Planning the heating and ventilation system at an early stage was necessary in order to optimize the arrangement of the pipes. On the one hand, room air conditioning could be improved; on the other hand, costs were reduced. Prefabricated wooden elements for the interior walls were advantageous regarding the installation of the piping.

Concerning indoor temperatures in winter, all apartments reached impressive values except for one apartment at the top floor where the ventilation system did not have enough power to heat the apartment. As a result, an electric arc furnace was used. Since the heating energy demand is very low and the use of the furnace only short term, this solution is acceptable. A possible solution to avoid such problems could be a hydraulic floor heating system, which means separating the heating and ventilation systems. One of the advantages would be the lower operating temperature of the floor heating system compared to the heater coils that heat up the ventilation air.

Visually, the Wechsel Passivhaus apartment building hardly differs from the other apartments of the housing estate, which are built to a conventional standard. Energy measures had a significant influence on the entire planning of the building; but optimized living comfort, as well as considera-

Figure 5.5.1 Entrance ground floor

Figure 5.5.1 Entrance ground floor tion of the occupants' preferences, were also important. The radiators in the bathrooms, for example, proved to be of value and provided additional comfort.

To conclude, the support of the occupants is crucial in the functioning of a Passivhaus building.

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