College And University Facilities

Gymnasiums

Exercise-Therapy Facilities Two separate areas should be planned for this specialized program: (t) an exercise-therapy room, which can be usad as a clinic, designed for individual ameliorative exercises, Is the basic requirement; and (2) e gymnasium for adapted activity is necessary for students assigned to this program.

The exerQiae-tharapy room should be on the ground floor if possible, or accessible to an elevator. It should be well lighted, end the walls and floor attractively finished to tend a cheerful atmosphere. The size of the room is determined by the number of students needing this speciel attention. Approximately TO sq ft of floor space is required per student. To accommodate equipment, the minimum size of the room should be 1,600 sq ft. Office space should be located within this area, and the office should be equipped with large glass windows for adequate supervision of the room. The room should be well ventilated, with air conditioning provided where necessary. The dressing and toilet facilities should be close to the exercise-therapy room and should be adjusted to the needs of the handicapped. A sink or washbasin should be provided in this facility. Doors and windows to the room should be designed for privacy, A curtained area should be provided for changes of equipment or appliencos when privacy is desired.

Permanent equipment installed in the exer-cisa-therapy room should include stall bars, well weights {pulley), press bar, weight racks, shoulder wheel, finger ladder, hanging bars, overhead ladder, push-up bare, wall charts and anatomical drawings, mirrors (single), mirrors (triple), and walking rails.

Removable equipment should Include: plinths (treatment tables) 26 by 72 by 30% In.; stall-bar benches; Incline boards 7 ft by 30 in. by 3 in.; ankle exercisers; a bicycle (atation-ary); weights (dumbbells); weights (barbells); exercise mats; Iron boots (single); iron boots (double); parallel bars (low); orthopedic stairs; rowing-machine stools; scales: an Elgin table (or improvisation of quadriceps exercise table); wrist rollers; neck-traction halters; cush* ions or pillows; crutches; e wheelchair; dynamometers (hand, spring cable): goniometers; a chalkboard; and a skeleton.

The equipment in an adapted-activities gymnasium should be the same as In a regular gymnasium, with necessary adaptations, This gymnasium should be in close proximity to the exercise-therapy room so that a student can utilize both facilities.

Gymnastic Facilities With the recent nationwide surge of interest in physical fitness, there has been a renewed eupport of instruction in gym* nasties. Gymnastics make a unique contribution toward overcoming a lack of development of the upper body, which is often neglected in other sports. Gymnastics contribute to building strength, agility, flexibility, coordination, balance, and posture. They also contribute (o the mental qualities of alertness, daring, and precision; the character trait of self-discipline; and fun and enjoyment. These values, together with those of preventative and corrective action, place gymnastics in a position of major importance in physical education.

In addition to the main gymnasium where gymnastic meets, exhibitions, and other competition* are held before a viewing public, a separate gymnasium should be provided for the permanent installation and storage of apparatus and equipment and for instruction in gymnastics. The dimensions of this gymnasium should be determined by space requirements needed to accommodate the apparatus and equipment to be installed, by space needs for performance in gymnastics, and by total school enrollment and interest in gymnastics. Ideally, the size of this gymnasium should be 1 20 by 90 ft, with a minimum ceiling height of 23 ft. This height permits a clearance of 22 ft for the rope climb and is ideal for hanging the various mechanical systems used in gymnastics. Some have found it desirable to install tracks on the ceiling supports to make it possible to use trolleys for moving equipment end for attaching safety belts used in the instruction of trampo-lining and tumbling.

The safety of performers and instructors should receive major consideration in planning the locetion and installation of apparatus, equipment, and wall fixtures. Apparatus used in performance should be located so that performers do not interfere with eech other when going through their routines. Flying rings should be located so that there is at least 1 5 ft of free space allowed at each and of the swinging arc. All equipment should be installed according to a plan that will permit, without interference, a full range of movement, including the approach. Mats should be laid completely around the area of performance on horizontal and parallel bars.

Floor plates for attaching equipment should be recessed and flush with the floor. It may be necessary to reinforce the floor to install floor plates adequately where tension is unusually severe. Wall boards should be securely installed to the wall when equipment is attached to it. Apparatus suspended from the ceiling should be securely atteched to metal supports.

