private semi- private pTivate
Btiikfirifi Codes The so can bo flexible- If a particular building is well suited to your needs and yet cannot be made to comply with local codes in certain categories, a reconsideration may be reguesled based on need and on a willingness to provide extra safeguards or concessions in other categories of the code.
The leasing of small, sound residences ready for immediate occupancy has been done for seven-bed units. This is the quickest and least obtrusive means of filling the architectural needs of a program, since the houseparents and residents move right in without disturbing the physiognomy of the neighborhood. The decision to lease or buy will be made according to the agency's financial policy. Leasing keeps the property on the local tax rolls; this can be n benefit when developing rapport with the community. The relatively modest investment in such a situation gives the agency great freedom to cope with a changing neighborhood, changing treatment concepts, or budget fluctuations by returning the lease or allowing it to lapse when the facility is no longer viable.
CONSTRUCTION, FURNISHINGS, AND SPECIAL EQUIPMENT
* Generally, surfaces should be finished to provide ease of cleaning or painting, resistance to heavy wear and defacement, fire relardance, and noise dampening. The general starkness of such surfaces in bedrooms, corridors, stair halls, etc., can be relieved with use of chromatic colors and, in the lounge areas (for example), by use of carpet on floors and walls. Youngsters usually respond to unusual tex-lures and strong colors. Administrators usually
Fig. 5 Giephic concept) at (ntrrtDry in a «hid living.
litl Jndelined leititones Del mi Lion of territory vanes from occupant to occupant, depending on his status within the peet group III] Defined territories Definition of out) I it, semi-pfivate. and [¡rivals areas is uttompiished by using airhitectuial elements Therefore, size and shape ot private temlory ere not dependent on individual's stBtus. Private areas can he defined as zones within a dormitory or as individual tooms along a corridor Sae accompanying diagtams (cl Dotmitory with delined territories 9od and lockabla slorage units (see enlarged sketch) form private Territory zones along semiprivate walkway Walkway can he defined by using space texture, cdIoi !dl Private territory a)
Fig. 5 Giephic concept) at (ntrrtDry in a «hid living.
litl Jndelined leititones Del mi Lion of territory vanes from occupant to occupant, depending on his status within the peet group III] Defined territories Definition of out) I it, semi-pfivate. and [¡rivals areas is uttompiished by using airhitectuial elements Therefore, size and shape ot private temlory ere not dependent on individual's stBtus. Private areas can he defined as zones within a dormitory or as individual tooms along a corridor Sae accompanying diagtams (cl Dotmitory with delined territories 9od and lockabla slorage units (see enlarged sketch) form private Territory zones along semiprivate walkway Walkway can he defined by using space texture, cdIoi !dl Private territory do not, Sound dampening increases the intimacy of a room and lessen* the institutional I aaling.
• Glass areas should be kept small; large areas ought to be tempered or wireglass Window dimensions opening si«», height above finished floor should reflect the more intimate scale required for children in a domestic setting
« Hardware. The open nature of residential treatment usually calls for nothing mors than a sturdy grede of domestic hardware. Thie will depend on the program director. All individual bedrooms and offices should have key locks; provide a master key for staff personnel. Bathroom privacy is kept intact normally, with doors on all toilet stalls.
Domestic furniture, sturdy, ample, and colorful, fills the bill for most area®, including dining, lounge, and group rooms. Bedrooms are discuaeed below. In many programs residents build their own furniture as an economy measure. Some administrators believe that residents take better care of such furniture and equipment than of ordinary institutional furniture. Administrative areas require file cabinets, typing desks, etc.. all of which should fit into the domestic scale.
Individual Bedroom* These should have a writing and reading surface, clothing storage (hanging and folded), suitcase storage, sealing for two or three, and a single bed. Storage areas should have key locks, as should the room doors. Seating and storage might bo built in and/or incorporated in the architecture (a window seat, for example) Ample tack board and shelves should be provided for pinups, posters, etc. For many residents, especially young people, this will probably be the first time they have had a private room; the room ¡a considered an individual's "'territory"' and as such should be susceptible to some rearrangement according to his/her idiosyncrasies —often the arrangement of a room will give the staff an indication of the occupant's character.
