Do It Yourself Solar Energy

Smart Solar Box Home Energy System

Smart Solar Box Home Energy System helps you transition to an eco-friendly home. This video course will help you learn how you can make use of abandoned batteries in your garage to create a solar energy source that lasts longer than the current ones in the market and help you save 68% of your current energy bill. The video course was put together by Ryan Tanner who stumbled on his father's work during a monstrous Wisconsin blizzard. The video course will show you the tools you need, the methods you can use to produce more AC, and how to set up a completely solar-powered home. Read more...

Smart Solar Box Home Energy System Summary

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Row house in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy

Table 8.5.1 Row house targets in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy Table 8.5.1 Row house targets in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy This section presents a renewable energy solution for the row houses in the cold climate. As a reference for the cold climate, the city of Stockholm is used.

Solar energy in refurbishment Advantages of solar energy

Refurbishment or other adaptation work can present an ideal opportunity to apply different solar energy options. It also presents challenges, however, because retrofitting such techniques in existing buildings can be difficult owing to the physical constraints and financial restraints involved. 'Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source and, therefore, has economic as well as environmental and social value' (ISE, 1997). It can be categorized into 'active' and 'passive' techniques. The former uses turbines, fans and pumps, some of which are often used in conjunction with passive systems. The latter uses the form and fabric of the building to admit, store and distribute primarily solar energy for heating and lighting (O'Sullivan, 1988). It has the following advantages

Single family house in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy

Table 8.3.1 Targets for the single family house in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy Table 8.3.1 Targets for the single family house in the Cold Climate Renewable Energy Strategy This section presents a solution for the single family house in the cold climate. As a reference for the cold climate, the city of Stockholm is considered. The solution is focused on the use of renewable energy sources. 8.3.1 Solution 2 Renewable energy with solar combi-system and biomass or condensing gas boiler

Making renewable energy viable by minimising demand

The challenge appeared to be how to integrate as many functions as possible into a single element of construction, at the same time as optimising its overall performance. Adding more technical parameters into the design of each individual component makes the design more difficult, but the duplication of function can enable passive environmental features to be incorporated without additional cost. The primary objective for us is to design the building fabric as the primary or passive internal climate modifier, and only then introduce active building engineering systems to assist the building fabric to recycle ambient energy. The effective application of passive devices reduces the requirements for high-grade thermal and electrical energy to the level where they can be economically supplied from renewable sources. It becomes important to fully integrate solar technologies with those essential elements of the building fabric that must be provided to achieve shelter. As each passive...

Renewable Energy

There's so much to say about renewable energy. You can conceive it this way imagine civilized life on Earth before the advent of the fossil-fuel era. Think of ancient Rome, the Italian Renaissance and the settlement of America, all of which took place using only sun, wind and water, along with draft animals, for power. Imagine that we could live healthy, happy and productive lives without electricity. This was reality for our great-grandparents (that is, if you're my age if you're under 30, add another great). Think of Abe Lincoln in the White House, a once-habitable place to live and work without air conditioning (well, maybe not in July and August), gas furnaces and electric lighting. As we start to bump up against the limits of planetary ecosystems to absorb all the waste and effluents made possible by fossil and nuclear fuels, we once again are reminded of the need to start living not off our inherited wealth, fossil fuels, but off our continuing income from the sun, wind, flowing...

Building integrated systems

One of the most ambitious wind projects has emerged from Australia with the idea of a power station in the sky. High-altitude winds have high velocity and are constant. The idea is to install flying wind generators at 15,000 feet to harvest this energy. 'High altitude wind power represents the most concentrated flux of renewable energy found on Earth'. Depending on location, flying generators could be 90 efficient, which is well over three times that of onshore counterparts. Bryan Roberts, Professor of Engineering at the University of Technology, Sydney, has teamed up with Sky Windpower of San Diego, which has approval to conduct tests over the California desert. GPS technology will keep the turbines stable in space. The system is rated at 240 kW rotor diameters of 35 feet. The system will use existing rotor technology but also benefit from very strong but lightweight tether ropes. Even stronger strength to weight ratio materials are being developed. The device would clearly pose a...

Combined heat and power CHP

CHP has advantages when used in conjunction with solar energy and wind power. Large plants between 100 and 300 MW of electrical capacity are flexible, having the ability to change their mode of operation from producing electricity alone to delivering both electricity and heat in varying proportions. This means that it can adjust its mode according to how much electricity is being provided from renewable sources. CHP is reliably available at times of system peak, being immune to the vagaries of wind or sun. It is therefore ideal for complementing renewable technologies.

Active district solar heating

Figure 2.8 Mechanical circulation solar thermal system with back-up boiler (courtesy of Renewable Energy World, March-April 2004) Figure 2.8 Mechanical circulation solar thermal system with back-up boiler (courtesy of Renewable Energy World, March-April 2004) be the scaling up of this technology to help meet heating requirements at district level. According to Dirk Mangold of the University of Stuttgart, 'Central solar heating plants offer one of the most economic ways of providing thermal solar energy to housing estates for domestic hot water and room heating. Over 50 of the fossil-fuel demand of an ordinary district heating plant can be replaced by solar energy when seasonal heat storage is included in the plant.'4 Central solar plants for seasonal storage aim at a solar fraction of at least 50 of the total heat demand for space heating and domestic hot water for a housing estate of at least 100 apartments. The solar fraction is that part of the total annual energy demand which is...

Utilization of biofuels

In the first edition of this book there was a section devoted to the ARBRE project (Arable Biomass Renewable Energy project), the UK's first biomass to biogas enterprise. It was designed to process short-rotation coppice willow and produce 10 MW of electricity. Early in 2003 the project was put into the hands of the receivers and 50 farmers, who had been encouraged to grow the necessary crops, were left without a market. This included a farm near Retford in Nottinghamshire owned by John Strawson, which had dedicated 11 of the farmland amounting to 172 ha to the crop. The two alternatives were either to abandon SRC altogether or find an alternative use for the crops. In opting for the second route most of the farmers agreed to revert to producing feedstock for thermal power stations and smaller market opportunities. A company called Renewable Energy Growers Ltd was formed in 2004 with 45 of the original growers. Renewable Energy Suppliers was formed shortly afterwards by John Strawson...

Biofuel for transport

Introducing a debate on Renewable Energy in the House of Lords on 23 June 2005, Lord Oxburgh described how a small enzyme company, Iogen, had developed an enzyme that can break down straw into its constituent sugars to produce cellulose ethanol. In collaboration with Shell (of which Lord Oxburgh was Chairman to June 2005) it is making an ethanol fuel from what had previously been a waste product. The process involves fermentation and distillation to produce Ecoethanol, so named to distinguish it from ethanol derived from corn and wheat. In the latter case only a small fraction of the plant is used for fuel and the rest wasted. It is expected that, when it is in full production, it will be significantly cheaper than fuel oil. For a brief period in May 2005 even corn ethanol was cheaper in the US than gasoline. The advantages of cellulose ethanol are

Monolithic tandem concentrator cells

The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy in Freiburg has developed a PV based on a thin film structure of two semiconductors gallium indium arsenide and gallium indium phosphide. Solar concentrators are incorporated in the cell which increases the solar intensity by factors ranging from 100 to 1000. Because the optical concentrators focus solar energy onto a small area, this reduces the area of cells required for a given output. In the laboratory the cells achieve an efficiency of 29 but values up to 35 are expected to result from further developments. The disadvantage of this technology is that the concentrators are really only efficient in sunlight.

