Fig. 1 from Mew Torlt City Housing Auitiorily, N. Y.C.H.A. Memo to Architects
The modern medical center la ao large and so complex that it should be located on the edge of the university campus rather than within it. This location will emphasize the fact that the medical center is a satellite in the university orbit, but haa a degree of autonomy. It is important that students and staff in the medical center have easy access to the main university campus, and that the medical center be accessible to all areas of the university.
The site should be large enough to accommodate growlh of the school programs and concurrent parking for at least 20 years. The minimum size recommended for a medical center including a teaching hospital is 50 acres, and 50 to 150 acres is preferable. Buildings should be placed on the site so that additions can be made as programs develop and as enrollment increases.
The sorvice functions of the medical school involve patient care in hospitals and outpatient clinics. Growth of research and service responsibilities frequently leads to the development of specialized hospitals, such as children's, veterans', psychiatric, chronic disease, rehabilitation, or others. The site should permit location of these facilities in relation to the major teaching hospital so thai staff and students can be within a five- to ten-minute walk. The teaching hospital and clinical science facilities should be placed on the site so that the educational funct ions relate to and connect with the basic science facilities Outdoor facilities for rehabilitation of patients related to the clinic and recreation facilities for students related to housing should be provided, The extent of these facilities varies widely among schools. Adequate space for housing should be provided nearby- Apartment-type housing with play areas for children, within five minutes' walking distance of the hospital, is preferable.
Adequate parking facilities should be provided for students, staff, patients, and public convenient to eech element of the medical center including housing. This may take the for m of divided shopping-center-type parking, preferably with trees, various types of paved surface parking, or multilevel parking garages.
If possible, the site should be sloping so thai more then one level of entrance to the buildings can be obtained and horizontal movement of supplies can take place at one level without conflicting with horizontal movement of people at another level.
The direction of prevailing wind should be studied so that buildings can be placed in relation to each other and to the campus and community to avoid windblown odors from cooking and incineration of animal waste and trash, bacteria from infected patients, chemical fumes, and low levels of radioactive isotopes.
The site for the animal farm is not usually contiguous to the medical cenler. However, a minimum site of about 25 acres should be
Módica! School Facilities, Public Hoalih Ser vice U S Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington DC 196*1
provided; recent studies indicate that 120 acres may be required. It should be located for convenient transportation to and from the animal quarters.
Of prime importance in planning medical schools is the relationship of its three major components: the bosic science facilities, the clinical science facilities, and the teaching hospital. For the most efficient movement of students, faculty, palients, and supplies, the three should be interconnected, but for maximum flexibility in expansion each should be an independent element. Fig. 1 illustrates this relationship.
The basic science and the clinical teaching and research facilities, in turn, should be attached to the hospital to permit easy access to patient units and other hospital facilities. The diagram also shows the possibility of expansion inherent in this relationship.
Jn the basic science facilities, the departments can be stacked above each other with leaching laboratories, faculty, resuarch and office space, and lecture rooms for each department located on the same floor The cadaver preparation and storage department is usually located no a floor accessible to grade for convenience in handling cadavers. Central animal quarters serve teaching and research areas for both basic science and clinical departments. A location with direct connection to the circulation center and at grade level for access to a delivery entrance lor animals is important.
Other common-use areas should be located where they are accessible to both the basic science and clinical departments Thus, a basement location for such facilities as the radioisotope laboratory and technical shops is acceptable. Administrative facilities, school post office, snack bar, student lounge, and bookstore should be accessible from a circulation center and are generally placed on the first floor. Study cubicles for basic science students should be convenient to both the medical library and teaching laboratories. The medical illustration area should be located for north light if possible.
Locating the clinical science facilities in connection with the circulation center provides access to the common-use facilities mentioned above. These clinical science facilities, similar to those provided in the basic science departments, consist of faculty research and office space, since third- and fourth-year students are taught in the hospital. Individual departments should be on the same floors as the patient-care units which they serve in the adjoining hospital Study cubicles for third- and fourth-year students arid house officers can be provided in the teaching hospital. Lecture rooms should be placed near the circulation center for greater flexibility of use.
The arrangements and relationships of the elements of the departments in both the basic and clinical sciences are generally similar. Facilities for an individual department should be on the same floor insofar as possible. Teaching laboratories and their auxiliary spaces in basic science departments should be separate from but near faculty offices and research laboratories,
Elements such as floor animal rooms and cold rooms, which are found in each department, should be stacked for economy, These facilities, together with lecture rooms, should be sized initially and located to lake care of later expansion.
Toilet facilities should be designed to accommodate expansion. If located on a circulation center they will be accessible to adjacent departments. Separate elevators for passengers and supplies are recommended.
Because of the venations which exist among present schools and programs, it is apparent that space requirements for a new school cannot be stated dogmatically. There is great need, r----1
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