The ceiling should be acoustically treated. Lights should be shielded end adequate for the program. Doors should be oonstruoted wide enough end without a threshold so as to accommodate the movement of equipment to other areas. Maple has many advantages over other types of flooring. The facility should be air* conditioned in accordance with standard specifications, Wall construction should be of the same metarials as recommended for other gym* nasiums.

A common failure in planning is to overlook the need for adequate and conveniently placed storage space for gymnastic equipment, If multiple use of this equipment is expected, transportation carts and dollies should be provided. Specifications on size and installation of the various piecee of apparatus and equipmant may be obtained from the manufacturers. Ideally, the gymnasium for gymnastics should be equipped with the following types of items: aide horses, horizontal bars, long horses, parallel bars, bucks, trampolines, mats, rings, and other special apparatus.

A gymnastic landing pit, 10 ft wide, 20 ft long, and 30 In. deep, filled with sponge rubber—for use with parallel bars, horizontal bars, still rings, and tumbling — la a new development in construction for gymnastics.

Weight-Exercise Room This room should contain e minimum of 2,500 sq ft of floor space. Such space will provide a weight-training area and space for the practice of official events in competitive weighl lifting. It is recommended that the floor of this room be covered with a durable, resilient material. A flooring of this type makes it unnecessary to use weight platformst which are essential to protect a maple or other wood flooring.

The weight-lifting area should be roped off and should be approximately 15 by 15 ft for the practice of official lifts. The rest of the room may be used for exercise with barbells, dumbbells, isometric cables, etc. Several full-length mirrors should be installed on the walls. Barbell and weight racks should be attached to the walls so that the room may be kept tidy.

Wrestling and Personal-Defense Room This room is designed for wrestling1 judo, and personal defense activities^ The ceiling should be of acoustical material and should be a minimum height of 12 ft. It should bo rectangular in shape end should contain two square 40- by 40ft mats The floor area not covered by the regulation mats should be covered wall to wall with the same type of mat material- The room should be at least 40 by 80 ft, A satisfactory standard is 40 sq ft per student during peak usage.

The floor of the wrestling room should be constructed of, or covered with, resilient materials to prolong the life of the mats. These materials may be rubberlock products, other newly developed resilient materials, or wood. Concrete is not recommended. The mats should be of plaslic-type materials and the walls should be covered with resilient materials up to 5 ft above the floor on all sides. Adequate lighting which is properly screened and forced ventilation are essential in this room.

Street Shoe Usage Room This room should be of sufficient size —70 by 90 ft—to care for the groups for which it is needed. A floor for street-shoe usage may be needed in any size college or university, or in a program with a variety of offerings. The floor most commonly used for this purpose ia hard maple, tongue-and-groova, conventional gymnasium flooring. Square dance, folk dance, social dance, physical education for elementary teachers, marching and band practice, and similar activities can be conducted on such a floor. The demand of special college and community events which need to be served, such as musical and drama production, fairs, and carnivals, may be mat. The "make-up" room or "warming room" for department and college outdoor programs can be housed in this area and can be served through a door leading to a corridor and immediately to the out-of-doors.

This street-shoe room, when not scheduled in some manner as indicated above, can serve the purposes of any regular gymnasium it so planned in its equipment and floor markings. The floor will need some extra maintenance for the hard use it will receive, but the desirability of the activities which may be scheduled on it will justify the usage and resultant wear.

Dance Studios Dance areas should be provided to serve the departmental and student needs and to afford opportunity for individual and departmental development. Some of these areas are specific and may be limited to forma of dance activity. Other dance areas are versatile and may serva several purposes. Large colleges and universities with a variety of courses may need to plan for one or more of each of several dance-activity rooms. Classes should be advantageously scheduled for the purposes of floor maintenance or equipment moving. The types of dance areas suggested are discussed in the material which fallows.