Solar thermal electricity

Solar energy is more evenly distributed across the sun belt of the planet than either wind or biomass. The downside is that deserts do not attract centres of population. However, as the world gradually switches to becoming a hydrogen-based energy economy, solar thermal electricity could be the key to substantial hydrogen production by electrolysis. African countries bordering the Mediterranean could greatly boost their economies by exporting solar hydrogen to Europe by tanker or pipeline. This may also be the future for the Gulf States (see Chapter 12). Figure 2.15 Diagram of the Ravensburg central solar heating plant diurnal storage project (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) Figure 2.15 Diagram of the Ravensburg central solar heating plant diurnal storage project (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) The solar collector or 'SunDish' consists of an array of mirrors which tracks the path of the sun, focusing its rays on a thermal concentrator. The solar energy is focused onto a...

Fuel cells and the UK

Within the renewable energy community there is debate as to whether fuel cells are appropriate if it takes electricity via water electrolysis to produce hydrogen to power a fuel cell which produces electricity. Would it not be better to use direct electricity from PVs, wind, etc., for static applications The virtue of the fuel cell is that it guarantees continuity of supply. Increasingly sophisticated electronic devices are highly sensitive to micro-second disruptions of supply (power outages) and where this is a factor fuel cells can already be cost-effective. Thirdly, the lack of demonstration models in the UK is undermining the development of the technology. More demonstrations at varying scales of output, supported by Government subsidy, would demonstrate its commitment to what most nations consider to be the future for energy. Financial support for the integration of fuel cell CHP into new housing would provide an ideal demonstration opportunity, especially if integrated with...

Acknowledgements

I am indebted to the researchers and construction professionals who readily gave permission for the inclusion of their work in the text. These include Dr Koen Steemers of Cambridge Architectural Research, Arup Associates for BedZED diagrams, Christopher John Hancock for the images of Malmo, Jeremy Stacy Architects for the Council Offices, King's Lynn, Fielden Clegg Bradley for the National Trust Offices, Swindon, XCO2 for the triple helix wind generator image and Pilkington plc for the image of Herne Sodingen government training centre. I also owe my thanks to Dr Randall Thomas of Max Fordham and Partners and Robin Saunders of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sheffield University for reviewing the manuscript and giving me the benefit of their expertise in the sphere of renewable energy. I must also record my thanks to my wife Jeannette for her sterling work in making up for my deficiencies in proofreading. Finally, my special thanks are due to Sir John Houghton for allowing...

Smallscale hydro

Renewable energy systems have 31 times less impact on the environment than fossil-based energy, with one kWh produced by small-scale hydro being 300 times less polluting than the dirtiest of them all, lignite. Having said all this, there is a sting in the tail. The European Commission does not consider that small hydro should receive support as a source of renewable energy. This is because it reckons that large-scale hydro can produce electricity at market prices. Small hydro suffers because of this blanket perception. It also reveals that the Commission is still driven by market rather than environmental considerations since small hydro is one of the cleanest of all technologies as stated above.

The road ahead

Another problem is that, if there is a substantial investment in a national system involving the reforming of natural gas, there is the danger that this will 'lock-out' the direct use of hydrogen produced by electrolysis. From a renewable energy and environmental point of view the technological 'lock-in' of an inferior technology would be most regrettable. Solar energy offers one of the most abundant sources of electrolysed hydrogen. Deserts flanking the Mediterranean have already been mentioned as the ideal location for parabolic trough or parabolic dish reflectors to produce high-pressure steam to power steam turbines or Stirling engines to create the power to split water. The export of PV and solar hydrogen could transform the economies of some developing countries.

Wind power

Compared with other renewable energy technologies, wind energy is the closest to being competitive with fossil-based systems. The technology is mature and robust, with offshore installations set to take off in Europe. These facts should dispel any uncertainty about the future role of wind in the energy scenarios of the twenty-first century.

Point absorbers

The Port Kembla installation has a peak capacity 500 kW and an output of over 1 GWh year which is fed to the grid. The economics of the system compare favourably with solar energy and wind power. With refinements to the system the unit price is expected to outclass all competitors. A single installation of this kind has the potential to generate 1000 kW which would power 2000 homes (Caddet). Several sites in Australia such as the Bass Strait and Southern Australia coast have the wave potential to generate up to 1 MW per unit.

Photovoltaic cells

Electricity is produced from solar energy when photons or particles of light are absorbed by semiconductors. This is the basis of the photovoltaic (PV) cell. Most solar cells in current use are built from solid-state semiconducting material. Semiconductors are at the centre of the electronic revolution of the last century and it is worth a moment to consider how they function.

Wave and tide

Wave power is a fairly high density form of solar energy since the winds that generate waves are created by heat from solar radiation. Solar power can be transformed into waves with an energy density of 100 kW per metre length of wave crest. The World Energy Council estimates that wave power could meet 10 of world electricity demand. It is regarded as a reliable power source and has been estimated as being capable of meeting 25 or 12 GW of peak UK demand. With an estimated load factor of 50 for wave power this suggests a reliable output of 6GW

Solar buildings

Figure 2.6 Open loop pumped circulation system (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) Figure 2.6 Open loop pumped circulation system (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) Figure 2.7 Closed loop (indirect) pumped circulation system with internal coil heat exchanger (courtesy of Renewable Energy World) Figure 2.7 Closed loop (indirect) pumped circulation system with internal coil heat exchanger (courtesy of Renewable Energy World)

Rammed Earth Tires Earthships

Used car and truck tires can serve as permanent forms for rammed earth, providing a long- lasting, stable, and strong building system. A style of building dubbed earthships was developed in the US by Michael Reynolds. Using rammed earth car tires as massive retaining walls, earthships are typically arranged with the north side of the building backed into a hill, or buried under the earth, with the south side exposed for passive solar gain. Earthship designs also tend to incorporate systems for renewable energy, water harvesting, and waste processing that make them very self-sufficient structures. These systems are excellent models for anybody trying to lower their environmental impact, and worthy of investigation.

Water Pumping Options

In either a submersible or non-submersible form, an electric pump will pull water from the source and push it into your house. Piston pumps use less power than jet pumps. Many pump options are available, including models designed for renewable energy power systems.

Hydroelectricity The Basics

Hydroelectric power is a form of clean energy. It does not cause air pollution, create chemical leftovers, or produce toxic waste. To create this electrical energy, water must fall from above to an area below. The greater the distance the water falls, the more electrical energy can be produced. The fall of water can occur naturally, such as the movement of water in a waterfall or water traveling down the slope of a mountain. Although the natural fall of water can produce electrical energy, it is not necessarily the best way to produce it. Such sources, when they occur in nature, are not always reliable. When weather is dry and little rain falls, there may not be enough water to create the energy needed.

