Maria Wall 71 Introduction

7.1.1 Solution examples by climate, house type and strategy

This chapter presents example solutions for housing in cold, temperate and mild climates that achieve the targets of end energy and primary energy set by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 28/38. The example solutions are noteworthy in that they do not necessarily require extremes in either construction or equipment.

Two design approaches are differentiated:

1 conservation strategy (reducing losses); and

2 renewable energy supply (increasing gains).

The difference in approaches is in how far conservation or solar is taken. Both strategies, of course, involve conservation and the use of passive solar gains. Computer simulations were carried out to optimize the solutions. In addition, sensitivity analyses were carried out to quantify the importance of key design parameters.

Three climate regions were defined and reference climate data sets generated by the program Meteonorm (Meteotest, 2004):

1 cold (Stockholm);

2 temperate (Zurich); and

For the different building types in the cold, temperate and mild climates, different example solutions are shown based on strategy A (conservation) or strategy B (renewable energy). Each example solution was reached by applying different variations of envelope constructions and technical systems to reach the targets. Computed values for energy performance, summer comfort and carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions are given for each solution. One example of life-cycle analyses for row houses in the temperate climate is also presented.

House types

Example solutions were developed for three reference housing types in the three climate regions. The reference house designs reflect typical houses built in the northern Mediterranean area, middle Europe and middle of the Nordic countries.

The single family house is in a one-and-a-half-storey home, with a floor area of 150 m2 divided between the ground floor and the first floor, which has a smaller area. For this house type the energy conservation strategy is the more difficult approach because of the relatively large ratio of heat-losing envelope area to the floor area. On the other hand, a large envelope area offers ample space for solar systems.

The row house has 120 m2 of floor area divided over two storeys. A row of six units is assumed in the analyses. The two end housing units have higher envelope heat losses than the four middle houses. The average energy demand for the row of six units should meet the targets. The resulting compact building geometry makes it easier to achieve the space heating target, compared to the single family detached house. Given the very small heating load, a sensible solution is to have one central heating system for the whole row. But energy efficient separate systems for each unit are also possible to design.

The four-storey apartment building has a total of 1600 m2 floor area. Each apartment is assumed to be 100 m2. This housing type is very compact and can therefore most easily achieve a very low space heating demand, even without using thick insulation. Very efficient ventilation heat recovery is still important.

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