 View from approach

The canopy is roofed with photovoltaic cells embedded in glass. The cells are spaced 4mm apart with a 60mm space round the edge so that approximately 25 of the daylight striking the canopy will penetrate through it. This dappled light will provide some welcome shading in midsummer, and the semi-transparency, combined with the complex geometry of the timber structure, will create an abstract representation of a living forest processed timber forms the trunks and branches of the trees with photovoltaic cells capturing and transforming sunlight as do the leaves of a tree.

Eden Project Phase 4 Education Resource Centre the Core

Its 350 m2 of photovoltaic cells are, coincidentally, analogous to photosynthesis, and earth ducts supplying either warm or cool air suggest the roots of a tree. Grimshaw teamed up with services engineers Buro Happold to maximize the sustainability credentials of the building such as

Using breathing facades to power the ventilation system

In a similar way, the solar shading in the external wall can become a solar hot air collector if dark venetian blinds are installed within a ventilated cavity - allowing only 25W m2 summer solar gain in a 3.6m south frontage room around 4m deep. Figure 14.9 shows the air temperatures created within a ventilated window cavity and indicates the potential of making a window into a solar hot air collector (at the same time this reduces heat transfer into the room). Within a few years we expect to see amorphous silicon-coated photovoltaic venetian blind blades that will be capable of generating modest amounts of electricity to run small permanent magnet fans that could keep the cavities ventilated at peak thermal loads and, at the same time, functioning as a useful solar hot air collector in the heating season (see Figure 14.10). Solar gains can be removed before the incident energy has entered the building by linking the facade into the building's extract ventilation system, and either...

Building integrated systems

Wind Electricgenerator

One of the most ambitious wind projects has emerged from Australia with the idea of a power station in the sky. High-altitude winds have high velocity and are constant. The idea is to install flying wind generators at 15,000 feet to harvest this energy. 'High altitude wind power represents the most concentrated flux of renewable energy found on Earth'. Depending on location, flying generators could be 90 efficient, which is well over three times that of onshore counterparts. Bryan Roberts, Professor of Engineering at the University of Technology, Sydney, has teamed up with Sky Windpower of San Diego, which has approval to conduct tests over the California desert. GPS technology will keep the turbines stable in space. The system is rated at 240 kW rotor diameters of 35 feet. The system will use existing rotor technology but also benefit from very strong but lightweight tether ropes. Even stronger strength to weight ratio materials are being developed. The device would clearly pose a...

Daylight reflection systems

The windows incorporate light shelves to maintain daylight levels at the rear of rooms when the solar shading is in use, avoiding the blinds down lights on scenario with its consequent luminaire heat gain and energy penalty. The light shelf has been incorporated into a sealed unit with an internal corrugated reflector designed to maximise high altitude reflections, and to reject lower altitude direct solar gain. A partly internal, partly external light shelf shades the area close to the window on southern elevations and redistributes daylight deeper into the floor plate, doubling daylight levels on the working plane at 4m from the facade on highly shaded north facades. The design challenge must be to integrate photovoltaics at the same time as achieving excellent daylight levels deep inside the rooms. Photovoltaic blinds in a ventilated cavity Photovoltaic blinds in a ventilated cavity

Combined heat and power CHP

CHP has advantages when used in conjunction with solar energy and wind power. Large plants between 100 and 300 MW of electrical capacity are flexible, having the ability to change their mode of operation from producing electricity alone to delivering both electricity and heat in varying proportions. This means that it can adjust its mode according to how much electricity is being provided from renewable sources. CHP is reliably available at times of system peak, being immune to the vagaries of wind or sun. It is therefore ideal for complementing renewable technologies.

Active district solar heating

Figure 2.8 Mechanical circulation solar thermal system with back-up boiler (courtesy of Renewable Energy World, March-April 2004) Figure 2.8 Mechanical circulation solar thermal system with back-up boiler (courtesy of Renewable Energy World, March-April 2004) be the scaling up of this technology to help meet heating requirements at district level. According to Dirk Mangold of the University of Stuttgart, 'Central solar heating plants offer one of the most economic ways of providing thermal solar energy to housing estates for domestic hot water and room heating. Over 50 of the fossil-fuel demand of an ordinary district heating plant can be replaced by solar energy when seasonal heat storage is included in the plant.'4 Central solar plants for seasonal storage aim at a solar fraction of at least 50 of the total heat demand for space heating and domestic hot water for a housing estate of at least 100 apartments. The solar fraction is that part of the total annual energy demand which is...

A mission for the new millennium

A carbon-neutral building produces no overall CO2 emissions to the atmosphere when energy flows are analysed over a typical year. Fossil fuel use is offset by renewable energy harvested by the building envelope -often using the national grid as a storage device enabling excess electrical This work suggested that it is important to integrate a number of different renewable energy harvesting techniques, carefully reconciling the often conflicting parameters of daylight, passive solar gain, heat loss through the building skin, ventilation, and of course contact with the outside world. Photovoltaics are an important new technology enabling clean solar electricity to be generated in urban areas, but their use can only be justified if it is fully integrated with all the other climate modifying devices that are all competing for the same rays of sunlight. This study shows how some of these devices have been incorporated in buildings I have worked on, and tries to define the key design tools...

Utilization of biofuels

In the first edition of this book there was a section devoted to the ARBRE project (Arable Biomass Renewable Energy project), the UK's first biomass to biogas enterprise. It was designed to process short-rotation coppice willow and produce 10 MW of electricity. Early in 2003 the project was put into the hands of the receivers and 50 farmers, who had been encouraged to grow the necessary crops, were left without a market. This included a farm near Retford in Nottinghamshire owned by John Strawson, which had dedicated 11 of the farmland amounting to 172 ha to the crop. The two alternatives were either to abandon SRC altogether or find an alternative use for the crops. In opting for the second route most of the farmers agreed to revert to producing feedstock for thermal power stations and smaller market opportunities. A company called Renewable Energy Growers Ltd was formed in 2004 with 45 of the original growers. Renewable Energy Suppliers was formed shortly afterwards by John Strawson...