Strasbourg Train Station Extension

Glass Solar Energy Architecture

The initial answer, a glass bubble along the south side of the station (figure 9.11), had to be considerably refined in view of the first thermal simulations. The skin of the building, a filter for solar energy and heat, dominates the design so much that the work focused first on resolving questions related to the behavior of the skin before tackling its supporting structure. Two questions arose. First, how can the geometry be resolved rationally to match objectives of space, shape and form Generations by translation and rotation are being tested now. Second, what strategy would provide climatic comfort with a minimum expenditure of energy

Culemborg Netherlands

The project exploits solar energy passively and actively throughout. The infrastructural use of water and trees is routine in the Netherlands and here successfully encourages productive gardening. There is a policy of environmentally sound materials and an interest in healthy building design, including innovative building techniques from self-build straw bale to terrace houses under glass and a series of sun-scoop courtyards.

William Wenzler and Associates William Lam and Associates Central United Methodist Church

Artificial Lighting Churches

The tall tower which can be seen in the photograph is designed to collect both light and solar energy, but also registers the presence of the church in the neighbourhood it bears a resemblance to Utzon's Bagsvaerd Church in Denmark, although for somewhat different reasons (LightingModern Buildings, Case Study 8, pp. 1 18 9).

Lowtech high tectonics

But upon closer inspection our attentive visitor would make a few discoveries no radiators in the rooms, no centralised heating plant in the basement, no solar collectors anywhere in the building or on the roof Instead, a mechanical ventilation system ensures a supply of fresh air with a low air change rate (0.5) and is intended to prevent uncontrolled ventilation losses (e.g. windows left open unintentionally). A heat exchanger has been installed downstream from this system to introduce waste heat from the exhaust air into the incoming fresh air. That is it, the only technical component in the school this belongs to the - in architectural terms - less interesting part of the concept. More conspicuous are the ribbed concrete floors, the solid floor finishes of Vals quartzite stone slabs (also in the classrooms) and the large-format windows with their hopper-shaped reveals whose timber frames are screened externally by the thermal insulation. This is where the inconspicuous energy...

The Solar Stigmata of the Ecology Movement

There is an ironic serendipity in the proliferation of solar collectors, attached to buildings with functionalist conviction in the 1970s, and the deconstructivist taste for fragmentation in the 1980s, when an aesthetic based on dismembered bits of metal trusses that could have carried solar panels but didn't was widely admired. (A synthesis finally occured when the Benisch & Partner office hired a designer from Coop Himmelblau to work on the Hysolar Institute in Stuttgart in 1988 and placed solar collectors on the extruded parts of the building.) Solar buildings pro During the 1960s a significant change of consciousness occurred, and the subsequent demand for solar energy was championed not from an economic perspective but from one of social responsibility. Most important in this shift in mindset were the jeremiads of Rachel Carson, who in The Silent Spring (1962) exposed the extent to which the pesticide DDT had penetrated the world's ecosystems and launched the general challenge...

Chapter Six Toilet facilities

Toilet Facilities For Outdoor Recreation

These are similar to the dry composting toilets except that they have a larger capacity and tend to stay much wetter. Their main drawbacks are the odours that are common in hot weather and, for some people, a fear of falling into them. Adequate ventilation is difficult in many versions unless assisted by fans. These types are widely used on recreation sites in North America. They have to be pumped out at intervals so that access by special truck is needed. These types can also be provided with chemicals that help to break down the excreta and mask the smells. Various proprietary versions claim to have solved the odour problem with better ventilation systems. Some can be ventilated by fans powered by solar energy or heavy-duty rechargeable batteries.

Pavement Design Criteria

Temperate Darker colors are typical to absorb radiant solar energy. Frost thaw cycles require care in aggregate base preparation and subdralnage. Heavy snow regions must account for abrasive clearing practices. Mortared unit pavers require heavy maintenance In extensive applications.

The climate in the Nuremberg Prisma

Queens Botanical Garden Dreiseitl

In Nuremberg, for example, five waterfalls pout down at the same time into a set of residential and commercial premises that have been designed with a great deal of variety, using an entirely new design approach. In the 'Prisma' - 'Prism' - as the complex is called, removing boundaries was the key issue. Rainwater is of crucial importance here. All the water that falls on to the roofs flows through various cleaning phases into a tank with a capacity of just under 300 cubic metres, and is pumped from there into two circulating systems. Surplus water seeps into the ground under the underground car park. The first circulating system is used to supply the plants in the greenhouse, which extends over four storeys. South American vegetation grows in one section, Australian in the other, and both in a landscape of water-courses and ponds. These conservatories face south and south-west, and are part of the passive solar energy use concept.

Greenhouse Ecosystems

Greenhouse ecosystems (Fig. 11-2) are secondary sewage treatment systems that are constructed wetlands moved indoors. Marine biologist John Todd developed Living Machines at Ocean Arks International. They consist of a series of tanks, each with its own particular ecosystem. The first is a stream, and the second is an indoor marsh that provides a high degree of tertiary wastewater treatment. The system costs less to construct and about the same to maintain as a conventional sewage treatment system. It uses less energy, depending upon solar energy for photosynthesis and on gravity flow. There is no need for a final, environmentally harmful chlorine treatment. The system produces one-quarter of the sludge of other systems. Solar energy aerates tanks Solar energy aerates tanks

Sustainable Design Strategies

The materials and methods used for building construction and finishing have an impact on the larger world. The design of a building determines how much energy it will use throughout its life. The materials used in the building's interior are tied to the waste and pollution generated by their manufacture and eventual disposal. Increasing energy efficiency and using clean energy sources can limit greenhouse gases. Look at the building envelope, HVAC system, lighting, equipment and appliances, and renewable energy systems as a whole. Energy loads the amount of energy the building uses to operate are reduced by integration with the building site, use of renewable resources, the design of the building envelope, and the selection of efficient lighting and appliances. Energy load reductions lead to smaller, less expensive, and more efficient HVAC systems, which in turn use less energy.

The birth of the green

Such claims of an end to architecture-as-we-know-it have been made before, most recently by those who experimented with deconstruction. Those claims, however, were made on the basis of formal disruptions. Underneath, the buildings remained resolutely conventional in their pursuit of an ordered internal environment, in the consumption of fossil fuels to this end, and in the economic and political relationships that made the production of such a 'rebellion' possible, with such work almost always commissioned by institutional (i.e. establishment) clients. In fact, the work currently being produced by Foster, Rogers, Grimshaw, Future Systems, etc., dubbed 'Eco-Tech' by Catherine Slessor (1998), embodies a more profound shift away from 'imperial modernism' than either historicist or deconstructive post-modernism. Though no less embedded in the political and economic status quo, 'Eco-Tech' seeks a different relationship between building and physical environment from the conventional one,...

