Contents

Foreword vii

List of Contributors ix

List of Figures and Tables xi

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xxi

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Realities 1

1.2 Exemplary buildings 2

1.3 The technologies 3

1.4 Conclusions 7

Part I EXEMPLARY BUILDINGS

1 Overview 11

1.1 The diversity of the projects 11

1.2 Building envelope and construction 12

1.3 Technical systems 13

2 The Lindâs Passive House Project in Göteborg, Sweden 15

2.1 Project description 15

2.2 Energy 18

2.3 Economy 22

2.4 Innovative products 23

2.5 Conclusions 23

3 Gelsenkirchen Solar Housing Estate, Germany 25

3.1 Project description 25

3.2 Energy 28

3.3 Life-cycle analysis 32

3.4 Economy 35

4 Sunny Woods Apartment Building, Zurich 37

4.1 Project description 37

4.2 Energy 39

4.3 Life-cycle analysis 43

4.4 Economy 49

SUSTAINABLE SOLAR HOUSING

5 Wechsel Apartment Building, Stans, Switzerland 53

5.1 Project description 53

5.2 Energy 55

5.3 Life-cycle analysis 61

5.4 Economy 66

5.5 Lessons 66

6 Vienna Utendorfgasse Passivhaus Apartment Building 69

6.1 Project description 69

6.2 Energy 70

6.3 Economy 74

7 Plus Energy House, Thening, Austria 77

7.1 Project description 77

7.2 Energy 79

7.3 Economy 84

Part II TECHNOLOGIES

8 Introduction 89

9 Building Envelope 91

9.1 Opaque building envelope 91

9.2 Thermal bridges in building constructions 100

9.3 Doors and vestibules 103

9.4 Transparent insulation 109

9.5 Fenestration 117

9.6 Shading devices 128

10 Ventilation 139

10.1 Ventilation fundamentals 139

10.2 Ventilation typology 141

10.3 Ventilation systems for high-performance housing 145

10.4 Ventilation heat recovery 149

11 Heat Delivery 157

11.1 Heating by ventilation 157

11.2 Radiant heating 163

12 Heat Production 169

12.1 Active solar heating: Air collectors 169

12.2 Active solar heating: Water 175

12.3 Fossil fuels 182

12.4 Direct electric resistance heating 185

12.5 Biomass 186

12.6 Fuel cells 189

12.7 District heating 194

12.8 Heat pumps 200

12.9 Earth-to-air heat exchangers 204

12.10 Ground-coupled and geothermal heat 210

13 Sensible Heat Storage 215

13.1 Thermal storage 215

13.2 Latent heat storage 220

14 Electricity 223

14.1 Photovoltaic systems 223

14.2 Photovoltaic-thermal hybrids and concentrating elements 227

14.3 Household appliances 233

15 Building Information Systems 239

15.1 Introduction 239

15.2 Bus systems and transmission systems 239

15.3 Advantages of European Installation Bus (EIB) in the residential building sector compared to other solutions 245

15.4 Applications of installation buses in residential buildings 246

15.5 Saving energy by introducing building control systems 248

15.6 Costs 249

15.7 Market acceptance and development of home automation systems 250

15.8 Summary and outlook 250

Appendix 1 Primary Energy and CO2 Conversion Factors Appendix 2 The International Energy Agency

253 257

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