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architect Wallace K. Harrison and acousticians Cyril Harris and Vilhelm Jordan to increase diffusion and the sound in the balconies, is in active use today.

Another American hall, constructed around the turn of the century, was Carnegie Hall (Fig. 1.23) in New York. Andrew Carnegie, an entrepreneur and steel baron, was fishing at his vacation home in Scotland with a young American musician, Walter Damrosch, whose father Leopold was director of the New York Symphony Society. The idea to provide a permanent building to house its activities arose while the two were casting in midstream (Forsyth, 1985). The plans were prepared by architect William B. Turnhill and the hall opened in 1891. Carnegie Hall was designed as a shoebox hall but like a theater. The orchestra was

Historical Introduction 33 Figure 1.22 Metropolitan Opera House, New York, NY, USA (Beranek, 1979)

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