This discussion of some typical areas of the building designed is intended to be illustrative, not definitive. It gives an indication of the various interwoven considerations economic, behavioral, administrative —that play upon the design process,
For the architect, two key conceptual tools m arranging spaces in o facility like this are territory and status. The provision of clearly defined territorial boundaries private, semi-public, public in institutional situations ie an aid to residents In guiding themselves and their actions. Certainty territory one's room, one s den - is at issue even within a family, and still more so in a program, regardless how intimate
Fig. 1 Kitchen planning concepts in a suburban residence.
in this enlaced plan of a kitchen <1 can be seen that location neai the entry yields several benefits the cook has full-time view Dl entry and parking lot, ease of deliveries, interaction of woman cook with hoys - boys docborBs in return for snacks and recognition Visual control view ol parking and errtry. Aural control vending machine noise, door hinges tell of activity at door liueiporsonal control: most boys use entry at kitchen side while staff and secretaries use entry at office side Krtchen has moie action, more status, more snacks
Fig. 1 Kitchen planning concepts in a suburban residence.
in this enlaced plan of a kitchen <1 can be seen that location neai the entry yields several benefits the cook has full-time view Dl entry and parking lot, ease of deliveries, interaction of woman cook with hoys - boys docborBs in return for snacks and recognition Visual control view ol parking and errtry. Aural control vending machine noise, door hinges tell of activity at door liueiporsonal control: most boys use entry at kitchen side while staff and secretaries use entry at office side Krtchen has moie action, more status, more snacks or «mall-scale As intimacy and trust increase, the pressure to defend territory seems to decrease- That is the point when some programs remove locks from personal belongings to test out the group's attitudes.
Likewise by sharing territory, one shares an extension of onself. When the cook asks residents to help, to do favors, run errands, she returns the favor by sharing her territory her status with the youngsters. By the same token, some spaces have no status. The notoriously empty 'lounges in some facilities bear witness to this, while young people crowd into the room of a favorite counselor. The spaces in these cases have a certain value because ol the status of their inhabitants, while other spaces have little or no status. In so intensely social a situation as the residential center, the design of spaces must be modulated by acute behavioral considerations such as territory and status. Each person ought to be able to easily identify his territory— room and belongings. office or kitchen —while at the same time he should be able to share all or part of it with another. This goes for both staff and residents. Often staff use their authority to control or lock off certain spaces, and in the process they convey the sense of dominance so often associated with institutions. The architect cannot control the inhabitants, but he nan make himself nware of the issues and learn to modulate the design of space to account for their relation to behavior. These concepts territory and status - are only two among many. Further reference vectors are found in Information Resources,' below u hlcLui $ itUj
Fig. 2 Schematic plan - basement.
The basement lets out onto the open yard Dining, recreation, and circulation conned with the outdoors. Kitchen connects To the street side. Open stairwell communicates sights and sounds to the first fJooi
In the smallest facilities (seven-bed), ihe kitchen is simply residential in design. Since program sizes vary, it is not constructive to enumerate kitchen equipment or kitchen area. General performance criteria for kitchens are as follows:
* Residents almost universally help in the kitchen. This is part of the responsibility of all residents to lend support to the house. All equipment, furnishings, and detail should therefore be of extra heavy-duty construction since it will be exposed to hard and inexperienced personnel. A safe and easily maintained design could have tiled surfaces, floor drains, and metal pan ceilings tor fire relitrdance, washability. and sound dampening
* Relation to dining room can be informal, since family-style service is often US ad.
* The cook, often (he one accessible woman in the facility, should not be isolated by the kitchen design The kitchen shnuld be, if not central, at least conveniently located in regard to the common and entry areas.
* In smeller programs the kitchen can be designed as a control point near the main entry in order to capitalize on the full-time presence of the cook during the day, This Is economically wise from the staffing viewpoint Young people will gravitate toward the kitchen for available snacks. Figure 1 illustrates a kitchen serving several goals In a 20-bed program: food preparation, entry supervision, and interaction of boys and cook,
* Single room occupancy is usually preferred in these programs. For many residents this will be the first time that they have had a private room, private territory, of their own. For economy, bedroom sizes are usually minimal. While ihe value of privacy is considered fftUjuù*
Fig. 3 Schanwlic plnn - lint fleoi.
The lii 11 llooi is tlti; hub. Use ol ihe lounge by local folks can reduce social distante bel ween ciograra and community, se it is placed fiyar entry and toiler. Office near entrv fies s view of inside and oui sida, of upstairs end downstairs. The eve and the ear replace the loot loi control
Fig. 3 Schanwlic plnn - lint fleoi.
The lii 11 llooi is tlti; hub. Use ol ihe lounge by local folks can reduce social distante bel ween ciograra and community, se it is placed fiyar entry and toiler. Office near entrv fies s view of inside and oui sida, of upstairs end downstairs. The eve and the ear replace the loot loi control great, it is important to arrange the individual rooms so that the resident cannot deliberately isolate himself from the activities of the program.