Biofuel for transport

Introducing a debate on Renewable Energy in the House of Lords on 23 June 2005, Lord Oxburgh described how a small enzyme company, Iogen, had developed an enzyme that can break down straw into its constituent sugars to produce cellulose ethanol. In collaboration with Shell (of which Lord Oxburgh was Chairman to June 2005) it is making an ethanol fuel from what had previously been a waste product. The process involves fermentation and distillation to produce Ecoethanol, so named to distinguish it from ethanol derived from corn and wheat. In the latter case only a small fraction of the plant is used for fuel and the rest wasted. It is expected that, when it is in full production, it will be significantly cheaper than fuel oil. For a brief period in May 2005 even corn ethanol was cheaper in the US than gasoline. The advantages of cellulose ethanol are

Monolithic tandem concentrator cells

The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy in Freiburg has developed a PV based on a thin film structure of two semiconductors gallium indium arsenide and gallium indium phosphide. Solar concentrators are incorporated in the cell which increases the solar intensity by factors ranging from 100 to 1000. Because the optical concentrators focus solar energy onto a small area, this reduces the area of cells required for a given output. In the laboratory the cells achieve an efficiency of 29 but values up to 35 are expected to result from further developments. The disadvantage of this technology is that the concentrators are really only efficient in sunlight.

Solar thermal electricity

Dish Solar Thermal

Solar energy is more evenly distributed across the sun belt of the planet than either wind or biomass. The downside is that deserts do not attract centres of population. However, as the world gradually switches to becoming a hydrogen-based energy economy, solar thermal electricity could be the key to substantial hydrogen production by electrolysis. African countries bordering the Mediterranean could greatly boost their economies by exporting solar hydrogen to Europe by tanker or pipeline. This may also be the future for the Gulf States (see Chapter 12). Figure 2.15 Diagram of the Ravensburg central solar heating plant diurnal storage project (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) Figure 2.15 Diagram of the Ravensburg central solar heating plant diurnal storage project (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) The solar collector or 'SunDish' consists of an array of mirrors which tracks the path of the sun, focusing its rays on a thermal concentrator. The solar energy is focused onto a...

Taking stock and minimising fan power

An examination of the overall system energy consumption showed that using a combination of the technologies discussed above would result in an annual energy consumption of around 65kWh m2 y. Figure 14.11 shows available energy from wind and solar power. Not all these features have been incorporated into the New Parliamentary Building as built - Ove Arup predict an overall energy consumption of around 96kWh m2 y. The next step in our research program examined ways of reducing the reliance on electrically driven fans, investigating the potential for thermal buoyancy, wind-driven ventilation and photovoltaics.

Fuel cells and the UK

Within the renewable energy community there is debate as to whether fuel cells are appropriate if it takes electricity via water electrolysis to produce hydrogen to power a fuel cell which produces electricity. Would it not be better to use direct electricity from PVs, wind, etc., for static applications The virtue of the fuel cell is that it guarantees continuity of supply. Increasingly sophisticated electronic devices are highly sensitive to micro-second disruptions of supply (power outages) and where this is a factor fuel cells can already be cost-effective. Thirdly, the lack of demonstration models in the UK is undermining the development of the technology. More demonstrations at varying scales of output, supported by Government subsidy, would demonstrate its commitment to what most nations consider to be the future for energy. Financial support for the integration of fuel cell CHP into new housing would provide an ideal demonstration opportunity, especially if integrated with...

The next step taking fans out of the ventilation system

A new conference building at the Earth Centre, built to tight budgets, tries to co-ordinate a variety of renewable energy features to maximise the thermal and solar benefit of each season. This building uses a small number of roof- mounted polycrystalline photovoltaic cells to power pumps connecting roof-mounted solar hot water collectors to an underground highly insulated hot water store. The electrical output from the photovoltaics occurs at exactly the same time as the effective output from the solar hot water panels. The following key design decisions helped generate the near carbon-neutral building shown in Figure 14.20 11. Back-up heating towards the end of the winter, or on particularly cold days, is provided by a large woodburning stove with a back boiler feeding hot water to a chain of salvaged cast iron radiators in each room. Trees absorb CO2 from the atmosphere as they grow, giving the same amount out again when burnt as firewood. This allows any extra heating required to...

Identifying problems with existing approaches to lowenergy buildings

The traditional approach to low-energy design has been to filter the adverse effects of the outside environment as heavily as possible, insulate the occupied space, limit the size of window openings, provide a gridwork of solar control blinds in front of those windows that remain, add layers of conservatory structures to south-facing facades with perhaps a few solar collectors or photovoltaic cells added on as bolt-on extras. This has often had a depressing effect on the interior, as the quest to neutralise the effects of the external environment on internal temperatures also deprived the occupants of contact with the world outside. This type of building often resulted in architecture that was obsessed with building physics, but

Environmental strategy

Deck Drawing

The goal was to set out a range of possibilities which would enable the School to become a national example of environmentally responsible refurbishment of high architectural quality over the next 20 years. A long-term goal, perhaps for beyond the year 2020, was a school that over the course of a year produced more energy (probably through photovoltaics (PV) panels) than it used. Site considerations such as the creation of favourable microclimates and rainwater use were examined. Great emphasis was placed upon maximising the solar potential of the site, concentrating on the use of daylighting to reduce energy consumption for artificial lighting, passive solar gain to reduce the space heating requirement and photovoltaics to provide electricity on site. Figure 9 6 photovoltaic panels. This came as something of a surprise to us and Figure 9 6 photovoltaic panels. This came as something of a surprise to us and

Acknowledgements

Chapters 1-6 originally formed the ETSU publication Photovoltaics in Buildings - a Design Guide, written by Randall Thomas (principal author), Tim Grainger, Bill Gething and Mike Keys with numerous illustrations by Tony Leitch. We would like to thank ETSU through the DTI New and Renewable Energy Program for allowing the material to be incorporated in the book and in particular Dr Julian Wilczek for his assistance. We also appreciate the ongoing co-operation and assistance of Bill Gething and Mike Keys.

