Building envelope

Attention was given to details in order to avoid thermal bridges. The back-vented exterior walls are 46 cm thick. The wooden panel construction allowed less thick walls to this high insulation standard than would have been possible with masonry construction.

Source: Beat Kämpfen, Zürich, www.kaempfen.com

Figure 4.1.6 Timber construction

Source: Beat Kämpfen, Zürich, www.kaempfen.com

Figure 4.1.6 Timber construction

www.igjzh.com/naef/"/>
Source: Naef Energietechnik, Ingenieur- und Planungsbüro, Zürich, www.igjzh.com/naef/

Figure 4.2.1 Fan

Figure 4.2.1 Fan

Source: Naef Energietechnik, Ingenieur- und Planungsbüro, Zürich, www.igjzh.com/naef/

Figure 4.2.3 Energy supply; the values refer to the entire building

Source: Naef Energietechnik, Ingenieur- und Planungsbüro, Zürich, www.igjzh.com/naef/

Figure 4.2.3 Energy supply; the values refer to the entire building

The parts of the façade that are difficult to insulate - the roof deck of the attic, the ceiling fronts and window frames of the south façade, and the front doors - were additionally covered with a vacuum insulation 2 cm thick.

The windows are triple-glazed solar glass with krypton gas filling.

Source: Beat Kämpfen, Zürich, www.kaempfen.com

Figure 4.2.4 Detail section of north façade

0.90

0.80

0.70

Source: Naef Energietechnik, Ingenieur- und Planungsbüro, Zürich, www.igjzh.com/naef/

Figure 4.2.6 Ground pipe

Notes: U-values (W/m2K): 1: exterior walls; 2: roof; 3: terrace; 4: floor to cellar; 5: window (glass);

6: window (including frame), mean value; 7: average U-value building envelope. Source: Beat Kämpfen, Zürich, www.kaempfen.com

Figure 4.2.5 U-values

Source: Naef Energietechnik, Ingenieur- und Planungsbüro, Zürich, www.igjzh.com/naef/

Figure 4.2.6 Ground pipe

Source: Beat Kämpfen, Zürich, www.kaempfen.com

Figure 4.2.7 Vacuum collectors as balcony railing

Source: Beat Kämpfen, Zürich, www.kaempfen.com

Figure 4.2.8 Thin film solar cells on the roof

Source: Beat Kämpfen, Zürich, www.kaempfen.com

Figure 4.2.7 Vacuum collectors as balcony railing

Source: Beat Kämpfen, Zürich, www.kaempfen.com

Figure 4.2.8 Thin film solar cells on the roof

4.2.3 Roof (from outside to inside)

• PV panels with an air gap beneath;

• moisture barrier;

4.2.4 Ceiling

• polyethylene foil;

4.2.5 Ventilation

The supply air is preheated in polyethylene pipes buried in the ground. The pipes, with a diameter of 150 mm and a length of 30 m, are buried at a depth of 3.5 m. Each apartment is supplied with fresh air preheated in two of those pipes.

The air is further tempered by heat recovered from the exhaust air via a cross counter-flow heat exchanger. The ground preheating prevents the heat exchanger from freezing during the winter.

4.2.6 Heat production and distribution

The heat is distributed by the fresh air supply. Each apartment has the ventilating pipes in its own ceiling with outlets on the floor for the upper floor and outlets on the ceiling for the lower floor (see Figure 4.2.6). Radiators in the bathrooms provide additional comfort.

The ventilation air is heated with a water-air heat pump supplied by the solar collectors. The solar thermal system provides heat for both DHW and space heating. Each living unit has 6 m2 of vacuum collectors that also serve as the balcony railing. The storage tank stores 1400 litres of water.

The two-storey high plant rooms are next to the bathrooms on the north side in the insulated entrance area. This de-central solution allows for short pipes.

4.2.7 Electricity

The entire roof is covered with 202 m2 (generator area) grid-connected thin-film solar cells with a capacity of 16.2 kWp, which is equivalent to the electricity consumption for ventilation and heating (with heat pump) in this building. According to the project specifications, the house is energy self-sufficient (excluding energy for household appliances).

To comply with local codes, the roof is only sloped 3°. This reduces the yearly electricity gains. The cells have an efficiency of 8 to 10 per cent.

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