■ Dormitories arid four-man rooms are often used, while two-man rooms are often discouraged because ol aggression, turnover rates, and homosexuality. In the dormitory situation, the strains ol daily communal living are multiplied. The supply of private territory is at a minimum and constantly subject to aggression, theft, damage, etc. In dormitory design, therefore, it is important to give thought to provision of easily identified and defensible territory in the form of furniture, storage, shelving, bed, featured or colored floor surface or change In floor levels, ceiling heights, etc. (see Furnishings, below). For most residents, their sleeping area and belongings constitute their entire worldly possessions, therefore the main' tenance of these becomes very important. The diagram (Fig 5) indicates on approach to creating an immediate private tone around the bed, providing easily defined space and lockahility and meeting personal storage needs,
Residential, community-based programs usually require no overt physical constraints on residents No walls No locked doors. Instead of physical control, these programs aim initially at developing a sensitivity to social control in youths and ultimately at n sense ol self-control The mechanisms for creating these internal controls are group therapy sessions, individual counseling, exposure to community living from a stable, supportive residential base, and a frankness and intimacy among staff and residents, In short, the aim is lo simulate a domestic environmeni with responsibilities shared by youths and staff. For this reason, residents must help in the kitchen, residents and staff eat together, and staff lives on the premises (with family or without).
Physical controls in the traditional sense are usually not used Nevertheless, a certain measure of supervision by the staff must be pos sible. just as a well-designed house enables a mother to keep track of her children, either indoors or out The architect has al his disposal three unobtrusive supervision method* aural, visual, and movement supervision The relation of corridors, windows, and key rooms like kitchen and offices, will enable staff persons to hear if not see the activity of the house. Open stairwells (building codes permitting) and courtyards carry sounds. Sounds carry messages. By locating vending machines properly, the cook in the illustrated kitchen (Fig 1) can keep track of activity near the door Visual supervision ia the most difficult to achieve without resorting to long corridors, view panels on bedroom doors, etc. By using hard materials in key areas, sounds can be reinforced and transmitted. The control of movement through architectural design can enhance supervision. Judicious placement of entry, kitchen, and lounges — the natural gravi* tation points of hungry teen-agers — can ensure a view of moving people by staff, A window overlooking a parking lot 01 an office by a stairway are effective means of supervision in a smalt center See accompanying diagrams (Figs 2, 3. and 4).
Renovations are attractive to many agencies because of the public pressure for action and the budget restrictions on capital construction. When operating with a tight schedule or a tight-fisted comptroller, the lure of renovation is strong Under such conditions, renovation should not be extensive. Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing facilities should bn in good enough condition to remain, otherwise cutting and patching for a new system will drive up the cost- Extensive renovation is exceedingly time-consuming and contractors competent in such work are scarce and expensive. The only reason to consider renovation on a largo scale would be if the building has special historic or esthetic value to the community or the program,
While the cost per square foot of major renovation can be 20 to 30 percent less than new construction, a well-planned new facility often needs less square feet than an existing building Ultimately the total costs of renovation and new construction will not be tar apart. As a rule of thumb, say that if renovation cost is 75 percent or more of comparable new construction. new construction is preferable since it can be completed faster, will have less contingency costs, and can be designed much more efficiently.
Mechanical Euuiomenl (H.V.A.C,, electrical, plumbing, elevator*) Saving existing equipment may be false economy for two reasons First, it may inhibit efficient, effective planning. Second, the original equipment may be faulty. Check existing maintenance and expense record if available, this will give an inkling as to past performance Installing new mechanicol equipment in an existing structure is costlier than installation in a new structure; add 15 percent of equipment cost for cutting and patching,
Code Checklist When considering the renovation potential of an existing building, some basic factors ought to be considered a. Multiple dwelling codes and/or social service regulations may place restrictions on the number of occupants per room, regardless of room stie Check applicable codes to determine the building's capacity for sleep-in occupants.
b. The required lire protection devices (alarms, smoke or thermal detectors, sprinkler systems) are based on the construction classification of the building; its area and height; and the number, age. and physical condition of its residents. When considering renovation, check the area, height, and construction class of your building against the fire protection requirements of the building code as well as municipal or state social service regulations. Fire protection regulations for public agencies are strict even when there lire as few ns seven or nine residents in a standard residential dwelling: certainly they ere for stricter than requirements for one-family dwellings.
A new water service and sprinkler systems can be expensive in urban areas. Additional expenditures for a pump to provide adequate water pressure may be needed. In some areas, a water meter must be attached to the sprinkler system by law c Egress requirements are usually stringent. The entire building (especially if multi-storied) should have two means of egress via fire-rated corridors and openings. Assembly areas (dining, auditorium, lecture! should also have direct, unobstructed egress. One egress may be acceptable if protected by sprinklers, smoke or heat detector, and alarm system d Local fire departments may also have rules calling for special equipment for group occupancy structures: smoke detectors, alarm systems, fire extinguishers, and perhaps persons trained in emergency techniques.
o Rooftop areas, especially in urban sites, often have the potential for excellent recreation areas when proper protection, egress, and area requirements are met. Rooftops may require separate certificate of occupancy-
t Floors should be capable of carrying the large live loads required for assembly areas (dining, auditorium, recreation, corridor). II is often difficult to prove live load capacity to a building department if the original plans of an uld building are tacking Replacing existing floors with capable floors is tricky and expensive.
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Fig, 4 Schematic plan - bodioom Hoch.
Trie come pi illusl tales a mono of pi ma la areas ut looms around a common twiitwv, 1Kb nnen yard Open Jt sir we I «nes a view down each corndpi. A counsellor llvas on each flow The plan is open, yet aach isrntonr is da lined
ornate semi- private private
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