Potential conflicts

In some instances the optimisation of the photovoltaic power generation runs counter to measures needed for low-energy design. The solar facade requires as much sunshine falling on it as possible, and, therefore, introduces the risk of overheating interior spaces the materials of the facade are intrinsically low mass and are, therefore, incapable of providing thermal storage the facade has relatively poor insulating properties and, therefore, is prone to heat loss and its curtain wall construction inhibits the introduction of carefully graded, glare-free daylight into the building. The facade incorporates over 400,000 photovoltaic cells. The concentration of cell coverage was necessary to achieve the power output Design for photovoltaics and for low-energy use have, therefore, to advance hand-in-hand both are dependent on each other. The effective physical accommodation of each leads to conflicts which have to be resolved, and no two designers will resolve them in quite the same way....

Publications

Newcastle Photovoltaics Applications Centre. Architecturally Integrated Grid-Connected PV Facade at the University of Northumbria. ETSU S P2 00171 REP, ETSU Harwell. 2. 21 AD Architectural Digest for the 21st Century Photovoltaics. Eds. Roaf, S. and Walker, V. Oxford Brookes University. 3. Sick, F. and Erge, T., Eds, (1996), Photovoltaics in Buildings. James and James, London. 4. Humm, O. and Togweiler, P., (1993), Photovoltaics in Architecture. Birkhauser, Basel. 5. ECOTEC, ECD and NPAC, (1998), The Value of Electricity Generated from Photovoltaic Power Systems in Buildings. ETSU S P2 00279 REP, ETSU Harwell. 6. BP Solar, (1993), A Study of the Feasibility of Photovoltaic Modules as a Commercial Building Cladding Component. ETSU S P2 00131 REP, ETSU Harwell. 7. Studio E Architects, (1995), Photovoltaics in Buildings - A Survey of Design Tools. ETSU S P2 00289 REP, ETSU Harwell. 8. Halcrow Gilbert Associates, (1993), Grid Connection of Photovoltaic Systems. ETSU S 1394-P1, ETSU...

Smallscale hydro

Ffestiniog Hydro Scheme

Renewable energy systems have 31 times less impact on the environment than fossil-based energy, with one kWh produced by small-scale hydro being 300 times less polluting than the dirtiest of them all, lignite. Having said all this, there is a sting in the tail. The European Commission does not consider that small hydro should receive support as a source of renewable energy. This is because it reckons that large-scale hydro can produce electricity at market prices. Small hydro suffers because of this blanket perception. It also reveals that the Commission is still driven by market rather than environmental considerations since small hydro is one of the cleanest of all technologies as stated above.

The road ahead

Another problem is that, if there is a substantial investment in a national system involving the reforming of natural gas, there is the danger that this will 'lock-out' the direct use of hydrogen produced by electrolysis. From a renewable energy and environmental point of view the technological 'lock-in' of an inferior technology would be most regrettable. Solar energy offers one of the most abundant sources of electrolysed hydrogen. Deserts flanking the Mediterranean have already been mentioned as the ideal location for parabolic trough or parabolic dish reflectors to produce high-pressure steam to power steam turbines or Stirling engines to create the power to split water. The export of PV and solar hydrogen could transform the economies of some developing countries.

Wind power

Compared with other renewable energy technologies, wind energy is the closest to being competitive with fossil-based systems. The technology is mature and robust, with offshore installations set to take off in Europe. These facts should dispel any uncertainty about the future role of wind in the energy scenarios of the twenty-first century.

Point absorbers

The Port Kembla installation has a peak capacity 500 kW and an output of over 1 GWh year which is fed to the grid. The economics of the system compare favourably with solar energy and wind power. With refinements to the system the unit price is expected to outclass all competitors. A single installation of this kind has the potential to generate 1000 kW which would power 2000 homes (Caddet). Several sites in Australia such as the Bass Strait and Southern Australia coast have the wave potential to generate up to 1 MW per unit.

Wave and tide

Wave power is a fairly high density form of solar energy since the winds that generate waves are created by heat from solar radiation. Solar power can be transformed into waves with an energy density of 100 kW per metre length of wave crest. The World Energy Council estimates that wave power could meet 10 of world electricity demand. It is regarded as a reliable power source and has been estimated as being capable of meeting 25 or 12 GW of peak UK demand. With an estimated load factor of 50 for wave power this suggests a reliable output of 6GW

Solar buildings

Figure 2.6 Open loop pumped circulation system (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) Figure 2.6 Open loop pumped circulation system (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) Figure 2.7 Closed loop (indirect) pumped circulation system with internal coil heat exchanger (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) Figure 2.7 Closed loop (indirect) pumped circulation system with internal coil heat exchanger (courtesy of Renewable Energy World)

KWhm2y

The area of photovoltaic cells integrated into the atrium roofs on Nottingham University New Campus annually generates 60,000kWh and provides enough electrical energy to power the air-handling units and heat-recovery systems - enabling a lower annual energy consumption than a naturally ventilated building, within a construction budget of 900 m2 of floor area including the EU Thermie contribution.

Conclusion

It is clear that any building can become carbon neutral if enough PVs are included, or green electricity is purchased from some remote windfarm. This is short-term thinking and can easily be dismissed by deeper engineering analysis - as buildings become increasingly capable of generating their own power, it will become important to measure all incoming and outgoing energy flows in kWh m2 y. The demand for green electricity has already outstripped supply, making it important to include renewable energy harvesting devices on as many new buildings as possible. Photovoltaics are an expensive technology, but providing they are integrated into a thermally efficient building with low-energy requirements in the first place they will make carbon-neutral urban fabric possible.