Mam Dance Studio This studio, whijeh should measure no less than 56 by 56 ft, will provide for a class of up to 36 students in modern dance, ballet, or some other dance form performed in bare feet or with soft-sole dance shoes. The floor, which should be of conventional gymnasium construction — tongue-and-groove, select maple —should be free of floor plates, plugs, and other installations. The ceiling height should be 22 ft to be proportional with the room end to give the feeling of height in leaps.

The room should have vuall mirrors along one wall —24 ft in length, 6 ft high, and with the bottom being 2 ft from the floor. The mirrors should have a draw drapery controlled by cord pulls. Ballet bars (hand fails) should be installed on two opposite sides of the room at ascending heights of 3, 3%, and 4 ft above the floor.

Audiovisual equipment should include a tackboftrd, a chalkboard, a hook rail, and a lockable glass-front bulletin board. An amplification system—for a record player and tape recorder—on a roll-away table should be recessed into a lockable cabinet with a sliding door. Other cabinets should provide space for musical instruments, records, music, costumes, and other properties. Some dance studios may have a grand piano in the room. It may be desirable to heve an area where a grand piano or an upright piano can be stored when removed from the floor. Storage cabinets for stage equipment, levels, and other items should be provided since floor storage of materials not actively used markedly diminishes the floor space usable for dance activities.

Main-Dance-Studio Balcony Current plans of some major institutions may be considered desirable in the provision for a hanging balcony or a balcony over other class or service areas. This balcony can provide 100 or more seats tor viewing activity on the floor of the main dance studio or in the auxiliary dance studio, which can be used as a stage area for the main donee studio. Access to the balcony may be gained from the dance-studio floor through a lockable control door or from the second-floor service hallway. The balcony will provide opportunity for practice-performance viewing from the balcony level by the members of a dance group or will make it possible to seat visitors for an invitation performance.

Auxiliary Danca Studio An auxiliary dance studio of 56 by 40 ft with a ceiling of 22 ft can be located adjacent to the main dance studio on the side opposite from the balcony and can be separated by appropriate folding doors and draperies. This studio can serve as a stage for small concert productions or class projects. Several institutions have successfully constructed such a facility. Traveling draperies suspended from the ceiling can be run on tracks and can be controlled electrically to serve as the traditional "flats" used in staging and in making up a backdrop behind which dancers can cross over. When not used, the draperies can be withdrawn from the sieging area and can be stacked along one wall. Stage lighting can bo developed to give illumination from the ceiling, from the stage side of the divider, from "projecting" semi-cones in the ceiling of the main dance studio, and from "spots" in the balcony.

This dance studio will need to include those features desirable for the program needs as are included in the main dance studio: ballet bars, mirror, cabinets for classroom materials, end a roll-sway table with record player and tape recorder. In addition, there may bo a need for piano and equipment storage rooms.

Danca Rehearsal Room One or more dance rehearsal rooms of a minimum of 400 sq ft ssch will contribute to the development of students in dance who need small-group practices and extra rehearsals. A chalkboard, tackboard, and rolling table for tape recorder player should be provided in such rooms. The table should be housed in a recessed, lockable cabinet. Other lockable cabinets will provide needed storage space for dance practice materials. Ballet bars and mirrors will add to the usefulness of such o room.

Dane a Property Construction and Storage Room Flats, levels, and other properties can be made and stored in a room of approximately 25 by 30 ft, This room should be located adjacent to the main dance studio and should have wide double doors with a removable mullion so sets ond properties can be moved In and out, The room should have a high ceiling to allow sets to be constructed and moved to a vertical position or to the finished position for painting. Drawers and cabinets, some lockable, a sink with hot and cold water, lumber recks, work counters and tables, and electrical outleis are essential in the planned structure of the room. Tackboards, bulletin boards, and lockable, glass-front display bulletin boards are desirable

Oance Costume Construction and Storage Room The size of this room will vary according to the program needs for costume construction and the storage needs for costumes made and retained in the department. The room will probably be best used by having cabinets in close-order banks, somewhal as bookcases are placed in the stacks in a library. This will free one end of the room for clothing construction. Costume-storage cabinets should have racks for hanging and bins ond drawers for storage. Units can be planned so as to be comprised of several components, which may be used as desired for separate assignment to clubs, groups, or projects.

