AO fcO &0 \00 Duration, seconds

and somewhat on the grade but is relatively independent of velocity. Reference sound levels from a sample of engine passbys are shown in Fig. 5.33. Levels average 91 dBA at 100 ft. Grade adjustments are given in Fig. 5.34.

Rail car noise is produced by wheel-rail interaction and is a strong function of velocity. Rail car noise levels can be estimated using an empirical formula (Swing and Pies, 1973)

Figure 5.33 Noise Levels of a Locomotive at Level Grade (Swing and Pies, 1973)

Measured at \00 Feet from the track.

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