Daniela Enz and S Robert Hastings 11 The diversity of the projects

Each project has its own distinct features. While one architect focused mainly on finding and demonstrating an economical solution on how to construct a Passivhaus building, the others strived to develop sophisticated energy concepts, optimizing ecological aspects or integrating solar technologies within the building design.

Passive Solar Design

Orient your building's main bank of windows in the direction of the sun, and let its rays bathe your home during the cold months of the year. During the warm months you'll appreciate the shade won by that carefully plotted eaves overhang. Remember, the eaves don't shade early morning or late afternoon sun, so large west (and to a lesser extent, east) windows may cause overheating. Straw bale homes have far less heat loss and better inherent thermal mass than passive solar homes of yore, so don't overdo it on the windows. This type of design is easy to create and one of the best energy investments you'll ever make.

Direct and Alternating Current

Source, like a battery in which one terminal (or pole) is always positive and the other always negative. The flow is always in the same direction, or polarity. Any current in which each wire is always of the same polarity, with one wire always positive and one always negative, is a direct current. Direct current is produced in batteries and photovoltaic equipment.

Energy Generation

The cross-section of cylindrical shells or barrel vaulted roofs with their longitudinal axes running north-south, approaches that of the sun's path and results in a lower proportion of reflected light. If fitted with photovoltaic modules, the output of the cells will increase the closer the alignment of the cylinder approaches south or north_Figs 19, 20.

Project Construction

In addition, all of the buildings' systems were replaced. These include a new energy efficient hydronic radiant heating system, all new electrical and data systems, energy efficient lighting, enhancement of natural daylighting, and the integration of a photovoltaic panel system. This system produces approximately 2 kW of power at peak capacity or 8 kWh per day. OPPOSITE RIGHT Detail view of photovoltaic panels integrated into new entry canopy.

Sustainability at the design stage

Zero operational energy is now achievable and a practical possibility. Sue Roaf's 'eco-house' in Oxford, built in the 1990s, utilises passive solar gains through a two-storey sunspace and photovoltaic cells to capture and store energy, exporting electricity to the National Grid at times of surplus. Robert and Brenda Vale's 'autonomous house' at Southwell in Nottinghamshire uses thermal mass with thick insulation to achieve a very low-energy solution. Subsequent developments at Hockerton, also in Nottinghamshire, using an earth-sheltered approach, and the Peabody Trust's BEDZED (Beddington Zero Energy Development) in Carshalton, South London, have continued the quest. The BEDZED scheme, designed by Bill Dunster, incorporates living and working environments to also reduce energy used in travel.

The Eco House Nottingham

Located on the University campus, this four bedroom house was built to demonstrate the integration of existing renewable energy technologies such as evacuated tube solar water heaters, PV roof, lightpipes, solar chimney and rainwater collection. Monocrystaline photovoltaic roof tiles cover 15.9 m2 of the south-facing roof space, inclined and pre-heats water during the winter. at 52 . They are designed to produce 1250 kWh

Function And Form

GLASS ROOF FOR THE SOLAR BRIDGE PROTOTYPE FOR A ROOF ELEMENT WITH INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES, 2001-2002 as a simple trussed beam on a scale of 1 4 and presented at the glasstec trade fair in 2002. The project was named Solar Bridge because of the integrated photovoltaic elements.

Strasbourg Train Station Extension

Glass Solar Energy Architecture

The initial answer, a glass bubble along the south side of the station (figure 9.11), had to be considerably refined in view of the first thermal simulations. The skin of the building, a filter for solar energy and heat, dominates the design so much that the work focused first on resolving questions related to the behavior of the skin before tackling its supporting structure. Two questions arose. First, how can the geometry be resolved rationally to match objectives of space, shape and form Generations by translation and rotation are being tested now. Second, what strategy would provide climatic comfort with a minimum expenditure of energy

Culemborg Netherlands

The project exploits solar energy passively and actively throughout. The infrastructural use of water and trees is routine in the Netherlands and here successfully encourages productive gardening. There is a policy of environmentally sound materials and an interest in healthy building design, including innovative building techniques from self-build straw bale to terrace houses under glass and a series of sun-scoop courtyards.

William Wenzler and Associates William Lam and Associates Central United Methodist Church

Artificial Lighting Churches

The tall tower which can be seen in the photograph is designed to collect both light and solar energy, but also registers the presence of the church in the neighbourhood it bears a resemblance to Utzon's Bagsvaerd Church in Denmark, although for somewhat different reasons (LightingModern Buildings, Case Study 8, pp. 1 18 9).

Symbiosis Richard Horden

Richard Horden

The term 'passive' refers to those environmental design strategies which seek to heat and cool buildings without mechanical help, such as fans, pumps, photovoltaics or any of the other paraphernalia of 'active' systems, however 'clean' those active systems are. The degree of passivity is often determined by the client, whose views on comfort vary from a demand for total control of the internal climate to a willingness to tolerate greater thermal variation. And yet, even in the most rigorously energy-efficient designs, essentially passive systems are often supplemented by active additions like fans, which provide comfort when climatic conditions require. As with everything in environmental design, however, there are degrees of hybridity. Richard Horden's competition design for the 'University of Future Generations' outside Sydney, Australia, followed the requirements of the competition brief and sought to maximize the potential of both passive and active systems in a mix that has...

