Energy

6.2.1 Passivhaus concept

Due to the high thermal quality of the building envelope, the heat load is only 9.4 W/m2. The mean calculated space heating energy demand is 14.7 kWh/m2a, assuming a room temperature of 20°C.

The primary energy characteristic value for DHW, heating, ventilation and household electricity falls below the 120 kWh/m2a maximum of the Passivhaus standard. This is achieved by using energy efficient household appliances. The calculated primary energy demand for DHW, heating and ventilation is 46 kWh/m2a.

Source: Schoeberl and Poell OEG, Vienna, www.schoeberlpoell.at, and AEU GmbH

Figure 6.2.1 Energy supply

Source: Schoeberl and Poell OEG, Vienna, www.schoeberlpoell.at, and AEU GmbH

Figure 6.2.1 Energy supply

Source: TU-Vienna Zentrum für Bauphysik und Bauakustik, Vienna, www.bph.tuwien.ac.at

Figure 6.2.2 Distribution of the heat load and the heat requirement of the units in Building 2

Source: Schoeberl and Poell OEG, Vienna, www.schoeberlpoell.at, and Franz Kuzmich, Vienna

Figure 6.2.3 Insulation boundary for stair towers in section (left) and plan (right)

6.2.2 Building envelope

A wall construction with 27 cm insulation was selected.

6.2.3 Exterior wall

• Thermal insulation with expanded polystyrene (EPS-F with ^ 0.035 W/m2K or ^ 0.040 W/m2K) = 27.0 cm;

6.2.4 Roof

• Domitech roof (www.domico.at);

6.2.5 Ceiling

6.2.6 Lowest floor ceiling

• thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene (EPS) = 35.0 cm;

The stair tower is included in the insulated building envelope and runs down to the underground parking. This has the following advantages:

• The temperature in the stair tower is approximately 17°C in January, instead of 4°C were it uninsulated.

• The continuity of the exterior envelope insulation is not interrupted and there are no subsequent thermal bridges.

• Complex connections between the dwellings and the staircase are avoided.

• The dwellings' entrance doors need not be highly insulating and expensive.

0.90

0.90

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Notes: U-values (W/m2K): 1: exterior walls; 2: roof; 3: terrace; 4: floor to cellar; 5: window (glass);

6: window (including frame), mean value; 7: average U-value building envelope. Source: Schoeberl and Poell OEG, Vienna, www.schoeberlpoell.at, and AEU GmbH

Figure 6.2.4 U-values

The windows of the Utendorfgasse apartment building are of good quality:

The windows of the Utendorfgasse apartment building are of good quality:

Source: Schoeberl and Poell OEG, Vienna, www.schoeberlpoell.at, and Franz Kuzmich, Vienna

Figure 6.2.5 Fire protection of window from façade fire propagation

6.2.7 Fire protection insulation perimeter

Because of the thick insulation used on the façade, special fire protection measures around the windows were necessary. To achieve this, a special detail was developed using mineral wool batts with an EPS cover.

6.2.8 Shading

The ground, first, second and third floors are sufficiently shaded by the loggias to protect them from solar overheating. In the top floor apartments, outside and inside sun shading is provided. Skylights have both internal and external shading.

6.2.9 Ventilation system

The ventilation system consists of:

• a roof-level central plant at each stair tower, with heat recovery, air filtering, a circulation fan and electrical preheating register as a freeze protection measure; and

• decentralized supply air heating for each housing unit, jet nozzles and speed-adjusted ventilators with four-step regulation by the occupants.

6.2.10 Heat production and heat distribution

A central heat production plant serves the whole complex of buildings with heat for space and water heating. It consists of a gas-fired boiler (80 kW) with a custom hot water tank. A circular pipe line supplies hot water to each apartment air register for space heating and a separate circuit provides DHW. The hot water is circulated by a pump (<200 W) controlled by a timer. The circulation runs from 4.00 am to 10.00 pm, but is freely adjustable to adapt to the life style of the occupants.

Source: Schoeberl and Poell OEG, Vienna, www.schoeberlpoell.at

Figure 6.2.6 Technical concept

Source: Schoeberl and Poell OEG, Vienna, www.schoeberlpoell.at

Figure 6.2.6 Technical concept

6.3 Economy

6.3.1 Extra costs for the Passivhaus standard

Achieving the Passivhaus standard versus merely meeting the low energy standards of Vienna for social housing cost, approximately, an additional €73/m2 of living area. This amounts to about 7 per cent in extra costs above the budget for social housing. The main sources of this higher cost were the improved quality of the building envelope and the high-efficiency ventilation with heat recovery. Figure 6.3.1 shows the savings and additional costs.

Source: Schoeberl and Poell OEG, Vienna, www.schoeberlpoell.at

Figure 6.3.1 Constructional extra costs for the Passivhaus standard in the social housing per square metre of living area, excluding sales tax (2003)

6.3.2 Passivhaus operational costs

Electricity accounts for 60 per cent of the operating cost. The second largest cost is the production of hot water. Space heating accounts for only about 15 per cent of the total operating costs.

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