Cabinets for material end equipment storage, wall-attached ironing boards, an automatic washer-drier, a three-way mirror unit, a washroom basin, a large cutting table of 4 by 8 ft, and a counter sink are additional necessities

Game Room This is « multiple-purpose room, and its use will determine its dimensions. It should be latge enough to accommodate at least six table-tennis tables A ceiling height of 12 ft Is adequate. The room should be equipped with a public-address system and record pleyer for instructional and recreational activities, inctuding social and square dancing. This room should be accessible from the lobby or from a building corridor. It should have some kitchen lacilities and a hard-usage type floor, The disabled should be considered in the planning

Special Instructional and Activity Areas

Handball Count Handball is a vigorous competitive sport long recognized as an essential activity for a college physical education program, Depending on the size of the institution and the expressed interest in handball, one or more batteries of four-wall handball courts should be provided. The official size of a handball court is 20 ft wide by 40 ft long by 20 ft high. Specifications for handball courts can be found in the official handball rule book.

When more than a single battery of courts la to be constructed, the batteries should be arranged so the back walls of each battery ere separated by a corridor approximately 10 ft wide and 8 ft high. A corridor located immediately above, and at least 12 ft high, may serve an instructor or be used as a spectator gallery. Corridors and galleries should be illuminated with indirect light.

The back wall of a single court need not be higher than 12 ft. Shatterproof glass may be used to enclose the remainder of the bock wall. The use of wire mesh for this purpose is of questionable value. Many courts are satisfactorily used with an open upper rear wall.

Handball courts may be constructed of hard plaster, concrete, shatterproof glass, or a non-splintering, durable wood. While plaster 4s sometimes recommended, it would be wise to consider courts constructed of other materials because of maintenance costs. Glass courts provide maximum spectator participation, but the initial cost may be prohibitive. Hardwood construction is most satisfactory. Courts constructed with a high proportion of gloss walls obviously allow for a large number of observers. Open-balcony construction interferes with individuahcourt air conditioning.

Front walls may be constructed of hard maple (aid on diagonal wood sheathing. Studding should be placed close enough to prevent dead spots. A maximum of 16-in. centered studs is recommended. A costly but desirable fronl-wsll construction is to ley maple on edge grain.

Side and back walls may be of nonsplim tering, durable wood such as yellow pine or hard maple. Some side and bock walls constructed with 1-in. tongue-ond-groove marine plywood have been satisfactory and economical. Hardwood floors of standard gymnasium construction are recommended. Plaster ceilings have proved satisfactory. All interior surfaces should be painted with eggshell-white enamel.

Entrance doors should open toward the corridor and be provided with flush-type pulls and hinges, A small shatterproof window installed flush with the interior surface of the door should be located at approximately average-adult-male eye level.

No fixtures, such as heot pipes, ventilating ducts, lights, or any other mechanical equipment, should project into the playing area. Ventilating ducts and lighting fixtures are best located flush with the ceiling surface. Lighting specifications are available for handball courts. Provision for replacement of burnt-out light bulbs from above is a desirable feature.

A single light switch to control all lights in each court should be placed on the corridor side and near the entrance door- Warning lights, located outside each court, should indicate when o court is being used, By use of a sturdy push button, lights can be turned on when an entrance door is closed.

Refrigerated air conditioning, or ai least forced ventilation, is essential for individual courts. The ventilation switch can operate in conjunction with the light switch. Climatic conditions may dictate separate switches.

SQU0*h Courts Squash is very popular in some localities and should be provided for in the phyefcel education program. It is recommended that at laast one single and one double squash court be included in a physical education complex. A singles court is 18 ft-6 in. wide by 32 ft long by 16 ft high. A doubles court is 25 ft wide by 45 ft long by 20 ft high. The number of courts should be determined by the interest in this aotivity in a given community.

It is possible to install movable metal "telltales" across the front of handball courts so they con be used for squaeh. Construction features of squash courts are similar to those of four-wall handbell courts relative to floors, walls, ceilings, lighting, heating, and ventilation.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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