Lowtech high tectonics

But upon closer inspection our attentive visitor would make a few discoveries no radiators in the rooms, no centralised heating plant in the basement, no solar collectors anywhere in the building or on the roof Instead, a mechanical ventilation system ensures a supply of fresh air with a low air change rate (0.5) and is intended to prevent uncontrolled ventilation losses (e.g. windows left open unintentionally). A heat exchanger has been installed downstream from this system to introduce waste heat from the exhaust air into the incoming fresh air. That is it, the only technical component in the school this belongs to the - in architectural terms - less interesting part of the concept. More conspicuous are the ribbed concrete floors, the solid floor finishes of Vals quartzite stone slabs (also in the classrooms) and the large-format windows with their hopper-shaped reveals whose timber frames are screened externally by the thermal insulation. This is where the inconspicuous energy...

The Solar Stigmata of the Ecology Movement

There is an ironic serendipity in the proliferation of solar collectors, attached to buildings with functionalist conviction in the 1970s, and the deconstructivist taste for fragmentation in the 1980s, when an aesthetic based on dismembered bits of metal trusses that could have carried solar panels but didn't was widely admired. (A synthesis finally occured when the Benisch & Partner office hired a designer from Coop Himmelblau to work on the Hysolar Institute in Stuttgart in 1988 and placed solar collectors on the extruded parts of the building.) Solar buildings pro Although there had been a thriving industry producing solar water heaters before World War II, their poor efficiency (ten-year life expectancy) and the low price of postwar electricity made them economically obsolete. The resurgence of solar heaters during the 1970s energy crisis was thus an unacknowledged revival. There had been an earlier generation of solar architecture, proposed initially between 1938 and 1958,...

Cultivating Smartcities

Maquette Avion Design

Management is identified by a UN world development report as mankind's most serious challenge of the 21st century 3 the impermeability of the urban fabric - roads, roofs, hard standing and the concrete landscape - constitutes flood risks due to the inability of these elements to attenuate surface water. Again, the design solution is startlingly apparent. Vegetation, edible or otherwise, is a ready-made natural sustainable drainage system, harvesting rainfall and mediating extreme temperatures as well as being the most efficient photovoltaic cell currently available to us by virtue of chlorophyll's photosynthetic properties - a demonstration of exuberance in nature.

Chapter Six Toilet facilities

Toilet Facilities For Outdoor Recreation

These are similar to the dry composting toilets except that they have a larger capacity and tend to stay much wetter. Their main drawbacks are the odours that are common in hot weather and, for some people, a fear of falling into them. Adequate ventilation is difficult in many versions unless assisted by fans. These types are widely used on recreation sites in North America. They have to be pumped out at intervals so that access by special truck is needed. These types can also be provided with chemicals that help to break down the excreta and mask the smells. Various proprietary versions claim to have solved the odour problem with better ventilation systems. Some can be ventilated by fans powered by solar energy or heavy-duty rechargeable batteries.

Pavement Design Criteria

Temperate Darker colors are typical to absorb radiant solar energy. Frost thaw cycles require care in aggregate base preparation and subdralnage. Heavy snow regions must account for abrasive clearing practices. Mortared unit pavers require heavy maintenance In extensive applications.

Solar Technology From Innovative Building Skin to oergyEfficient Renovation

The first solar collectors were installed on rooftops in the md- 1970s, followed nearly a decade later by the first integrated photovoltaic system. Now that the initial problems. such as system glitches and economic hurdles, have been overcome, active solar technology has gamed 3 solid position in the construction market. Indeed, it is a routine component of many building concepts, and not only ol those with innovative energy strategies. In the field of solar architecture, the so-called indirect systems play a special role. The collector installations and photovoltaic modules integrated into the building skin are far more present, visually speaking, than direct measures such as compactness, high-performance glazing, intelligent nsjla-bon or efficient building systems, in addition to the functional tasks - heating domestic water, complementary space heating and power generation - the mtroductior of these components also translates into a considerable semantic expansion of the...

The climate in the Nuremberg Prisma

Queens Botanical Garden Dreiseitl

In Nuremberg, for example, five waterfalls pout down at the same time into a set of residential and commercial premises that have been designed with a great deal of variety, using an entirely new design approach. In the 'Prisma' - 'Prism' - as the complex is called, removing boundaries was the key issue. Rainwater is of crucial importance here. All the water that falls on to the roofs flows through various cleaning phases into a tank with a capacity of just under 300 cubic metres, and is pumped from there into two circulating systems. Surplus water seeps into the ground under the underground car park. The first circulating system is used to supply the plants in the greenhouse, which extends over four storeys. South American vegetation grows in one section, Australian in the other, and both in a landscape of water-courses and ponds. These conservatories face south and south-west, and are part of the passive solar energy use concept.

Greenhouse Ecosystems

Complicated Coloring Pages For Adults

Greenhouse ecosystems (Fig. 11-2) are secondary sewage treatment systems that are constructed wetlands moved indoors. Marine biologist John Todd developed Living Machines at Ocean Arks International. They consist of a series of tanks, each with its own particular ecosystem. The first is a stream, and the second is an indoor marsh that provides a high degree of tertiary wastewater treatment. The system costs less to construct and about the same to maintain as a conventional sewage treatment system. It uses less energy, depending upon solar energy for photosynthesis and on gravity flow. There is no need for a final, environmentally harmful chlorine treatment. The system produces one-quarter of the sludge of other systems. Solar energy aerates tanks Solar energy aerates tanks

Sustainable Design Strategies

The materials and methods used for building construction and finishing have an impact on the larger world. The design of a building determines how much energy it will use throughout its life. The materials used in the building's interior are tied to the waste and pollution generated by their manufacture and eventual disposal. Increasing energy efficiency and using clean energy sources can limit greenhouse gases. Look at the building envelope, HVAC system, lighting, equipment and appliances, and renewable energy systems as a whole. Energy loads the amount of energy the building uses to operate are reduced by integration with the building site, use of renewable resources, the design of the building envelope, and the selection of efficient lighting and appliances. Energy load reductions lead to smaller, less expensive, and more efficient HVAC systems, which in turn use less energy.