Cradletocradle Design

Cradle-to-cradle design was introduced in 2002 by architect William McDonough and chemist Dr. Michael Braungart as a method for evaluating products that could be safely used without any harm to people or the environment, based on known data. The evaluation criteria for products include material properties, specifically toxicity and carcinogenicity, persistence and toxicity in the environment, and use of heavy metals material reuse potential, either in recycling or composting efficient or renewable energy use, including use of 100 solar income in manufacturing water use, stormwater and wastewater discharge in manufacturing and instituting strategies for social responsibility as evidenced by third-party assessments and certifications.33

Solar Shading And Antiglare Measures

They keep the absorbed solar energy separate from the internal space. An ideal solution is to have louvres that semi- or fully automatically track the daily and annual path of the sun and can be adjusted to direct light in specific ways. External solar protection can also be combined with integrated measures such as solar control glazing. Exposed

Trimo Launches Ecosolar Photovoltaic Systems For Roofs And Facades

With all areas of construction under social and legislative pressures to explore renewable energy sources, Tri mo, one of Europe's leading manufacturers of construction products has launched EcoSolar- an integrated Photovoltaic system for its roofing and fa ade panels. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) are one of the most cost-effective ways of designing in a renewable energy systems, with the potential to off-set building costs almost from day one. Making use of the tremendous surface areas presented my many modern construction projects, Trimo's EcoSolar systems generate power, whilst also presenting an architecturally aesthetic building option. Trimo's EcoSolar system is designed to be incorporated into its recently launched Trimoterm SNV-3L panels, which is ideal having been designed for roof inclinations from 3 as the PV system sits between the trapezoidal profiling on the smooth surface. Energy generated can be used by the building itself and any surplus fed into the...

The Green City of Tomorrow Malmo Sweden

The first phase, Bo01, was completed in late 2001. It includes 100 renewable energy supply, quality targets on building performance, a site-wide waste management strategy and clean transport. A special focus was placed on the ecological value of the site and this has generated many attractive landscape designs. * 100 renewable energy. From sun, wind, water and biogas from local refuge. A minor part is played by photovoltaics. Much of the heating is supplied from aquifers and solar collectors. The network exchanges energy with the city grid and is in net balance.

Indirect Gain Designs

Indirect gain heating places a thermal storage mass between the sun and the occupied space. A sheet of glass covers an opaque wall 20 to 30 cm (8-12 in.) thick. The sun strikes the mass, where its energy is stored and slowly transferred to the interior space. The absorbed solar energy moves through the wall by conduction and then to the space by radiation and convection. The interior side of the wall must be kept free of hangings and large furniture so that radiant heat can transfer into the space. Indirect gain systems admit less daylight than direct gain systems, and offer little or no view to the south. Radiant heat continues to flow into the space in the evenings after sunny days.

Sustainability

Sketches Animal Rescue Systems

The concept of sustainable development, and associated practices such as sustainable construction, lend themselves to investigation via the sketchbook. It is possible to use freehand drawing to explore aspects of modern green design, be it the use of solar energy, wind power or natural ventilation. Conversely, most of the buildings constructed before the Industrial Revolution utilised local renewable energy sources, building materials were from the immediate locality, transport and farming practices relied on human and horse power, and cities were located where natural resources demanded. There was little or no importation of energy, food, water or materials, and since there was scarcity all round, there was a great deal of reuse and recycling. In this there are lessons for the future, which can be recorded and understood through freehand drawing. So sketching can help reveal best green practice, whether old buildings or more recent examples are employed. Sustainable architecture...

Need for Solar Access Zoning

Interest in solar access generally rises and falls with the perceived security of oil supplies. A brief period of political and economic uncertainty during the 1970s and '80s prompted urgent calls to use solar energy in our buildings, towns, and cities, making solar access a critical issue in the United States. A number of cities and states passed legislation to protect existing solar installations and to ensure continued solar access for future developments. The federal government supported a number of studies to determine the most feasible, effective, and enforceable way to establish solar rights.10 Then, as oil again flowed freely on world markets during the 1990s, public and political interest waned. beckons as a local alternative for electric power grids that run our air conditioners during hot summer months. But our understanding of solar energy must be broadened beyond photovoltaics (PV) and rooftop collectors.

Recycled materials or waste

It is made from natural and recycled materials, including earth-rammed tyres and aluminium cans. It is powered by renewable energy, catches its own water supply from rainwater, and treats and contains its own sewage in planter beds. It is a concept, not a set design, and can be adapted for any climate worldwide.

Limited Energy Resources

The sun's energy arrives at the earth at a fixed rate, X and the supply of solar energy stored over millions of years in fossil fuels is limited. The population keeps growing, however, and each person is using more energy. We don't know exactly when we will run out of fossil fuels, but we do know that wasting the limited resources we have is a dangerous way to go. Through careful design, architects, interior designers, and building engineers can help make these finite resources last longer. Our current energy resources include direct solar and renewable solar-derived sources, such as wind, wood, and hydropower nuclear and geothermal power, which are exhaustible but are used up very slowly tidal power and fossil fuels, which are not renewable in the short term. Electricity can be generated from any of these. In the United States, it is usually produced from fossil fuels, with minor amounts contributed by hydropower and nuclear energy. Tidal power stations exist in Canada, France,...

Heliotrop Solar Eriergy House Freiburg

Subject Architects who are actively involved in low-energy and environmentally compatible designs readily make use of timber because it is a replenishable and recyclable material. The architect Rolf Disch from Freiburg is very active in this field. Over a period often years he developed a prototype for a solar-energy house which, if the design is fully applied, not only requires no outside energy supplies but indeed can feed electricity back into the public network A so-called negative-energy house. He has attempted to reduce building costs by employing series production techniques and standardization. This is essential because the engineering input for maximum energy savings on this scale is very cost-intensive. The Freiburg solar-energy house described here has approx. 200 m2 of usable floor space. The architect built it for his own use as house, office and demonstration project. Interesting in the Heliotrop design is the practical use of timber to meet extreme functional demands,...

Radiantly Heated Floors

Hydronic radiant heating systems can use gas, oil, electricity, or even solar energy as their energy source. On the other hand, electric cables don't require a boiler, and may be more cost-effective for small floors. An electric system for a small bathroom could cost 300 to 400, compared to 4000 to 5000 for a hydronic system, not including fuel costs, which are generally higher for electric systems. Electric floors are often used to supplement heating systems in homes with forced-air systems. Highly efficient homes with thick insulation, airtight construction, and passive solar features may also be appropriate sites for electric floors.

Passive Solar Designs

All-passive solar systems utilize south-facing glass or transparent plastic for solar collection. The low winter sun puts out 90 percent of its energy during the period from 9 00 a.m. to 3 00 p.m. Where other buildings or tall trees block access to the sun during this critical period, solar energy systems are not practical. The area of the glazing amounts to 30 to 50 percent of the floor area in cold climates, and 15 to 25 percent in temperate climates, depending on the average outdoor winter temperature and projected heat loss. Glazing materials must be resistant to degradation by the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. Double-glazing and insulation are used to minimize heat loss at night.

