Fig. 21 Pull-out shelf lopboard. A plastic laminated work surface is recommended. The hole is for an 8-in.-diameter stainless steel mixing bowl which should fit tnugly when the top rim is about 1 In. above the shelf.

Walt storagu cabinets when mounted 12 in. above the counter provide the maximum convenient storage, accessible from a sitting position. The average height (5 ft—4Ji in.) female's reach from floor lo wrist is 6 ft standing; 4 ft-10 in- sitting in wheelchair, side reach; 4 ft-7 in. sitting in wheelchair under kitchen counter to front of wall cabinet. Standard wall cabinets, 14 in. deep and 30 to 34 in. high with three adjustable shelves, are recommended. The upper shelf of such cabinets is reachable by taller, nonimpaired family members. Cabinet doors should be equipped with 3- to 4-in. drawer-type pulls of simple design and magnetic or nylon roller latches, which are the easiest type to operate. At the work counter. 3»in. adjustable shelves should be installed inside of the cabinet doors to provide convenient storage for numerous small items.

A 5&-in.-wide open shell placed 7 in. below the wall cabinets may be desirable at some location.

Cabinets should never be installed above counter-top burners or ovens Such placement crttatcs a fire huiard to the person reaching for stored articles because his clothing might ignite or he might accidentally drop the articles into boiling water or hot grease

A 14-in-deep, 18- to 24-tn,-wide cabinet, resting on the floor and extending to Ihe same height as the top wall cabinets is also very useful as storage space for the wheelchair user and others, A standard !4-in.-deep cabinet with adjustable 9/,-in. shelves and shallow inside-of-door adjustable shelves placeB within reach from a standing or sitting position many cooking utensils, dishes, and packaged food supplies. The door hinges for such a cabinet should be the continuous piano type. The cabinet bottom can be used for storing serving trays, cookie sheets, muffin pans, etc.. when the usual dividers are installed slanting either horizontally or vertically, thus increasing the cabinet's depth and usefulness

The standard range, with oven below and bottom-hinged door, is unsatisfactory and hazardous for the physically impaired person. Counter-top burners should be provided, preferably with front-of-counter controls. Controls mounted back of the burners are not recommended because of the hazardous reach involved, and controls mounted on the counter to the side of the burners may interfere with the transfer of pots from burners to counter. Eusy-to-read large control dials, with safety feature to prevent accidental turn-on of burners, should be provided To assist the blind and Ihose with poor vision, the control dials, in addition to visual markings, should be marked, shaped, or provided with click stops so that the fingers can feel such marks, shapes, or clicks representing the various heat intensities at the burner. Pushbutton control with indicator light for electrical burners is satisfactory. Burners should not be located below or near a window or near a door. A sep

The lovotory ihown it 17" »q. It con be turned 90° left or right for ipeciol gtt conditioni without oddit(ono) plumbing mo ferloli.

arate oven, with a left or right side-hinged door depending on counter-top space and front controls, should be installed so that the height of the pull-out oven shelf at the lowest position is at counter-top level. This permits transfer of hot pans from oven to counter conveniently and safely. Ovens with glide-up doors are also satisfactory.

Electrical top burners ore considered by some as safer than gas burners because the gas flame can more easily ignite loose, flimsy garments. Electrical top burners and ovens are generally recommended.

The recommended type of refrigerator-freezer is the standard two-compartment, two-door model with freezer compartment on top and self-defrosting for the food compartment only. Pull-out shelves in the food compartment are desirable. Frequent defrosting of the food compartment is a difficult operation for many impaired persons.

The refrigerator location in the kitchen should never be adjacent to heat-producing equipment such as the oven, top burner, or water heater.

As to garbage grinders, the continuous-feed type of grinder is more convenient to use and costs less to maintain than the batch type and is recommended.

Dishwashers are admittedly desirable, especially those with on electric heat booster.

Whenever possible, natural light and ventilation in kitchens should be provided through windows. Artificial light should be distributed to illuminate all dining and cooking areas effectively. Any required mechanical ventilation should be adequate for removing cooking fumes and odors as well as for summer comfort.