The birth of the green

Neither the formal experiment of Eisenman, however, nor the technophilia of Foster and Rogers embraces all aspects of nature-as-complexity. Both, in their widely divergent ways, over-generalize in environmental terms. This generalization is valuable, in that it enables us to perceive something that would otherwise remain implicit, and therefore invisible, within the particular. But such generalization excludes another aspect of complexity-within-nature differentiation. In this context, differentiation refers to different ecosystems in different climates and different topographies. By emerging from the (differentiated) ground up, vernacular architecture has traditionally embodied the differentiation found in nature. Industrial technology, on the other hand, is incapable of differentiating without conscious efforts to inflect itself. 'Operationalists' like Rogers and Foster do not see the need to do so, and are replacing universal mechanical technology with a new universal 'green'...

Cradletocradle Design

Cradle-to-cradle design was introduced in 2002 by architect William McDonough and chemist Dr. Michael Braungart as a method for evaluating products that could be safely used without any harm to people or the environment, based on known data. The evaluation criteria for products include material properties, specifically toxicity and carcinogenicity, persistence and toxicity in the environment, and use of heavy metals material reuse potential, either in recycling or composting efficient or renewable energy use, including use of 100 solar income in manufacturing water use, stormwater and wastewater discharge in manufacturing and instituting strategies for social responsibility as evidenced by third-party assessments and certifications.33

Solar Shading And Antiglare Measures

They keep the absorbed solar energy separate from the internal space. An ideal solution is to have louvres that semi- or fully automatically track the daily and annual path of the sun and can be adjusted to direct light in specific ways. External solar protection can also be combined with integrated measures such as solar control glazing. Exposed

Defining Environmental Architecture

Coherent Subtraction

In what may be a turning point in the relation of such non-linear architecture to the materiality of nature, Greg Lynn and Michael McInturf have designed a visitors' centre for the Austrian Mineral Oil Company in Schwechat, Austria (Figs. 1.4-5) that not only incorporates photovoltaic panels on its roofs, but claims to expose them to maximum solar radiation through the very thing that damns such designs in the eyes of many their formal novelty. Again, one is forced back upon the necessity of drawing a line between the environmentally acceptable and unacceptable. Where does the line lie in architecture And how much of what is culturally acceptable, at least within the culture of architecture itself, is environmentally unsustainable Environmental design works with climate rather than against it, using available air and or earth and or water to cool, and solar radiation and recovered heat to warm. An ever-increasing range of techniques and technologies have been either...

The Green City of Tomorrow Malmo Sweden

The first phase, Bo01, was completed in late 2001. It includes 100 renewable energy supply, quality targets on building performance, a site-wide waste management strategy and clean transport. A special focus was placed on the ecological value of the site and this has generated many attractive landscape designs. * 100 renewable energy. From sun, wind, water and biogas from local refuge. A minor part is played by photovoltaics. Much of the heating is supplied from aquifers and solar collectors. The network exchanges energy with the city grid and is in net balance.

Indirect Gain Designs

Indirect gain heating places a thermal storage mass between the sun and the occupied space. A sheet of glass covers an opaque wall 20 to 30 cm (8-12 in.) thick. The sun strikes the mass, where its energy is stored and slowly transferred to the interior space. The absorbed solar energy moves through the wall by conduction and then to the space by radiation and convection. The interior side of the wall must be kept free of hangings and large furniture so that radiant heat can transfer into the space. Indirect gain systems admit less daylight than direct gain systems, and offer little or no view to the south. Radiant heat continues to flow into the space in the evenings after sunny days.

Sustainability

Sketches Animal Rescue Systems

The concept of sustainable development, and associated practices such as sustainable construction, lend themselves to investigation via the sketchbook. It is possible to use freehand drawing to explore aspects of modern green design, be it the use of solar energy, wind power or natural ventilation. Conversely, most of the buildings constructed before the Industrial Revolution utilised local renewable energy sources, building materials were from the immediate locality, transport and farming practices relied on human and horse power, and cities were located where natural resources demanded. There was little or no importation of energy, food, water or materials, and since there was scarcity all round, there was a great deal of reuse and recycling. In this there are lessons for the future, which can be recorded and understood through freehand drawing. So sketching can help reveal best green practice, whether old buildings or more recent examples are employed. Sustainable architecture...

Need for Solar Access Zoning

Interest in solar access generally rises and falls with the perceived security of oil supplies. A brief period of political and economic uncertainty during the 1970s and '80s prompted urgent calls to use solar energy in our buildings, towns, and cities, making solar access a critical issue in the United States. A number of cities and states passed legislation to protect existing solar installations and to ensure continued solar access for future developments. The federal government supported a number of studies to determine the most feasible, effective, and enforceable way to establish solar rights.10 Then, as oil again flowed freely on world markets during the 1990s, public and political interest waned. beckons as a local alternative for electric power grids that run our air conditioners during hot summer months. But our understanding of solar energy must be broadened beyond photovoltaics (PV) and rooftop collectors.

Recycled materials or waste

It is made from natural and recycled materials, including earth-rammed tyres and aluminium cans. It is powered by renewable energy, catches its own water supply from rainwater, and treats and contains its own sewage in planter beds. It is a concept, not a set design, and can be adapted for any climate worldwide.

Climatic differentiation Ken Yeang

This last was commissioned by the Singapore Urban Redevelopment Authority, and is intended to begin life as an exhibition tower, with exhibition, retail and performance spaces. Yeang has designed a 'loose fit', however, so that as needs change, so can the use of the building. It is part of a strategy to reduce the enormous drain on resources that high-rises conventionally involve. The structure will be bolted, not welded, for easier demounting, and will carry photovoltaic arrays, heavy planting and rain scoops. The result is an expressionism that struggles against the structural linearity dictated by the engineering demands of the high-rise. The degree to which such designs are energy efficient has yet to be assessed, and to his great credit, Yeang is co-operating fully with a doctoral study1 examining a problem central to passive cooling in the tropics the extent to which daylight is sacrificed in the battle against solar gain. The more shading devices employed to prevent direct...