Group Bad room* or Domitorie* These ahould provide the seme basic "territorial" needs as the private rooms: sleeping, sitting, writing/reeding, locked storage, display surface* (tack board, shelves). The necessity for easily identified and defensible territory is acuta in institutional programs, especially in communal living arrangements, since there is lees privacy in these circumstance* Conflict between resident« ia lessened when personal belongings can be securely stored, Some program» remove lock» whan they fael that intragroup truat ha» been built up. The architectural solution to this territorial question has an important impact on group living, In a dormitory situation* compact. foldaw»y territory provides one 1ype of solution. See Fig, 5.
Special Equipment (Optional)
• Intercom between staff areas
• Emergency lighting and power system
• Central smoke detection system ond/or fire alarm system
* Closed circuit television and videotape facility tor group therapy sessions
■ Master antenna system
* Garbage disposal or condenser
The following apanclea either opérete torn, munlly-based, reaidenlial Ifttlmunl cantara themselves or advine on and regulate the opsra-Iton ol puch cantare. Contact aganclea of a simitar nature in your area for malarial, permlasion to visit, pnd interviews with eteff and sdmin-iatration. Moat programa ara quita anlhustaatic about vleltora. Those hated ara intended only ne axample* ol such agencian. The persons nemed are those with whom the author has been in communication.
New York Stale Division for Youth 2 University Place Albany, N Y 12205
Operate* rural and urban program* ranging from 7-bed units to 60-bad campe.
New York Stale Department of Soclel Services
1 450 Weetetn Avenue Albeny, N.Y 1 2203
Reaponalhle for designing end operating public progreme end for regulating and licensing private programs of various sires
State ol California Department of Corrections California Rehabilitation Center P.O Bo. 841 Corona, Calif. 91 720
Operntos many treatment modalities within a large compound and has experimented with concepts In innovative institutional living.
State of Florida Division of Vouth Services 31 1 South Calhoun Tallahassee. Fin. 32304
Operatea youth programs on a residential scale st severnl urban and suburban locations and ia expanding Ihese facilities rapidly.
International Hulfway Houee Association 2316 Aubarncrest Cincinnatti, Ohio 45219
Organization repranaollng halfwey hounes of meny modeliliea, run for meny typen ol individuels by bortl public and privela egenoies. A good central sourca for looating programs in practica 11y eil tha nieten of the Union.
National Clesringhouse tor Criminal Juntice and Flanning Department Ol Architeclure Unlversity of Illinois 1 I 02 W. Main St. Urbans. Iii. 61801
Nations! Institute eponsorn inventories ol current correctional programa, research into correction»! mode», »nd demonstration projects. Contact the tnatituta tor lint of project« and publications.
Most agencies produce many unpublished but informative papera, monographs, memorandums, etc.. dealing with their particular approach. These era valuable end should be ferreted oul. A repreeantative sampling ol pub-liahed material follower
Design for Chenge
Model Treatment Program Bradley. Smith, Saletrom
National Council on Crime and Delinquency Crocker/Citiiens S»vings Benh Building Sscr»m»nlo, Calif. A project, sponsored by the Ford Foundation, which studies the restructuring of the entire treatment milieu — elaff, client», admlnietr»-tion. architecture.
A New Approach to Treating Youthful Offenders
Bruce Publishing Company Milwaukee. Wis 1970 Introduction by Richard McGee,
Book veraion ol Modal Treatment Program
Survey of Helfuvey Houses in the United Steles
Oliver J Keller
Ceoter for Studiee in Criminal Justice, Chicago, III., 1968.
Youthful Offenders at High fit Id* An Eva( uatjon ol the Effects of Short-Term Treatment of Delinquent Boys.
H. Ashley Weeks
Anil Arbor. University of Michigan Press, Ano Arbor, Mich . tSSB.
The Hidden Dimension Edward T. Hall
Anchor Books, Doublsday & Company, Ino.. Garden City. N.Y., 1969
Sludy of proxamics. the diefenca regulations In the animal world and in man s culture A good, basic hook on spaces end their men-eagaa.
On Soclel Control end Collective Behevior Robert fczrn Perk
Selected pepere, edited end with introduction by Ralph H. Turner.
University of Chicago Prose, Chicsgo. lit., ca 1967
A good sampling of this sociología! e work end views. including concepts of nocial distance and human ecology, both baaic and vital to architectural design.
Other» Basic readings in "socisl ecology" end behavior can be found in tha works of £rvlng Gotfmau, Humphrey Osmond. Robert Sommer, et el., both in book form and In periodicals.
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