All bedrooms should be partition-enclosed. In one- and perhaps two-person dwellings, one wall may be movable wood closets, a baffle wall, or a sliding or folding partition. Sleeping-living room combinations are not

Fig. 23 Bathroom floor plan.

recommended, nor are room layouts which require the bed lo be in a corner or (he side of the bed to be against a wall.

For two or more persons, at least one bedroom should be planned for twin beds. Bedrooms intended for tha impaired will require more floor area than other bedrooms in order to provide for wheelchair circulation. At least 3 ft (preferably 3 fi-4 in.) must be provided for a wheelchair along one side of one bed «nd in front of clothes closets and furniture.


The bathroom presents more hazards than any other room; therefore, planning for safety is of utmost importance. A bathroom must be larger than standard to permit wheelchair use- The minimal floor area of a carefully planned bathroom is 40 to 45 sq ft. A bathroom that permits a wheelchair to enier but not to turn around is not desirable. For maneuverability, an area 4 5 to 55 sq ft. is recommended; however, careful planning is more important than increased floor area, (See Fig. 23.)

Grab bars capable of supporting 250 lb should be provided at the water closet, shower, and elsewhere in the bathroom. Grab bars should be devoid of sharp corners, with ends returning to the walls. Towel bars should be of grab bar quality and strength for safely because they may accidentally be used as grab bars.

Bathtub or shower? We are not considering a hospital, or a nursing home, but a dwelling for independent living arid self care. The occupants may be physically impaired, single or married, young or elderly. The question therefore is: what will provide a bathing facility which can be used by the most people, over the longest period of time, with the least hazard? The answer is a specially designed shower with these features:

• No curb or step, for ease of access, including wheelchair.

• Internal dimensions of at least 3 ft—4 in. by 4 ft-6 in.

• Unglazed tile floor —the same for the bathroom floor —which drains into shower.

• 4-ft-6-in.-wide opening with sliding non-breakable doors (not hazardous curtains).

• 120 F maximum temperature delivered hot water under management control; this control would also supply the lavatory and kitchen sink —tenant control for lower temperatures.

• Single lever mixing handle set 3 ft-6 in. above floor, located inside shower compartment, but reachable from outside shower.

■ Possibly a flexible metal-cowered extension spray head with or without holders at different levels, recommended to be detached for use as hand spray.

• A recessed soap dish convenient from sitting or standing position.

The lavatory should be set 2 fi-10 in. above the floor:

• Single-lever water control aerator spout.

• 120' F maximum-temperature hot water under management control —see shower control.

■ Drain opening at the rear of the bowl.

• A close elbow drain, run to the trap, set near and parallel to the wall so as not to interfere with knee room.

A square lavatory can be installed in a counter top with the faucet at the rear (normal position) or the lavatory can be turned so that the faucet is either to the right or left side. A side arrangement facilitates use by e tenant

Fig. 34 Bathroom-ihower elevation. A grab bar above the toilet assists person making a frontal approach. Shower regulator with temperature control it recommended.
Fig. 25 Bathroom elevation. The standard sanitary toilet chair with seat IB in. above floor it on aid to impaired person« who have difficulty using the normal toilet.

Fig. 27 Floor-mounted water itoxl. Fig. 29 Typical bdlhroom i

Fig. 34 "RoN-ln" ihower.

Ftp. 18 Lavatory.

Fig. 30 Bathtub.

SsSin u irorm -

IB fcJ

Fig. 31 Combination batlitub/ihower.

pM ~0 fVWU

Ftp. 18 Lavatory.

Fig. 30 Bathtub.

* F ¡aufes 26-34 from "Handbook for Dpiiq". Specially Adopted Homing»" VA PompMat 26- ' VnTaroiu Adriin ■, Tfotion. WoiKiogton, D.C.. 1978.

Fig. 34 "RoN-ln" ihower.

Fig. 37 Shower.

Fig. 27 Floor-mounted water itoxl. Fig. 29 Typical bdlhroom i

Fig. 33 Shower teal.

zi£X. v«y se with limited reach and can easily be converted for convenience of future tenants when it is initially provided with flexible-tube water supplies and ample length slip-joint tailpiece waste line (See Fig. 24.]