Limited Energy Resources

The sun's energy arrives at the earth at a fixed rate, X and the supply of solar energy stored over millions of years in fossil fuels is limited. The population keeps growing, however, and each person is using more energy. We don't know exactly when we will run out of fossil fuels, but we do know that wasting the limited resources we have is a dangerous way to go. Through careful design, architects, interior designers, and building engineers can help make these finite resources last longer. Our current energy resources include direct solar and renewable solar-derived sources, such as wind, wood, and hydropower nuclear and geothermal power, which are exhaustible but are used up very slowly tidal power and fossil fuels, which are not renewable in the short term. Electricity can be generated from any of these. In the United States, it is usually produced from fossil fuels, with minor amounts contributed by hydropower and nuclear energy. Tidal power stations exist in Canada, France,...

Heliotrop Solar Eriergy House Freiburg

Subject Architects who are actively involved in low-energy and environmentally compatible designs readily make use of timber because it is a replenishable and recyclable material. The architect Rolf Disch from Freiburg is very active in this field. Over a period often years he developed a prototype for a solar-energy house which, if the design is fully applied, not only requires no outside energy supplies but indeed can feed electricity back into the public network A so-called negative-energy house. He has attempted to reduce building costs by employing series production techniques and standardization. This is essential because the engineering input for maximum energy savings on this scale is very cost-intensive. The Freiburg solar-energy house described here has approx. 200 m2 of usable floor space. The architect built it for his own use as house, office and demonstration project. Interesting in the Heliotrop design is the practical use of timber to meet extreme functional demands,...

Radiantly Heated Floors

Hydronic radiant heating systems can use gas, oil, electricity, or even solar energy as their energy source. On the other hand, electric cables don't require a boiler, and may be more cost-effective for small floors. An electric system for a small bathroom could cost 300 to 400, compared to 4000 to 5000 for a hydronic system, not including fuel costs, which are generally higher for electric systems. Electric floors are often used to supplement heating systems in homes with forced-air systems. Highly efficient homes with thick insulation, airtight construction, and passive solar features may also be appropriate sites for electric floors.

Passive Solar Designs

All-passive solar systems utilize south-facing glass or transparent plastic for solar collection. The low winter sun puts out 90 percent of its energy during the period from 9 00 a.m. to 3 00 p.m. Where other buildings or tall trees block access to the sun during this critical period, solar energy systems are not practical. The area of the glazing amounts to 30 to 50 percent of the floor area in cold climates, and 15 to 25 percent in temperate climates, depending on the average outdoor winter temperature and projected heat loss. Glazing materials must be resistant to degradation by the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. Double-glazing and insulation are used to minimize heat loss at night.

Renewables Run On Underfloor Heating

There are strong technical reasons for embracing underfloor heating system technology. The boom in renewable energy is growing the demand exponentially. Changes to the Building Regulations over recent years have forced manufacturers down the path of producing condensing boilers to the almost total exclusion of standard efficiency models, with underfloor heating providing the return temperatures that optimise high efficiency output. As a member of Polypipe Building Products, Polyplumb can offer a choice of four different underfloor heating systems to suit virtually any situation, including retrofit applications.

Working And Dwelling

Nothing Can Seprate Love Grave

To do that, local initiatives are a beginning but the term local can be understood in two ways local to place and a specific set of problems and conditions or local to a cultural or social form, or specific practice. I turn to low-impact architecture as a case of the latter. There are many cases of projects using renewable energy sources and recycled materials, restructuring patterns of mobility in multi-function zoning, and reintroducing high density living in forms other than the tower block.17 But I look now at 9 10 Stock Orchard Street in north London, by Sarah Wigglesworth and Jeremy Till, completed in December, 2000 on the site of a forge and outbuildings where automobile springs were tempered (which replaced the original, nineteenth-century house). The building combines work and domestic space, and demonstrates a range of low-impact building technologies. The site is adjacent to a rail track, and previously belonged to British Rail. It was auctioned in 1994 and planning...

Local weather and microclimate

Modern solar design - solar energy is a driver of massing, form and layout, and space planning for individual and groups of buildings, but not to the detriment of urban design (Architects Gaia Architects photo Michael Wolshover) Modern solar design - solar energy is a driver of massing, form and layout, and space planning for individual and groups of buildings, but not to the detriment of urban design (Architects Gaia Architects photo Michael Wolshover)

Selectivity in Tropical Countries

Solar control by reflective glasses is due reflection of solar energy and produce very good solar control. It is most effective on sun facing wall. The optimum position of solar control coating is on external surface of the building. All hard Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar Energy

Philip Merrill Chesapeake Bay Foundation Floor Plan

Reduction Motion Compost

Since moving into the Merrill Center in 2000, CBF has done extensive work with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the Department of Energy National Laboratory. NREL monitored the building's energy and water performance from November 2001 to November 2002. Annual energy usage was measured to be 39.9 kBtu square foot year, inclusive of plug loads and miscellaneous loads like exterior lighting and elevators. This is 59.0 percent less than typical office buildings based on 1995 data collected by the Energy Information Administration. Through NREL's analysis, CBF learned their plug loads were higher than what had been anticipated, so they went back to verify that all possible plug-ins, including soda machines, were on motion sensors, and that all office equipment purchased was Energy Star-rated. The center clearly leads by example, and the research done postoperation will be helpful for planning future high-performing commercial building designs.