Renewables Run On Underfloor Heating

There are strong technical reasons for embracing underfloor heating system technology. The boom in renewable energy is growing the demand exponentially. Changes to the Building Regulations over recent years have forced manufacturers down the path of producing condensing boilers to the almost total exclusion of standard efficiency models, with underfloor heating providing the return temperatures that optimise high efficiency output. As a member of Polypipe Building Products, Polyplumb can offer a choice of four different underfloor heating systems to suit virtually any situation, including retrofit applications.

Working And Dwelling

To do that, local initiatives are a beginning but the term local can be understood in two ways local to place and a specific set of problems and conditions or local to a cultural or social form, or specific practice. I turn to low-impact architecture as a case of the latter. There are many cases of projects using renewable energy sources and recycled materials, restructuring patterns of mobility in multi-function zoning, and reintroducing high density living in forms other than the tower block.17 But I look now at 9 10 Stock Orchard Street in north London, by Sarah Wigglesworth and Jeremy Till, completed in December, 2000 on the site of a forge and outbuildings where automobile springs were tempered (which replaced the original, nineteenth-century house). The building combines work and domestic space, and demonstrates a range of low-impact building technologies. The site is adjacent to a rail track, and previously belonged to British Rail. It was auctioned in 1994 and planning...

Local weather and microclimate

Modern solar design - solar energy is a driver of massing, form and layout, and space planning for individual and groups of buildings, but not to the detriment of urban design (Architects Gaia Architects photo Michael Wolshover) Modern solar design - solar energy is a driver of massing, form and layout, and space planning for individual and groups of buildings, but not to the detriment of urban design (Architects Gaia Architects photo Michael Wolshover)

Designing Buildings for Photovoltaic Systems

A single-residence PV system costs about 10 per watt of rated system capacity, including installation and all system components. A 1000-W system that would supply about one-third of the electricity for an energy-efficient home would cost approximately 10,000. With larger systems and projects where costs can be shared, the cost per watt could be reduced significantly. It currently costs from 10,000 to 40,000 to install a full solar system in a home, but rebates for up to one-half of that are currently offered in about 30 states, with more considering doing so. When purchased in quantity by a builder, solar panel systems add about 50 per month to the cost of the house, while saving from 50 to 100 in monthly electric bills. At the DOE's headquarters in Washington, DC, a blank south-facing wall presents three-quarters of an acre of poured-in-place concrete to views from the National Mall. This eyesore is scheduled to become one of the largest solar installations in the world. The DOE,...

Selectivity in Tropical Countries

Solar control by reflective glasses is due reflection of solar energy and produce very good solar control. It is most effective on sun facing wall. The optimum position of solar control coating is on external surface of the building. All hard Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar Energy

Philip Merrill Chesapeake Bay Foundation Floor Plan

Reduction Motion Compost

Since moving into the Merrill Center in 2000, CBF has done extensive work with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the Department of Energy National Laboratory. NREL monitored the building's energy and water performance from November 2001 to November 2002. Annual energy usage was measured to be 39.9 kBtu square foot year, inclusive of plug loads and miscellaneous loads like exterior lighting and elevators. This is 59.0 percent less than typical office buildings based on 1995 data collected by the Energy Information Administration. Through NREL's analysis, CBF learned their plug loads were higher than what had been anticipated, so they went back to verify that all possible plug-ins, including soda machines, were on motion sensors, and that all office equipment purchased was Energy Star-rated. The center clearly leads by example, and the research done postoperation will be helpful for planning future high-performing commercial building designs.

Orientation of a south roof overhang and large east and west porches maximizes passive solar heat gain while

The orientation and massing of the Environmental Education Visitor Activity Center maximize the site's passive solar and natural ventilation potential using simple strategies with enormous benefits. The long south face maximizes solar gain in winter months and the floor slab of the main space serves as a heat sink to store solar energy. Conversely, the building's north side shields against winter winds. The tilted main roof aids both of these functions, maximizing solar radiation and light to the south while deflecting north winds. Light-colored roof covering minimizes the heat island effect on the surrounding environment.

Nature as model and mentor

These efficiencies extended beyond the structure and into the envelope and environmental systems. Spheres are minimal surfaces that have maximum volume. They also, unlike more common orthogonal glasshouse forms, allow direct sunlight to enter perpendicular to the surface at all times of the day, thus maximizing the free energy.

Active solar heating Water

Heating DHW with solar energy in a high-performance house is sensible. In such houses, the energy needed to heat domestic water can equal or even exceed the energy needed for space heating since the latter has been so far reduced by insulation and heat recovery. Furthermore, demand for heating domestic water is a 12-month energy demand, including the high insolation summer months. Using a solar system is therefore an effective way of reducing the total primary energy demand. Increasingly, the market for solar water systems also includes systems that provide, in addition to water heating, space heating in winter.

Direct electric resistance heating

The conversion factor will hopefully improve in the near future as conventional sources of primary energy are increasingly replaced by renewable sources. The growth rate of all renewable energy sources together has been anticipated to increase to about 25 per cent of the total energy production by 2020. Yet, even if this ambitious goal is reached, the amount of renewable energy available will still be limited and prices for electricity can be expected to rise. So there is a strong argument that electricity is and will continue to be too valuable to be 'burned' merely to produce low temperature heat

Some Lessons and Observations

Pushing the ecological design envelope. Many European cities are promoting green technology and new ecological living ideas on an unprecedented scale. New urban districts like Leidsche Rijn and IJburg in the Netherlands are applying green urban ideas to thousands of new homes. New solar projects like the Stad van de Zon, in Heerhugowaard, are aspiring to be carbon neutral, and projects like the Western Harbor in Malmo are already achieving the goal of 100 percent locally produced, renewable energy. They are bold goals and visionary plans, indeed, for how to craft humane, sustainable places for our future. Comprehensive green strategies. European cities treat sustainability comprehensively. Cities like Freiburg are simultaneously implementing programs to promote solar energy, walking, bicycling and transit use, car-free living, and ecological landscape management. Such green initiatives tend reinforce each other. Strengthening public transit and pedestrian and bicycle use undergirds...

Energy Production and Use General Policy Statement

Alternative energy sources are receiving increased attention by academic institutions. Within the framework of fossil fuels, the burning of natural gas (CH4) produces the least amount of CO2 per unit of energy. Oil (CH2) is next, and coal (CH) produces the most CO2. The carbon in the fuel becomes CO2 the hydrogen becomes H2O. Another form of gaseous energy, which was once a major component of widely used consumer gas, is hydrogen gas (H2). Many experts expect that hydrogen gas (H2) will become the major stored and distributed source of convertible energy in the not-too-distant future. Sources of green energy include solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, and wind. Wind and solar energy are the best candidates for the northeastern Ohio region. Rapid developments are occurring in these technologies, which could ease the cost of decreasing the dependence on fossil fuels.