The mirror over the lavatory should be usable from both standing and sitting positions. If fixed to the wall, the mirror should be tilted forward at the top. Bottom-hinged mirror provided with a friction stay arm is available This mirror permits the top to tilt forward to any distance up to 6 in. and can be installed on the medicine cabinet door.

The medicine cabinet should be mounted so as to be accessible from standing or sitting po sition, and its location in the bathroom should be carefully considered. (See Fig. 25.)

The water closet seat of standard height. IB to 16 in., can be used by ambulant impaired parsons. For the semiambulant and others who find this height difficult, b standard manufactured sanitary chair with arm rests and seat 18 in. high is recommended. The advantage of the chair is twofold; it can also be used in the shower, and would not be present when not needed by the occupant Some wheelchairs are equipped to be used as toilet chairs. Grab rails should be provided at the closet. One manufacturer can supply an integral seat, cover, and grab bars. (Note; Detachable ring seats that clip on the china bowl or seat are unstable and should be avoided }

Other recommendations are shown in Figs. 26-34


Adequate storage space should be provided within the dwelling. Separata units are desirable for hanging coats and tor bedroom, linen, and general storage. The storage units may be closets enclosed by partitions or wood cabi* nets, fixed or movable, to serve as room dividers. Kitchen cabinets are discussed else' where.

The cost closet should permit the hanging of clothing from both standing and sitting positions. For the standing position, the fixed shelf height at 5 ft-6 in. with the clothes-hanging pole below is standard. For the wheelchair position, 4 ft to 4 ft-6 in. is most convenient. The lower shelf and pole unit should be adjust able from 4 ft to B ft 6 in. {See Fig. 35.)

For one-person dwellings, the coat closet shelves and pole should be made adjustable For larger dwellings, both the standing position height and the adjustable wheelchair height should be provided by dividing the closet with a wood partition. (See Figs. 36 and 37.)

The bedroom clothes closet should be divided by wood partitions into two sections, one with shelves and pole tor the standing position height and the other adjustable for the wheelchair user.

The linen closet shelves should be adjustable in height, from the baseboard up. Persons in a sitting position can easily reach low shelves, but low shelves are difficult for those on crutches The linen closet often stores items other than linen, such as clothes hamper, bathroom supplies, etc. Adjustable shelves provide the needed flexibility.

A storage unit should be provided for storing supplies and cleaning equipment, ironing board, canned goods, etc. The unit need not be in the kitchen, but it should be easily accessible from the kitchen. It may be a standard prefabricated cabinet resting on the floor or a built-in closet.

A general storage area and kitchen storage space may be combined if located conveniently to the kitchen,

Although the general storage area is not primarily designed for the storage of excess furniture, it should be large enough to slore foot lockers, suitcases, vacuum cleaner, large and seldom-used cooking utensils, work clothes and work shoes, and in large family units, folded baby furniture and unused toys.

Increasing the amount of storage space does not always economically resolve the storage problem. The best use of available space can be made by careful arrangement of varying shelf widths adjustable for height and use of hook strips for hanging such items as brooms, mops, vacuum cleaner hose, etc.


The following hazards should be avoided when selecting and installing windows: windows that project, outside or inside, beyond the wall line and protrude in the path of persons walking; windows that require climbing or leaning out to clean; windowsills too low to provide adequate safety from falling or high sills which block the view from a sitting or bed position. The recommended windowsill height is 28 to 32 in,; [it can be at floor level if the window opens on a terrace or bafcony|.

Windows should be easy to operate, lock, and clean, Operating and locking hardware should be located for convenient reach from a sitting or a standing position and be of the type easily grasped by arthritic or otherwise impaired hands.

Window types deserving consideration are:

• The modified double-hung window which, in addition to sliding up and down, permits each sash to pivot and swing inward for cleaning with no interference by insect screens or storm panels when used, or curtains, shades, and Venetian blinds.

* The awning type with push bar or rotary gear operator set below the screen (some of these windows require the screen unit to be removed to clean the window, others permit

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Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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