Orientation of a south roof overhang and large east and west porches maximizes passive solar heat gain while

The orientation and massing of the Environmental Education Visitor Activity Center maximize the site's passive solar and natural ventilation potential using simple strategies with enormous benefits. The long south face maximizes solar gain in winter months and the floor slab of the main space serves as a heat sink to store solar energy. Conversely, the building's north side shields against winter winds. The tilted main roof aids both of these functions, maximizing solar radiation and light to the south while deflecting north winds. Light-colored roof covering minimizes the heat island effect on the surrounding environment.

Nature as model and mentor

These efficiencies extended beyond the structure and into the envelope and environmental systems. Spheres are minimal surfaces that have maximum volume. They also, unlike more common orthogonal glasshouse forms, allow direct sunlight to enter perpendicular to the surface at all times of the day, thus maximizing the free energy.

Active solar heating Water

Heating DHW with solar energy in a high-performance house is sensible. In such houses, the energy needed to heat domestic water can equal or even exceed the energy needed for space heating since the latter has been so far reduced by insulation and heat recovery. Furthermore, demand for heating domestic water is a 12-month energy demand, including the high insolation summer months. Using a solar system is therefore an effective way of reducing the total primary energy demand. Increasingly, the market for solar water systems also includes systems that provide, in addition to water heating, space heating in winter.

Direct electric resistance heating

The conversion factor will hopefully improve in the near future as conventional sources of primary energy are increasingly replaced by renewable sources. The growth rate of all renewable energy sources together has been anticipated to increase to about 25 per cent of the total energy production by 2020. Yet, even if this ambitious goal is reached, the amount of renewable energy available will still be limited and prices for electricity can be expected to rise. So there is a strong argument that electricity is and will continue to be too valuable to be 'burned' merely to produce low temperature heat

Some Lessons and Observations

Pushing the ecological design envelope. Many European cities are promoting green technology and new ecological living ideas on an unprecedented scale. New urban districts like Leidsche Rijn and IJburg in the Netherlands are applying green urban ideas to thousands of new homes. New solar projects like the Stad van de Zon, in Heerhugowaard, are aspiring to be carbon neutral, and projects like the Western Harbor in Malmo are already achieving the goal of 100 percent locally produced, renewable energy. They are bold goals and visionary plans, indeed, for how to craft humane, sustainable places for our future. Comprehensive green strategies. European cities treat sustainability comprehensively. Cities like Freiburg are simultaneously implementing programs to promote solar energy, walking, bicycling and transit use, car-free living, and ecological landscape management. Such green initiatives tend reinforce each other. Strengthening public transit and pedestrian and bicycle use undergirds...

Energy Production and Use General Policy Statement

Alternative energy sources are receiving increased attention by academic institutions. Within the framework of fossil fuels, the burning of natural gas (CH4) produces the least amount of CO2 per unit of energy. Oil (CH2) is next, and coal (CH) produces the most CO2. The carbon in the fuel becomes CO2 the hydrogen becomes H2O. Another form of gaseous energy, which was once a major component of widely used consumer gas, is hydrogen gas (H2). Many experts expect that hydrogen gas (H2) will become the major stored and distributed source of convertible energy in the not-too-distant future. Sources of green energy include solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, and wind. Wind and solar energy are the best candidates for the northeastern Ohio region. Rapid developments are occurring in these technologies, which could ease the cost of decreasing the dependence on fossil fuels.

Being good in buildings

The architect's other arena for ethical action is in the design and specification of the building itself. Here, too, motives are mixed. Architects engage with environmental design for a number of reasons, none of which is necessarily explicitly ethical. In a class of architects on the postgraduate Environment and Energy Programme at the Architectural Association in 1998, the range of reasons for choosing the course was more remarkable for its variety than its altruism. One member of this international group thought environmental design would provide him with a methodology that would help with design decisions. Another had worked in an office that had already adopted environmental design, and wanted to acquire greater expertise in it. Another, from India, saw passive cooling techniques as a way of promoting the vernacular solutions of her own country over and against universalizing mechanical services. Another wanted to re-establish the traditional relation between architecture and...

Compression Refrigeration

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) also pose some threat of global warming and have long atmospheric lifetimes, but have low toxicity and are nonflammable. Natural hydrocarbons (HCs) have a negligible effect on global warming and short atmospheric life. However, they are flammable and explosive. Lower-threat alternative refrigerants may use more energy, which may mean more fossil fuel use and more pollution. Production of refrigerants with photovoltaic energy is an alternative.

A22 International Energy Agency

Collaborative programmes in the various energy technology areas are conducted under implementing agreements, which are signed by contracting parties (government agencies or entities designated by them). There are currently 42 implementing agreements covering fossil-fuel technologies, renewable energy technologies, efficient energy end-use technologies, nuclear fusion science and technology, and energy technology information centres.

Politics And Sustainable Development

Comfortably to economies which aim to grow or increase output. The over-exploited North Sea fishing grounds may be a better analogy for industrial growth without regard to stocks a time arrives when the industry itself is in danger, and draconian measures are necessary to conserve stocks and ensure regeneration of the resource. The decimation of the British and Irish fishing fleets are witness to the greedy exploitation of a valuable 'common'. Non-renewable resources such as oil or natural gas when used for human well-being must - if sustainable development is a goal - be capable of being replaced by other renewable resources. For example, the use of fossil fuels should be accompanied by the development of renewable energy sources such as wind, water and solar power. Interesting experiments in the development of renewable energy sources - though not always welcomed by the local population -have been or are being implemented throughout Europe.

Nibe Exhaust Air Heat Pumps Help Meet New Ecotargets

Nibe Exhaust Heat Pump

The stringent requirements of Level 4 have been met by utilising a number of different systems including solar panels, 300mm fully filled cavity walls, and improved U values on glazing, doors and loft space. The piece de resistance, however, is the installation of NIBE Heat Pumps designed to convert air that would otherwise be expelled in the normal ventilation process into energy for domestic hot water and central heating.

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Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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