A mission for the new millennium

A carbon-neutral building produces no overall CO2 emissions to the atmosphere when energy flows are analysed over a typical year. Fossil fuel use is offset by renewable energy harvested by the building envelope -often using the national grid as a storage device enabling excess electrical This work suggested that it is important to integrate a number of different renewable energy harvesting techniques, carefully reconciling the often conflicting parameters of daylight, passive solar gain, heat loss through the building skin, ventilation, and of course contact with the outside world. Photovoltaics are an important new technology enabling clean solar electricity to be generated in urban areas, but their use can only be justified if it is fully integrated with all the other climate modifying devices that are all competing for the same rays of sunlight. This study shows how some of these devices have been incorporated in buildings I have worked on, and tries to define the key design tools...

A22 International Energy Agency

Collaborative programmes in the various energy technology areas are conducted under implementing agreements, which are signed by contracting parties (government agencies or entities designated by them). There are currently 42 implementing agreements covering fossil-fuel technologies, renewable energy technologies, efficient energy end-use technologies, nuclear fusion science and technology, and energy technology information centres.

Politics And Sustainable Development

Comfortably to economies which aim to grow or increase output. The over-exploited North Sea fishing grounds may be a better analogy for industrial growth without regard to stocks a time arrives when the industry itself is in danger, and draconian measures are necessary to conserve stocks and ensure regeneration of the resource. The decimation of the British and Irish fishing fleets are witness to the greedy exploitation of a valuable 'common'. Non-renewable resources such as oil or natural gas when used for human well-being must - if sustainable development is a goal - be capable of being replaced by other renewable resources. For example, the use of fossil fuels should be accompanied by the development of renewable energy sources such as wind, water and solar power. Interesting experiments in the development of renewable energy sources - though not always welcomed by the local population -have been or are being implemented throughout Europe.

Nibe Exhaust Air Heat Pumps Help Meet New Ecotargets

The stringent requirements of Level 4 have been met by utilising a number of different systems including solar panels, 300mm fully filled cavity walls, and improved U values on glazing, doors and loft space. The piece de resistance, however, is the installation of NIBE Heat Pumps designed to convert air that would otherwise be expelled in the normal ventilation process into energy for domestic hot water and central heating.

Toward Solar Architecture

The energy potential, which the sun places at our disposal cn a daily basis, seems inexhaustible. The incident radiation on the a dmasses of the earth alone is 3000 times greater thar the worldwide demands. Yet we continue to meet these demands almost exclusively with non-renewable energies generated pnmanty from fossil fuels. The resultant environmental problems - air pollution, acid rain, greenhouse effect and climate change - are only too well known. As if this weren't bad enough, annual consumption is climbing drama -icaiiy. For affluence is on the rise and some of the most populous countries of the world, such as China and India, are atxxit to adopt the extravagant lifestyle of the West. This will lead to nearly immeasurable ecological and political consequences in the near future s*Ke the conventional energy resources are finite and wil soon be exhausted. The fight for access to and control over these energy resources, first and foremost oil. will intensify even more. Seen from...

System design efficient and controllable equipment

The use of ambient heat or heat recovery systems should be an early consideration but, if not well designed, these can shift loads to electrical consumption, which works well in a context of hydro-power - which is why this is more common in northern Europe - but less well with the UK fuel mix. Systems are discussed under renewable energy in Chapter 11.

Isoenergy Plans Save Country House Costs

Isoenergy is a company specialising in the design and installation of cost justifiable renewable energy systems and over the years, rather surprisingly, it has proved to be old country houses that can benefit most from the application of 'green' energy. Such properties are notoriously difficult to insulate effectively and even more inefficient to heat. The application of modern energy efficient heating systems utilising naturally generated power, however, can make very substantial cost savings and improve effective heat provision as well as appeasing the green gods of the environment as the owner of a large rural property in deepest Surrey agrees. Built in the early 18th Century, his six-bedroomed farmhouse is timber framed with brick and stone inserts and has a walled front garden with converted outbuildings to one side. The owner asked Isoenergy to devise an eco-friendly system that would cut costs and improve fuel efficiency. The Isoenergy design involved a great deal of discreet...

Hanson Welcomes New Guide From Energy Saving Trust

Hanson Building Products has welcomed the publication of the Energy Saving Trust's latest guide, entitled 'Energy Efficiency and the Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4 The EST encourages energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, and promotes better insulation and heating efficiency, and cleaner fuels for transport. The cover features Hanson's EcoHouse which demonstrates the company's latest developments in sustainable modern masonry construction and 'smart' living, as well as the benefits of offsite fabrication, high thermal mass and natural

Why Are Fabricators Turning to Aluminium

Their part but of vital importance is the use of renewable energy and the need to vastly improve insulation. Companies supplying this sector need to look at both the improvement in insulation properties of the windows such as the move to high performance triple glazing and also the control and harnessing of solar energy. Some systems companies are already well ahead in this field. The opportunity is that new buildings could carry considerably more glazed areas which, if controlled correctly, could reduce the need for artificial lighting whilst offering much needed renewable solar energy. At Industry level The Council for Aluminium in Building (CAB) works together with other material bodies for the overall good of the sector. Indeed many of CAB's actual members supply aluminium products alongside PVC and aluminium timber composites All manufacturers should be pulling together to tackle the biggest issue we have at the moment - that of global warming and the need to improve insulation...

Pollution and climate change

High levels of sulphur dioxide being released into the atmosphere. Where cleaner forms of fuel are now being used for generating power, most of the pollution comes from traffic emissions. While the resulting pollutants are less visible, the forms of pollution have negative health effects on individuals, particularly with the increasing numbers of people suffering from asthma, heart or lung diseases. Climate change, on the other hand, is having a less direct impact on individuals but, instead, is affecting the equilibrium of the biosphere. This is a result of our over-dependence on fossil fuels like coal and oil, and this has produced what have become known as greenhouse gases. As fossil fuels are major, traditional energy sources for building, heating, cooking and travelling, current design is concerned with making developments more energy efficient, encouraging the use of renewable energy sources and reducing the need to travel.

Reference buildings based on national building codes 2001

Since the focus is to reduce the non-renewable energy use, the primary energy target defined in this book only addresses the non-renewable part of the primary energy demand (see Appendix 2). To judge the different environmental impacts of buildings during operation, two indicators are used in this book

Carsten Petersdorff 1231 Concept

In high-performance houses, while the heat demand is reduced to a very low level and occurs during only a few months of the year, it does not decrease to zero. Certainly, a significant part of the space heating and major part of the hot water demand can be covered by solar energy. However, to cover 100 per cent of the demand would be economic nonsense. Such a system would be grossly over-dimensioned most of the year, having to dispose of heat. A backup heating system to cover the peaks is essential. Burning a fossil fuel is a proven means of providing this backup. Due to the small absolute quantities of fuel consumed, the environmental impact is negligible. Especially in high-performance houses, the following should be considered

Fuel the least polluting sources of affordable energy

Gas and oil produce lower emissions to the atmosphere for each unit of delivered energy than electricity, making electricity, in general, the least preferred option for heating. A zero-CO2 emission option is to use active solar energy for hot water, wind energy and or biofuels such as woodchip, waste, straw or paper. Renewable energy technologies are dealt with in Chapter 11.

