Calculation of heat transmission losses through thermal bridges

The heat losses from thermal bridges can be calculated for transient or steady-state heat conductions in two or three dimensions (see Blomberg, 1996; Panzhauser, 1997). A useful computer program, Eurokobra/Austrokobra, was developed within a project among European Union (EU) member countries in 1997. With this PC tool, thermal bridges such as heat transfer through corners of windows and heat loss from a house to the ground can be analysed, making it easy to solve ordinary construction problems. The user is helped in designing building constructions with minimized thermal bridges. A database for typical building construction parts (outside walls, floors, window frames, balconies, cellars, etc) is included. It provides the user with default values for defining the constructions (thickness of material layers, horizontal and vertical) and materials (characterized by their heat conductivity in W/mK). The results are isotherm lines in the building construction with condensation problems identified. The heat losses of the thermal bridges are characterized by ^-values. Tables 9.2.1 and 9.2.2 show examples of such ^-values. The U-values of windows are increased through thermal bridges between the glass and frame by about 0.05 W/m2K (high-performance window) up to 0.19 W/m2K (standard window).

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