Looking to the Future

The benefits of solar-access zoning can be realized around the world. The results of the Los Angeles studies, done at 34 n, can apply directly to any city at approximately the same latitude either north or south of the equator. Some of these are Baghdad, Tehran, Kabul, Lahore, Osaka, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, and Santiago. For cities at other latitudes, the size and shape of the solar envelope will vary, but the basic principles hold. Investigations of the solar envelope have also been done in...

Comparison of Sites B and D

Interstitium Architcture

Sites B and D are both elongated east to west. Courtyards will also run east and west. Site B has streets on the north and east while site D has them on the south and west. It is important to note that illustrations for B and D use a different viewpoint from A and C. Illustrations for A and C showed views from the southeast, so that north in the pictures generally conformed to the orientation of site plans. However, to better understand building massing and courtyard-cover shapes for sites B...

Need for Solar Access Zoning

Interest in solar access generally rises and falls with the perceived security of oil supplies. A brief period of political and economic uncertainty during the 1970s and '80s prompted urgent calls to use solar energy in our buildings, towns, and cities, making solar access a critical issue in the United States. A number of cities and states passed legislation to protect existing solar installations and to ensure continued solar access for future developments. The federal government supported a...

Model for Solar Access

The model for the solar envelope is found in the ancient settlements of North America. Here, a thousand years ago, settlements were laid out for solar access. Acoma Pueblo, located on a plateau about 50 miles (80 km) west of modern Albuquerque, New Mex- Acoma Pueblo Terraced houses are well designed to absorb the low winter sun and protect from the higher summer sun. (Perspective drawing by Gary S. Shigemura in Energy and Form by Knowles 1974,27.) Acoma Pueblo Terraced houses are well designed...

Bibliography

Philadelphia Titus, Simmons and Titus. Bateson, Gregory. 1979. Mind and Nature A Necessary Unity. New York E. P. Dutton. Beatley, Timothy. 2000. Green Urbanism Learning from European Cities. Washington, DC Island Press. -2004. Native to Nowhere Sustaining Home and Community in a Global Beatley, Timothy and Kristy Manning. 1997. The Ecology of Place Planning for Environment, Economy, and Community. Washington, DC Island Press. Benfield, F. Kaid, et al. 2000....

Design Analysis Tool

Orientatino Solar Housing Analysis

The solar envelope provides architects and urban planners with a design analysis tool for understanding and implementing solar access to buildings for both passive and active systems, for solar heating, solar control, and day lighting. The solar envelope provides zoning for low-impact development and opens new aesthetic possibilities for both architecture and urban design. One of the chief objections to solar-access zoning has come from developers concerned with the loss of property rights. But...

The Indian House

The rhythms of life in southern India are set by the monsoon. While northwestern India is extremely dry, southern regions have a predominantly coastal climate with the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south, and the Bay of Bengal to the east. Most of the year is hot and humid with a cooler monsoon season starting toward the end of May and continuing until early September.8 Celebrating the monsoon's arrival evokes a series of distinctly Indian customs ranging from small, private...

Rhythmic Boundaries in Space

Spatial boundaries in the natural world have their own rhythmic character. For example, in the Owens Valley of California, where a 30-year precipitation cycle has been observed, separate plant communities advance and retreat. Yellow pine advances during wet years while chaparral advances during dry ones. The result is a region of mixing, a tension zone between the two plant communities where natural conditions are in constant flux. Rhythmic boundaries can be seen in nature at all scales. Almost...

Notes

Gregory Bateson, Mind and Nature A Necessary Unity (New York E. P. Dutton, 1979), 29, 68. 2. It is ironic that Thomas Edison, developer of the first electrical distribution system, unsuccessfully advocated local grids and local power plants rather than huge, far-flung systems. 3. Ralph Knowles, For Those Who Spend Time in a Place, PLACES 8(2) (1992) 11-14. 1. Ralph L. Knowles, Energy and Form An Ecological Approach to Urban Growth (Cambridge MIT Press, 1974), 1off. 2. W. A. Chalfant, The Story...

The French House

In southern latitudes, where protection from the hot sun is essential, louvered shutters are common. Saintes, an ancient town in southwestern France, has warm, humid summers and cool, wet winters. Here too, as in the Georgian house, a combination of devices maintains comfort. Inward-opening casement windows give protection from cold and rain. Outward-opening shutters Slovak Farmhouse Left Front door and window Right Window from inside. Slovak Farmhouse Window Some of the possible adjustments....