The Outdoor Environment

Solar energy is the source of almost all of our energy resources. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun triggers photosynthesis in green plants, which produces All energy sources are derived from the sun, with the exception of geothermal, nuclear, and tidal power. When the sun heats the air and the ground, it creates currents that can be harnessed as wind power. The cycle of evaporation and precipitation uses solar energy to supply water for hydroelectric power. Photosynthesis in trees creates wood for fuel. About 14 percent of the world's energy comes from biomass, including firewood, crop waste, and even animal dung. These are all considered to be renewable resources because they can be constantly replenished, but our demand for energy may exceed the rate of replenishment. caying vegetation were compressed and subjected to the earth's heat over hundreds of millions of years to create the fossilized solar energy we use today. These resources are clearly not renewable in the short...

The beginning of the 20th century

Passive solar energy use became a popular topic when Libbey Owen-Ford introduced insulating glass in 1935. It became possible for windows to become net energy producers in cold climates. Architects such as George Fredrick Keck from Illinois built houses with large south-facing windows and high thermal mass interiors. Measurements of the Duncan House showed that by ambient temperatures of -20 C no heating was required between 08 30 and 18 30. This was a sensation for the press. The 1972 oil crisis renewed interest in renewable energy as a means to reduce oil dependency. The US Energy and Research Development Agency initiated a massive research and demonstration programme. Passive and active solar housing was instantly a national priority National competitions were held, test houses and test cells were built to validate computer models, and handbooks were written. This solar movement quickly crossed the Atlantic to Europe. Now, in the beginning of the 21st century, there is a growing...

Keymer Take Home Owner Back To Massachusetts

Overall, the project's energy efficiency managed to exceed building regulations by 15 - partly owing to sustainable materials and solar power. To allow the solar panels fitted to the roof to harvest the maximum light, the largest section of the roof had to face south, meaning the gable became street-facing. Due to this, the gable's appearance had to be of the highest standards, hence the use of clay tiles throughout the expanse of both sides.

Absorption Refrigeration

Cooling with desiccants does not use any refrigerants with CFCs. Desiccants are porous materials, such as silica gel, activated alumina, and synthetic polymers with a high affinity for water vapor, that lower humidity without overcooling the air. In active desiccant systems, desiccants are heated with natural gas or solar energy to drive out the moisture that they have removed from the air. Passive systems use the heat from the building's exhaust air to release and vent moisture removed from incoming air.

Develop a Larger Learning Process

This project originated on the periphery of institutional consciousness. No formal or informal feedback loops bridged this project with other building projects, or to institutional operations or trustees. The project had no strong advocate within the administration, which may explain why no effort was made to develop a shared vision, what Senge labels common mental models among the trustees, senior staff, facilities management, and faculty. The administration initiated no review of the project after its commissioning with all the participants to determine what worked well and what did not.4 Thus, different and somewhat antagonistic views of the project and the design process existed among the college administration, faculty, and design group that worked on the building. It is fair to say that the Lewis Center did not at that time reflect a deeper institutional commitment to sustainability, energy efficiency, solar power, ecological restoration, and biological diversity, which were all...

Factors Determining the Performance of Glass

Solar Energy Transmission ( ) Percentage of incident solar energy transmitted by glass. 5. Solar Energy Reflection ( ) Percentage of incident solar energy reflected by glass. 6. Solar Energy Absorption ( ) Percentage of incident solar energy absorbed 7. Solar Factor (SF) Is the amount of energy entering the building, expressed as a percentage of the incident solar energy. Lower the solar factor, lower the solar energy heat gain.

The Firstthought Design

The First-Thought design does have two advantages view and possible solar energy adaptation. The view advantages are obvious. The possibilities of solar energy come where the downhill slope is a southern exposure. Whether a person should put this sort of house in an area of high density of housing where it is visible to others is an open question, especially since both views and solar energy may be utilized by more concealed design methods.

Other means of heat storage

This means of energy storage is superior to all the above means. The classic example is petroleum. Solar energy has been stored in plant material, which decomposed into oil, and now millions of years later, with no energy loss during the storage, 10,000 kWh m3 can be released by simply burning it -an incredible energy density. The only small problem is that the rate of use exceeds the rate of geological production, given the millions of years' time span

Sikkens Sustains Hamilton Development

The design was chosen through a competition promoted by clients, Clyde Valley Housing Association in conjunction with Communities Scotland and Hamilton Ahead (South Lanarkshire Council). Miller Street utilises passive and active principles to ensure an environmentally friendly design ranging from thermal walls to solar panel technology, creating a sustainable community on a particularly tight urban site.

Passive solar heating

Passive solar heating contributes to space heating requirements in a relatively small number of buildings in the UK. As a general principle, passive solar energy should be exploited wherever possible. It should be available to every house and make a contribution to heating needs in schools and other buildings as

Intelligent glass facades

Truly intelligent facades capitalise on the incident solar energy striking the facade of a building, adapt the skin functionality to the appropriate thermal control and solar protection, and in addition may generate electricity through photovoltaic cell systems. Solar control may be provided by switched elec-trochromic glass or by using laminated prismatic or holographic films which deflect the solar radiation according to its angle of incidence. Additionally, intelligent facades respond to air flows or ground heat sources to ensure appropriate and responsive ventilation. This function is usually achieved by the use of a double-skin facade, which acts as a ventilation cavity. During the heating season the double skin can pre-warm the incoming fresh air, and when cooling is required it can remove, by convection, built-up excess heat from the double-glazing unit. Furthermore, excess heat energy can be stored for redistribution when required.

Design outcome and thermal environmental control systems

Thermal environmental control was achieved in both the pavilion gallery spaces and in the arcade through a combination of active and passive systems, the Science Park project having elements from the full range. In what follows, the pavilion gallery spaces will be described first, then the arcade, followed by some comments on the overall distribution system and controls and a brief note on the photovoltaic solar panel system installed on the roof.

Energy Use Calculations

Calculate loads to make sure that the building envelope is adequately insulated, to compare alternative envelope designs, to estimate preliminary mechanical system costs, and to evaluate the potential benefits of solar energy design. Load calculations provide the basis for estimates of annual building energy use. They can become very complicated when used for detailed cost comparisons of alternative systems. When one design costs less to install but another is more energy efficient, engineers may perform energy design value analyses. For example, an analysis may help with decisions about optimizing the quantity of insulation, choosing between double and triple glazing, selecting types of lighting, deciding on solar energy use, and balancing aesthetic considerations with their cost to the client.

New society publishers

Renewable 151 I have spent most of my career engaged in energy and environmental affairs, working to make our current economy and way of life more appropriate to long-term sustainability. As a student in California in 1970, I helped organize the first Earth Day, and I helped create the first state-level agency to promote solar energy, also in California. For the past ten years, I have been involved in building design and construction on a daily basis, and I've been active in the green building movement since 1999. I see my role as a communicator between green building professionals and the larger business and governmental public. I conceived of this book as a way to accelerate the understanding of the importance of green buildings in addressing the climate-change challenges of the early 21st century.

Autonomous building care

The autonomous house as envisaged by Robert and Brenda Vale, with its own solar panels, wind turbine, rainwater filters and composting toilet, is not without maintenance needs so how are they to be met Some of the questions appropriate to ask in relation to the automated building are equally applicable here. How sophisticated are the systems For how long will parts be available

Groundcoupled and geothermal heat

Geothermal heat can be used to generate electricity and heat but the geology of Central Europe limits its application for heating purposes. In spite of its huge energy potential, this environmentally friendly technology is currently only rarely used. In comparison to solar energy that reaches the Earth (5.4 x 1015 MJ a), the terrestrial heat flux through the Earth's crust is nearly 6000 times smaller (1012 MJ a). This is, however, still three times greater than the total worldwide energy consumption.

Toilets That Conserve Water

All composting toilets require a continuous supply of room air drawn into the composting chamber and vented out through the roof to provide oxygen for the aerobic microorganisms that digest the wastes. Composting toilets eliminate or greatly reduce water for flushing but increase energy consumption, although the amount needed to run a fan and keep the compost from freezing is small, and is often supplied by a solar panel on the roof. Grates, screens, electric fans, and ventilation chimneys can provide ventilation. Airtight lids on the toilet, screens over vents, proper maintenance, and keeping kitchen scraps from the composting toilet will deter unwanted insects. Some government agencies require a permit before installing a composting toilet.

Cutting out sunlight and glare

Depending on the geographical location of a building, its exposure and the construction of its facades, solar energy can enter through the openings and lead to overheating of the interior in spring, summer and autumn. We prevent this by installing a suitable sunshading system. Basically, sunshades reduce the amount of heat radiation admitted by reflecting it. The total energy transmittance (g-value) is the means we use to assess the effectiveness of the protection, or to compare it with other systems. The g-value is the total of radiation transmitted plus secondary heat emissions to the inside and is determined through measurements or calculations. An efficient sunshade is distinguished by a high degree of reflection, which reduces the g-value accordingly. To prevent overheating of the interior, this reflection must take place before the radiation strikes the glass. If the solar radiation passes through the glass first, some of this radiation is absorbed

Heat production and distribution

The 48 single family houses in the southern tract have a micro-district heating system per house row. Solar heat and electricity produced on the house roof tops are also centrally collected and distributed. Solar energy also covers 65 per cent of the DHW need. These central units are managed by the local utility.

In Your Office or Workplace

The COYou2 reduce and gain program supports employees' investments in measures that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly in relation to mobility, heating and electrical energy. Such measures, which vary according to regional circumstances and preferences, include low-emission hybrid cars, use of public transport and the installation of solar panels or heat pumps. From now until the end of 2011, Swiss Re plans to rebate each employee one-half of the amounts invested in these measures, up to a maximum per employee of 5,000 Swiss francs (about 4,000) or the equivalent in local currency.

Solar Control Lowe Glass

New Soiarban 70XL is the first vision glass that gives architects exactly what they want by delivering a previously impossible set of features. It blocks over 75 of total solar energy while delivering 63 visible light transmittance - and does it with the look of clear glass. After all, looks are still everything. For a Solarban 70XL sample and a white paper detailing the unbelievable energy savings it can bring to your next project, call 1-888-PPG-IDEA or visit www.ppgideascapes.com.

The Machynlleth House CAT

The core of the sandwich is 100mm of extruded, expanded polystyrene, which has a closed cell structure and includes a sheet of polythene between the core and the internal plasterboard lining, to reduce the infiltration of cold air. The building also includes solar panels for hot water heating. A woodburning stove provides back-up.

Desiccant and solar cooling

A desiccant cooling model was developed and validated with data from the two systems. A solar heating coil was modelled prior to the regeneration coil, and it was possible to show a 76 reduction in primary energy consumed and CO2 produced, demonstrating that there is potential in the UK for using solar energy to drive the desiccant cooling cycle.

Resource Flows and Campus Ecology

The operation of educational institutions in ways that undermine the future of the students we purport to educate cannot be justified. As learning organizations, colleges and universities would monitor their environmental impacts and amend their operational guidelines in order to eliminate pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, and toxic chemicals, and support the emergence of sustainable local economies. Construction and building renovation would conform to the highest standards possible. Other standards for the purchase of materials, food, and energy, as well as landscaping and investment are being tested by the Campus Ecology Program of the National Wildlife Federation. The aim is to develop rating systems similar to that of U.S. News and World Report to appraise the environmental performance of colleges and universities. The implementation of these standards will require changes in plant management and operations, including systems to provide prompt and accurate feedback about all...

Sustainable and Ethical

I discern three business-style 'certainties' to new-age life in settler societies. The first is that new-age technology is certain -the solar-powered car will be followed by the hydrogen-powered car - and these new technologies will be as profitable to new-age business as the steam engine was to George Stephenson and the combustion engine was to Henry Ford. The second is that the bottom-line purpose of business will remain business for profit. The third is that new-age democratic governments will decree, variously, against energy use profligacy, the exploitative hollowing out of finite resources, the dumping of reusable waste, and the exposure of toxic residues to the biosphere.

Solar Thermal Systems

I got acquainted with solar energy systems in the mid-1970s when the first Arab oil embargo led many people to start looking to the sun as a source of free energy (as the slogan went, Four billion years without a shortage.). I participated in the development of the solar energy industry in California over the next decade, first directing the state's landmark solar-industry commercialization programs, then as a private sector participant, marketing, selling and installing solar systems for water, space and pool heating. The current upsurge of interest in solar energy systems is the first in 20 years. The domestic solar thermal industry collapsed in the mid-1980s, the victim of falling oil prices, low natural gas prices and the expiration of federal and state tax credits first enacted in the 1970s.

Green Urbanism Compact and Ecological Urban Form

Although European cities have become more decentralized, they are typically still more compact and dense than U.S. cities. This tighter urban form helps make local sustainability initiatives more feasible in terms of, for example, public transit, walkability, and energy efficiency. There are many factors that explain this urban form, including an historic pattern of compact villages and cities, a limited land base, and different cultural attitudes about land. Nevertheless, in the cities studied there are conscious policies aimed at strengthening a tight urban core. Indeed, the major new growth areas in almost every city studied are situated within or adjacent to existing developed areas and are designed at relatively high densities. Moreover, these new growth areas are incorporating a wide range of ecological design concepts, from solar energy to natural drainage to community gardens, and effectively demonstrate that ecological and urban can go together. Good examples of this compact...

Water storage technology

The storage need in a solar system is often determined by the ratio of the maximum to minimum monthly solar radiation. Figure 13.1.2 gives this data for different latitudes. When the maximum-minimum ratio is less than 5, even wintertime solar energy may be enough to provide the heat load, whereas values higher than 10 mean such a large fluctuation that a seasonal storage or

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Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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